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T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2003 www.TRB.org T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 90 Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation SUBJECT AREAS Public Transit Bus Rapid Transit Volume 2: Implementation Guidelines HERBERT S. LEVINSON New Haven, CT SAMUEL ZIMMERMAN JENNIFER CLINGER JAMES GAST DMJM+HARRIS Fairfax, VA SCOTT RUTHERFORD University of Washington Seattle, WA and ERIC BRUHN Transit Resource Center Philadelphia, PA
TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Admin- istration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem-solving research. TCRP, modeled after the longstanding and successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program, undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes a variety of transit research fields including plan- ning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA, The National Academies, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the Transportation Research Board. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activ- ities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired impact if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminating TCRP results to the intended end users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. The TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. The TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. TCRP REPORT 90: Volume 2 Project A-23 FYâ99 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 0-309-08751-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2003105419 Â© 2003 Transportation Research Board Price (Volume 2) $27.00 NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Transit Cooperative Research Program conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Such approval reflects the Governing Boardâs judgment that the project concerned is appropriate with respect to both the purposes and resources of the National Research Council. The members of the technical advisory panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for recognized scholarly competence and with due consideration for the balance of disciplines appropriate to the project. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied are those of the research agency that performed the research, and while they have been accepted as appropriate by the technical panel, they are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, or the Federal Transit Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. Each report is reviewed and accepted for publication by the technical panel according to procedures established and monitored by the Transportation Research Board Executive Committee and the Governing Board of the National Research Council. Special Notice The Transportation Research Board of The National Academies, the National Research Council, the Transit Development Corporation, and the Federal Transit Administration (sponsor of the Transit Cooperative Research Program) do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the clarity and completeness of the project reporting. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished schol- ars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and techni- cal matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Acad- emy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both the Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is a division of the National Research Council, which serves the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. The Boardâs mission is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage more than 4,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 90, VOLUME 2 ROBERT J. REILLY, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, TCRP Manager GWEN CHISHOLM, Senior Program Officer EILEEN P. DELANEY, Managing Editor ELLEN M. CHAFEE, Assistant Editor BETH HATCH, Assistant Editor PROJECT PANEL A-23 Field of Operations JACK M. REILLY, Capital District Transportation Authority, Albany, NY (Chair) LEO J. BEVON, Department of Rail and Public Transportation, Richmond, VA GRAHAM CAREY, Lane Transit District, Eugene, OR ROSEMARY COVINGTON, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Cleveland, OH JOHN DOCKENDORF, Pennsylvania DOT DAVID R. FIALKOFF, Miami-Dade Transit Agency LEON GOODMAN, Parsons Transportation Group, New York, NY JAMES R. LIGHTBODY, Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority, San Jose, CA MICHAEL H. MULHERN, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority JOHN M. MUTH, Charlotte Area Transit System MICHAEL SANDERS, Connecticut DOT PAUL STEFFENS, Honolulu Department of Transportation Services JUAN F. SUAREZ LEMUS, Metropolitan Bus Authority, Rio Piedras, PR STAN TEPLY, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada GARET WALSH, Charlotte-Mecklenburg Planning Commission MARTHA WELBORNE, Surface Transit Project, Los Angeles, CA BERT ARRILLAGA, FTA Liaison Representative JOEL WASHINGTON, FTA Liaison Representative PETER SHAW, TRB Liaison Representative
FOREWORD By Gwen Chisholm Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 90: Bus Rapid Transit, which is published as a two-volume set, iden- tifies the potential range of bus rapid transit (BRT) applications through 26 case stud- ies and provides planning and implementation guidelines for BRT. This report will be useful to policy-makers, chief executive officers, senior managers, and planners. Increasing levels of urban congestion create the need for new transportation solu- tions. A creative, emerging public transit solution is BRT. While a precise definition of BRT is elusive, it is generally understood to include bus services that are, at a mini- mum, faster than traditional âlocal busâ service and that may include dedicated bus infrastructure improvements such as grade-separated bus operations. The essential fea- tures of BRT systems are frequent, all-day service; some form of bus priority; attrac- tive, substantive stations and terminals; quiet, low-emission vehicles configured for the respective markets and services; fare collection mechanisms that permit faster passen- ger boarding; and a system image that is uniquely identifiable. BRT represents a way to improve mobility at a relatively low cost through incremental investment in a com- bination of bus infrastructure, equipment, operational improvements, and technology. Despite the potential cost and mobility benefits, however, the transportation pro- fession lacks a consolidated and generally accepted set of principles for planning, designing, and operating BRT vehicles and facilities. Transit agencies need guidance on how to successfully implement BRT in the political, institutional, and operational context of the United States. Volume 1: Case Studies in Bus Rapid Transit provides information on the potential range of BRT applications, covering planning and imple- mentation background and system description, including operations and physical ele- ments. Volume 2: Implementation Guidelines covers the main components of BRT and describes BRT concepts, planning considerations, key issues, the system development process, desirable conditions for BRT, and general planning principles. It also provides an overview of system types and elements, including stations, vehicles, services, fare collection, running ways, and ITS applications. This report was prepared by Herbert Levinson of New Haven, Connecticut; Samuel Zimmerman, Jennifer Clinger, and James Gast of DMJM+HARRIS in Fairfax, Virginia; Scott Rutherford of Seattle, Washington; and Eric Bruhn of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Both volumes issued under TCRP Report 90 can be found on the TRB website at national academies.org/trb.
S-1 SUMMARY S-1. What is BRT?, S-1 S-2. Planning, S-1 S-3. Running Ways, S-2 S-4. Traffic Engineering, S-9 S-5. Stops, Stations, and Terminals, S-9 S-6. Vehicles, S-10 S-7. Intelligent Transportation Systems, S-11 S-8. Service, Fares, and Marketing, S-12 S-9. Finance and Implementation, S-12 S-10. Summary Reference, S-13 1-1 CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1-1. Basic Concepts of BRT, 1-1 1-2. Reasons for Implementation, 1-2 1-3. State-of-the-Art Synthesis, 1-3 1-4. Implications and Directions, 1-6 1-5. Prospects, 1-8 1-6. Chapter 1 References, 1-8 2-1 CHAPTER 2 Planning Considerations 2-1. System Development Process, 2-1 2-2. Desirable Conditions for BRT, 2-4 2-3. Objectives and Principles, 2-5 2-4. System Concepts, 2-6 2-5. Chapter 2 References, 2-6 3-1 CHAPTER 3 Running Ways 3-1. General Considerations, 3-1 3-2. On-Street Running Ways, 3-8 3-3. Off-Street Running Ways, 3-21 3-4. Freeway Running Ways, 3-30 3-5. Chapter 3 References, 3-42 4-1 CHAPTER 4 Traffic Engineering for BRT 4-1. Overview, 4-1 4-2. Traffic Controls, 4-1 4-3. Special Signage and Signal Displays, 4-4 4-4. Signal Prioritization, 4-4 4-5. Enforcement, 4-12 4-6. Chapter 4 References, 4-14 5-1 CHAPTER 5 BRT Stations and Facilities 5-1. Systemwide Design and Urban Design Integration, 5-1 5-2. Station Design, 5-3 5-3. BRT Platform Characteristics, 5-5 5-4. Station Configuration, 5-8 5-5. Intermodal and Terminal Stations, 5-12 5-6. Park-and-Ride Facilities, 5-16 5-7. Ancillary Facilities, 5-17 5-8. Chapter 5 References, 5-20 6-1 CHAPTER 6 BRT Vehicles 6-1. Capacity and Level of Service, 6-1 6-2. Emissions, 6-15 6-3. Guidance Systems, 6-16 6-4. Image, 6-20 6-5. Procurement Issues and Costs, 6-22 6-6. Chapter 6 References, 6-23 7-1 CHAPTER 7 ITS Applications 7-1. Automatic Vehicle Location, 7-1 7-2. Passenger Information Systems, 7-5 7-3. Traffic Signal Priorities, 7-7 7-4. Automatic Passenger Counters, 7-11 7-5. Electronic Fare Collection Cards, 7-12 CONTENTS
7-6. Vehicle Guidance, 7-14 7-7. Collision Avoidance Systems, 7-16 7-8. Bus Platoons, 7-16 7-9. Benefit and Cost Summary, 7-16 7-10. Costs, 7-18 7-11. Chapter 7 References, 7-18 8-1 CHAPTER 8 Bus Operations and Service 8-1. General Guidelines, 8-1 8-2. Service Design, 8-1 8-3. Fare Collection, 8-6 8-4. Marketing BRT Service, 8-11 8-5. Chapter 8 References, 8-16 9-1 CHAPTER 9 Financing and Implementing BRT Systems 9-1. General Guidelines, 9-1 9-2. Benefits and Costs, 9-1 9-3. Funding and Financing Options, 9-5 9-4. Incremental Development of BRT Projects, 9-12 9-5. Institutional Arrangements, 9-15 9-6. BRT-Supportive Policies, 9-17 9-7. Chapter 9 References, 9-19 A-1 APPENDIX A: Bus Capacity B-1 APPENDIX B: Pedestrian and Lighting Guidelines C-1 APPENDIX C: Design Vehicle Characteristics D-1 APPENDIX D: Details of Access Point Design E-1 APPENDIX E: BRT Vehicle Technology Details F-1 APPENDIX F: Comparison Tables of BRT Systems from Case Study Report