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Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports (2015)

Chapter: APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE

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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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Suggested Citation:"APPENDIX A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22099.
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A-1 APPENDIX A—STATE CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS TABLE Alabama Speech: Freedom of speech and press. See Ala. Const. art. I, § 4. Religion: Religious freedom. See Ala. Const. art. I, § 3. Alabama Religious Free- dom Amendment. See Ala. Const. art. I, § 3.01. Assembly: Right to Peaceably Assemble and Petition for Redress of Grievances. See Ala. Const. art. I, § 25. Alaska Speech: Freedom of Speech. See Alaska Const. art. I, § 5. Religion: Freedom of Religion. See Alaska Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Assembly; Petition. See Alaska Const. art. I, § 6. Arizona Speech: Freedom of Speech and Press. See Ariz. Const. art. II, § 6. Religion: Liberty of Conscience, Appropriations for Religious Purposes Prohib- ited; Religious Freedom. See Ariz. Const. art. II, § 12. Toleration of Religious Sen- timent. See Ariz. Const. art. XX, First. Assembly: Right of Petition and of Assembly. See Ariz. Const. art. II, § 5. Arkansas Speech: Freedom of Speech, Press; Criminal Prosecutions for Libel. See Ark. Const. art. II, § 6. Religion: Freedom of Religion. See Ark. Const. art. II, § 24. Religious Freedom Protected. See Ark. Const. art. II, § 25. Assembly: Freedom of Assembly; Petition. See Ark. Const. art. II, § 4. California Speech: Liberty of speech or of the press; responsibility for abuse; right to refuse to disclose source of information by member of news media. See Cal. Const. art. I, § 2. Religion: Religious liberty. See Cal. Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Right to instruct representatives, petition, and assembly; right of access to government information. See Cal. Const. art. I, § 3. Colorado Speech: Freedom of speech and press. See Colo. Const. art. II, § 10. Religion: Religious freedom. See Colo. Const. art. II, § 4. Assembly: Right to assemble and petition. See Colo. Const. art. II, § 24.

A-2 Connecticut Speech: Liberty of speech and the press. See Conn. Const. art. 1, § 4. Prohibit- ing laws limiting liberty of speech or press. See Conn. Const. art. 1, § 5. Religion: Right of religious liberty. See Conn. Const. art. 1, § 3. Assembly: Right to assemble and petition. See Conn. Const. art. 1, § 14. Delaware Speech: Freedom of press and speech; evidence in libel prosecutions; jury ques- tions. See Del. Const. art. I, § 5. Religion: Freedom of religion. See Del. Const. art. I, § 1. Assembly: Right of assembly; petition for redress of grievances. See Del. Const. art. I, § 16. Florida Speech: Freedom of speech and press. See Fla. Const. art. I, § 4. Religion: Religious freedom. See Fla. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: Right to assemble. See Fla. Const. art. I, § 5. Georgia Speech: Freedom of speech and of the press guaranteed. See Ga. Const. art. I, § 1, ¶ V. Religion: Freedom of conscience. See Ga. Const. art. I, § 1, ¶ III. Religious opin- ions; freedom of religion. See Ga. Const. art. I, § 1, ¶ IV. Separation of church and state. See Ga. Const. art. I, § 2, ¶ VII. Assembly: Right to assemble and petition. See Ga. Const. art. I, § 1, ¶ IX. Hawaii Speech, Religion, and Assembly: Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly and Petition. See Haw. Const. art. I, § 4. Idaho Speech: Freedom of speech. See Idaho Const. art. I, § 9. Religion: Guaranty of religious liberty. See Idaho Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Right of assembly. See Idaho Const. art. I, § 10. Illinois Speech: Freedom of Speech. See Illinois Compiled Statutes, Const. art. 1, § 4. Religion: Religious Freedom. See Illinois Compiled Statutes, Const. art. 1, § 3. Assembly: Right to Assemble and Petition. See Illinois Compiled Statutes, Const. art. 1, § 5.

A-3 Indiana Speech: Right to free thought, speech, writing, and printing; abuse of right. Ind. Const. art. I, § 9. Religion: Freedom of religious opinions and rights of conscience. Ind. Const. art. I, § 3. Freedom of religion. Ind. Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Right to assemble, to instruct, and to petition. Ind. Const. art. I, § 31. Iowa Speech: Liberty of speech and press. Iowa Const. art. I, § 7. Religion: Religion. Iowa Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: Right of assemblage—petition. Iowa Const. art. I, § 20. Kansas Speech: Liberty of press and speech; libel. Kan. Const. Bill of Rts. § 11. Religion: Religious liberty; property qualification for public office. Kan. Const. Bill of Rts. § 7. Assembly: Right of peaceable assembly; petition. Kan. Const. Bill of Rts. § 3. Kentucky Speech: Freedom of speech and of the press. Ky. Const. § 8. Religion: Right of religious freedom. Ky. Const. § 5. Assembly, Speech, and Religion: Rights of life, liberty, worship, pursuit of safety and happiness, free speech, acquiring and protecting property, peaceable assembly, redress of grievances, bearing arms. Ky. Const. § 1. Louisiana Speech: Freedom of Expression. La. Const. art. I, § 7. Religion: Freedom of Religion. La. Const. art. I, § 8. Assembly: Right of Assembly and Petition. La. Const. art. I, § 9. Maine Speech: Freedom of speech and publication; libel; truth given in evidence; jury determines law and fact. Me. Const. art. I, § 4. Religion: Religious freedom; sects equal; religious tests prohibited; religious teachers. Me. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: Right of petition. Me. Const. art. I, § 15. Maryland Speech: Freedom of speech and press. Md. Const. Decl. of Rts., art. 40. Religion: Freedom of religion. Md. Const. Decl. of Rts., art. 36. Assembly: Redress of grievances by petition to legislature. Md. Const. Decl. of Rts., art. 13.

A-4 Massachusetts Speech: Liberty of the press; free speech. Mass. Const. pt. 1, art. XVI. Religion: Right and duty of worship; freedom of religion. Mass. Const. pt. 1, art. II. Assembly: Right of people to assemble peaceably, to instruct representatives, and to petition legislature. Mass. Const. pt. 1, art. XIX. Michigan Speech: Freedom of speech and of press. Mich. Const. art. I, § 5. Religion: Freedom of worship and religious belief; appropriations. Mich. Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Assembly, consultation, instruction, petition. Mich. Const. art. I, § 3. Minnesota Speech: Liberty of the press. Minn. Const. art. I, § 3. Religion: Freedom of conscience; no preference to be given to any religious establishment or mode of worship. Minn. Const. art. I, § 16. Assembly: No state provision. Mississippi Speech: Freedom of speech and press; libel. Miss. Const. art. III, § 13. Religion: Freedom of religion. Miss. Const. art. III, § 18. Assembly: Peaceful assemblage; right to petition government. Miss. Const. art. III, § 11. Missouri Speech: Freedom of speech—evidence of truth in defamation actions—province of jury. Mo. Const. art. I, § 8. Religion: Religious freedom—liberty of conscience and belief—limitations. Mo. Const. art. I, § 5. Practice and support of religion not compulsory—contracts therefore enforceable. Mo. Const. art. I, § 6. Public aid for religious purposes— preferences and discriminations on religious grounds. Mo. Const. art. I, § 7. Assembly: Rights of peaceable assembly and petition. Mo. Const. art. I, § 9. Montana Speech: Freedom of speech, expression, and press. Mont. Const. art. II, § 7. Religion: Freedom of religion. Mont. Const. art. II, § 5. Assembly: Freedom of assembly. Mont. Const. art. II, § 6. Nebraska Speech: Freedom of speech and press. Neb. Const. art. I, § 5. Religion: Religious freedom. Neb. Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Right of peaceable assembly and to petition government. Neb. Const. art. I, § 19.

A-5 Nevada Speech: Liberty of speech and the press. Nev. Const. art. I, § 9. Religion: Liberty of conscience. Nev. Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly: Right to assemble and to petition. Nev. Const. art. I, § 10. New Hampshire Speech: Free Speech; Liberty of the Press. N.H. Const. pt. 1, art. 22. Religion: Religious Freedom Recognized. N.H. Const. pt. 1, art. 5. Assembly: Rights of Assembly, Instruction, and Petition. N.H. Const. pt. 1, art. 32. New Jersey Speech: Liberty of speech and of the press; libel; province of jury. N.J. Const. art. I, ¶ 6. Religion: Rights of conscience; religious freedom. N.J. Const. art. I, ¶ 3. Assembly: Right of assembly and to petition. N.J. Const. art. I, ¶ 18. New Mexico Speech: Freedom of speech and of the press; libel. N.M. Const. art. II, § 17. Religion: Religious freedom. N.M. Const. art. II, § 11. Assembly: No state provision. New York Speech: Freedom of speech and press; criminal prosecutions for libel. N.Y. Const. art. I, § 8. Religion: Freedom of worship; religious liberty. N.Y. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: Right to assemble and petition; judicial divorces; gambling, except pari-mutuel betting, prohibited. N.Y. Const. art. I, § 9. North Carolina Speech: Freedom of speech and press. N.C. Const. art. I, § 14. Religion: Religious liberty. N.C. Const. art. I, § 13. Assembly: Right of assembly and petition. N.C. Const. art. I, § 12. North Dakota Speech: N.D. Const. art. I, § 4. Religion: N.D. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: N.D. Const. art. I, § 5. Ohio Speech: Freedom of speech. Ohio Const. art. I, § 11. Religion: Religious freedom; encouraging education. Ohio Const. art. I, § 7. Assembly: Rights of assembly and petition. Ohio Const. art. I, § 3.

A-6 Oklahoma Speech: Liberty of speech and press—Truth as evidence in prosecution for libel. Okla. Const. art. II, § 22. Religion: Public money or property—Use for sectarian purposes. Okla. Const. art. II, § 5. Religious liberty—Polygamous or plural marriages. Okla. Const. art. I, § 2. Assembly: Right of assembly and petition. Okla. Const. art. II, § 3. Oregon Speech: Freedom of speech and press. Or. Const. art. I, § 8. Religion: Freedom of worship. Or. Const. art. I, § 2. Free exercise of religious opinion. Or. Const. art. I, § 3. No money appropriated for religion. Or. Const. art. I, § 5. Assembly: Freedom of assembly; instruction of representatives; application to legislature. Or. Const. art. I, § 26. Pennsylvania Speech: Freedom of press and speech; libels. Pa. Const. art. I, § 7. Religion: Religious freedom. Pa. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: Right of petition. Pa. Const. art. 1, § 20. Rhode Island Speech: Freedom of press. R.I. Const. art. I, § 20. Religion: Freedom of religion. R.I. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly and Speech: Right to assemble—Redress of grievances—Freedom of speech. R.I. Const. art. I, § 21. South Carolina Speech, Religion, and Assembly: Religious freedom; freedom of speech; right of assembly and petition. S.C. Const. art. I, § 2. South Dakota Speech: Freedom of speech—Truth as defense—Jury trial. S.D. Const. art. VI, § 5. Religion: Freedom of religion—Support of religion prohibited. S.D. Const. art. VI, § 3. Assembly: Right of petition and peaceable assembly. S.D. Const. art. VI, § 4.

A-7 Tennessee Speech: Freedom of speech and press; defamation. Tenn. Const. art. I, § 19. Religion: Freedom of worship. Tenn. Const. art. I, § 3. Assembly: Right of assembly; redress of grievances. Tenn. Const. art. I, § 23. Texas Speech: Freedom of speech and press; libel. Tex. Const. art. I, § 8. Religion: Freedom of worship. Tex. Const. art. I, § 6. Assembly: Right of assembly; petition for redress of grievances. Tex. Const. art. I, § 27. Utah Speech: Freedom of speech and of the press—Libel. Utah Const. art. I, § 15. Religion: Religious liberty. Utah Const. art. I, § 4. Assembly, Speech, and Religion: Inherent and inalienable rights. Utah Const. art I, § 1. Vermont Speech: Freedom of speech and of the press. Vt. Const. ch. I, art. 13. Religion: Freedom in religion; right and duty of religious worship. Vt. Const. ch. I, art. 3. Assembly: Right to assemble, instruct, and petition. Vt. Const. ch. I, art. 20. Virginia Speech and Assembly: Freedom of speech and of the press; right peaceably to assemble and to petition. Va. Const. art. I, § 12. Religion: Free exercise of religion; no establishment of religion. Va. Const. art. I, § 16. Washington Speech: Freedom of Speech. Wash. Const. art. I, § 5. Religion: Religious Freedom. Wash. Const. art. I, § 11. Assembly: Right of Petition and Assemblage. Wash. Const. art. I, § 4. West Virginia Speech: Freedom of speech and press guaranteed. W. Va. Const. art. III, § 7. Religion: Religious freedom guaranteed. W. Va. Const. art. III, § 15. Assembly: Right of public assembly held inviolate. W. Va. Const. art. III, § 16.

A-8 Wisconsin Speech: Free speech; libel. Wis. Const. art. I, § 3. Religion: Freedom of worship; liberty of conscience; state religion; public funds. Wis. Const. art. I, § 18. Assembly: Right to assemble and petition. Wis. Const. art. I, § 4. Wyoming Speech: Freedom of speech and press; libel; truth a defense. Wyo. Const. art. I, § 20. Religion: Religious liberty. Wyo. Const. art. I, § 18. Appropriations for sectar- ian or religious societies or institutions prohibited. Wyo. Const. art. I, § 19. Assembly: Right of petition and peaceable assembly. Wyo. Const. art. I, § 21.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Legal Research Digest 26: Regulations Affecting the Exercise of First Amendment Activities at Airports provides an overview of the different First Amendment activities that occur at airports, the issues that generally affect them, and the legal challenges to airport policies, while laying out the history of case law.

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