National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 135 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Environment Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports Brian Kim, Kazumi Nakada, and Roger Wayson Wyle, Inc. Arlington, VA Simon Christie, Christopher Paling, Michael Bennett, and David Raper Manchester MetropolItan UnIversIty Manchester, UK Virginia Raps envIronMental research scIences Whitney, TX Jonathan Levy Newton, MA Christopher Roof volpe center Cambridge, MA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte­ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera­ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work­ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 135 Project 02­42 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­30864­9 Library of Congress Control Number 2015938328 © 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 135 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-42 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Brenda L. Enos, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA (Chair) L. Allison Barrett, Golder Associates, Ltd., Mississauga, ON Patti J. Clark, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Worldwide, Hahira, GA Barbara Morin, Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Providence, RI Meenakshi Singh, Norman Y. Mineta San Jose International Airport, San Jose, CA Yifang Zhu, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Environmental Health Sciences Department, Los Angeles, CA Katherine Delaney, FAA Liaison Sabrina Johnson, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Transportation & Air Quality Liaison Katherine B. Preston, Airports Council International - North America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Report 135: Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports provides airport industry stakeholders with an overview of what is known and not known regarding the impact of airport activity on air quality and public health. The report effectively communicates key information about this technically challenging and frequently sensitive topic through the use of frequently asked questions, a topic overview, critiques of recent studies, and recommendations for further research. The report will help practitioners address air quality and public health issues that may arise at their airport. The communities surrounding airports have become increasingly aware of potential impacts to air quality and public health from airport operations. A number of airport air quality and health studies have been completed or are underway in North America and Europe; most of these studies have been required by regulatory agencies or legislated in response to airport improvement projects or to the public health concerns from local government or citizen groups. These studies vary in method, scope, and duration, and include air sampling, modeling, and health assessment. There is a need to compile and assess relevant information on airport air quality and public health studies to provide an understanding of how these studies can be useful for airport operators. The research, led by Wyle, was focused on an extensive and thorough critique of air qual- ity and public health literature. This review included not only airport-centric studies but also studies that address pollutants related to airport emissions even if the study’s focus was not on airports. The sources of these studies included universities, state air agencies, the FAA, and airport monitoring studies. Both domestic and a limited number of international sources were included. The report begins with a review of air quality standards and regulations. It then focuses on airport air quality issues, including source characteristics and emissions contributions, airport operations, geography, meteorology, mitigation measures, airport emissions and dispersion modeling, air quality measurement capabilities, and aircraft landing/takeoff emissions impacts vs. impacts at cruising altitude. The report then provides an overview of air quality health impacts and risk, followed by a discussion of the industry’s current understanding of airport air quality health impacts. The report concludes with recommendations for future research. Key features of the report include a summary of findings in the form of frequently asked questions and an extensive table summarizing the literature review. F O R E W O R D By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Summary of Findings 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 4 1.1 Goal and Scope 5 1.2 Organization 7 Chapter 2 Ambient Air Quality Standards and Regulations 7 2.1 Clean Air Act (CAA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 8 2.2 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) 9 2.3 State Implementation Plan 9 2.4 General Conformity 9 2.5 Emissions Standards and Permits 10 2.6 Indoor Air Pollution 11 Chapter 3 Airport Air Quality Background 11 3.1 Airport Source Characteristics 13 3.2 Source Emissions Contributions 14 3.3 Airport Operations 15 3.4 Geography 15 3.5 Meteorology 16 3.6 Mitigation Measures for Airport Source Emissions 16 3.7 Airport Emissions and Dispersion Modeling Capabilities 19 3.8 Air Quality Measurement Capabilities 20 3.9 Aircraft LTO Versus Cruise Emissions Impacts 22 Chapter 4 Air Quality Health Impacts and Risks 22 4.1 Pollutant Health Impacts Overview 25 4.2 Health Risk Factors 28 Chapter 5 Current Understanding of Airport Air Quality Health Impacts 28 5.1 What Pollutants Are of Most Concern at an Airport? 33 5.2 What Are the Airport Contributions to Local Air Quality and Health Impacts? 41 Chapter 6 Conclusions 43 Chapter 7 Recommendations for Future Research 45 Acronyms 47 Appendix A Literature Review Summary and References 92 Appendix B Frequently Asked Questions C O N T E N T S Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 135: Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports explores the following air quality issues: the literature regarding standards and regulations; issues at airports; health impacts and risks; and the industry’s current understanding of its health impacts.

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