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Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports (2015)

Chapter: Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A - Literature Review Summary and References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22119.
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47 A P P E N D I X A Literature Review Summary and References

Ge n e r a l a n d O v e r v i e w s M o d e l i n g M e a s u r e m e n t s H e a l t h I m p a c t s P o l l u t a n t s S o u r c e s A i r p o r t S i z e M i s c e l l a n e o u s Citation Summary O v e r v i e w s a n d P o l i c i e s S t a n d a r d s a n d G u i d a n c e M e t h o d o l o g y a n d / o r R e v i e w s G e n e r a l E m i s s i o n s a n d D i s p e r s i o n F a t e a n d T r a n s p o r t E m i s s i o n s A m b i e n t E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s R i s k A s s e s s m e n t / H e a l t h I m p a c t A s s e s s m e n t P o l l u t a n t C o n t r i b u t i o n s a n d T o x i c i t i e s M o n e t i z a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n s t o A i r p o r t A c t i v i t y , M e t e o r o l o g y , e t c . C r i t e r i a G a s e s ( e . g . , N O 2 ) L e a d ( P b ) P a r t i c u l a t e M a t t e r ( P M ) V O C s a n d H A P s S e c o n d a r y P o l l u t a n t s A l l A i r p o r t S o u r c e s A i r c r a f t M a i n E n g i n e s O n l y A P U a n d G r o u n d P o w e r G S E a n d / o r G A V s S t a t i o n a r y S o u r c e s O t h e r A i r p o r t S o u r c e s N o n - A i r p o r t S o u r c e s ( e . g . , S u r r o u n d i n g H i g h w a y s ) L a r g e / I n t e r n a t i o n a l M e d i u m / R e g i o n a l S m a l l / G A A i r p o r t S u r r o u n d i n g G e o g r a p h y A i r p o r t S e a s o n a l i t y Y e a r l y T r e n d s ACI EUROPE (2010) “Effects of Air Traffic on Air Quality in the Vicinity of European Airports, Local Air Quality Assessments at and around European Airports Based on the Airspace Closure in Europe during the Volcano Eruption in Iceland in April 2010,” ACI EUROPE Environmental Strategy Committee, Brussels, Belgium. During the Icelandic volcano eruption in April 2010, European airspace was closed for a number of consecutive days. The report produces graphs for 13 major European airports showing aircraft movements before, during, and after the closure, alongside air pollutant concentrations at monitoring stations close to the airports. The report highlights the limitations of the approach taken but concludes, "reduction of flight activity did not significantly affect air quality concentrations of NO2, confirming that the contribution of air traffic to local air quality in the vicinity of airports is very small." X X Adamkiewicz G., Hsu H.H., Vallarino J., Melly S.J., Spengler J.D., Levy J.I. “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in Neighborhoods Adjacent to a Commercial Airport: A Land Use Regression Modeling Study,” Environ Health 9:73 (2010). Saturation sampling for nitrogen dioxide was conducted in neighborhoods surrounding TF Green Airport (PVD) in 2007–2008. Land-use regression techniques were used to determine predictors associated with airport and traffic. x x x x x x x

Advanced Decision Systems (2005) “Evaluatie Schipholbeleid: Schonere Lucht, Schonere Vliegtuigen, Meer Uitstoot Luchtverkeer,” Dutch Ministry of Transport and Works, ed. J. Lammers, Phoenixstraat 49c, 2611 AL Delft. This was a report prepared for the ministry of public works. Air quality around Schiphol is improving, but not fast enough to meet Dutch norms. Most of the pollution comes from the generality of sources—industry, road transport, etc., and in particular from the motorway. The small contribution of air transport to NO2 will double between 2004 and 2008. Aircraft may individually be cleaner; but there are more of them. The document reports detailed modeling of NO2, PM10, CO, and benzene in the Schiphol area for 2004 and for a business-as-usual 2008. This permits the contributions from the motorways and airport to be estimated. X X X X X X X X X X Aeroporti di Roma (2006) “Environmental Report 2005,” Aeroporti di Roma, Via del’Aeroporto di Fiumicino 320–00050 Fiumicino, Italy. A general environmental report published by the airport for public consumption. From p 67 it outlines air quality measurements at the two airports (Fiumincino and Ciampino). A mobile laboratory was used, being placed airside for periods of 1–3 years at what were deemed to be the most critical locations within the airports. Species measured were O3, CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10, with annual means for 2001–2005 and monthly means for 2005 being shown. Concentrations were generally moderate, in large part because of the frequent sea breeze. X X X X X X X X Aeroporti di Roma (2007) “Environmental Report 2006,” Aeroporti di Roma, Via del’Aeroporto di Fiumicino 320–00050 Fiumicino, Italy. A general environmental report published by the airport for public consumption. From p 39 and p 80 it lists air quality measurements at Fiumincino. Mean NO2 concentrations in 2005 and 2006 were 25.8 and 14.5 g m-3 respectively. (It is not clear that the measurements are strictly comparable, since the mobile laboratory may have been moved—PM10 concentrations also dropped very sharply over the few years of measurements.) Benzene and other hydrocarbons were now being measured in addition to the species measured previously—though their values were not reported. X X X X X X Aeroporti di Roma (2008) “Environmental Report 2007,” Aeroporti di Roma, Via del’Aeroporto di Fiumicino 320–00050 Fiumicino, Italy. A general environmental report published by the airport for public consumption. Ambient concentrations at Fiumincino for the year are quoted on p 44. There are many missing data, but it appears that concentrations are generally modest. ADR had commissioned an external body (Istituto sull’Inquinamento Atmosferico del CNR) to make air quality measurements at a fixed site at Ciampino from 2006. The results seemed similar to those for the city of Rome, characterized by the large number of motor vehicles. The contribution of aviation activities thus seems to be rather modest. X X X X X X (continued on next page)

Aeroporti di Roma, Via del’Aeroporto di Fiumicino 320–00050 Fiumicino, Italy. Aeroporti di Roma, Via del’Aeroporto di Fiumicino 320–00050 Fiumicino, Italy. Aeroporti di Roma (2009) “Environmental Report 2008,” A general environmental report published by the airport for public consumption. Monthly concentrations at Fiumincino for the year are quoted on p 43; values for NO2 are quoted for 10 months—the highest value was 40.1 g m-3in October. X X X X X X X X Aeroporti di Roma (2010) “Environmental Report 2009,” A general environmental report published by the airport for public consumption. Monthly concentrations at Fiumincino for the year are quoted on p 45; the annual mean for NO2 was 25.8 g m-3. Additional measurements were also made by the IIA-CNR in the second half of the year at 8 sites around Fiumicino and 6 sites around Ciampino. Species measured were benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, NO, NO2, O3, SO2 and NH3. Some of the hydrocarbon concentrations seemed quite high—at Fiumicino the average toluene concentration was 64.2 g m-3 airside and 185.2 g m-3 landside, while that for benzene was 1.2 g m-3 airside and 1.1 g m-3. Apparently these values are within regulatory limits (albeit that they only cover summer and autumn). X X X X X X X X Aeroports de Paris (2007) “Emission Assessment and Air Quality Monitoring at Paris Airports.” Powerpoint presentation describing monitoring activities being carried out at the three Paris airports: two routine sites at CDG, one at Orly. There was also some specialized emissions testing for particulates and VOCs carried out in October 2005 and June/July 2005. X X X X X X X X Aeroports de Paris (2012) “Paris-Orly et Paris-Charles de Gaulle. Blian Mensuel de la Surveillance de la Qualité de l’air sur les Platformes Aéroportuaires. Octobre 2012.” Paris-Orly and Paris- CDG, “Monthly Summary of Airside Air Quality Monitoring,” Oct 2012. This is a monthly report of monitored air pollution concentrations around the two main Paris airports. Monitoring takes places at two stations at each airport and also at several nearby landside sites operated by Airparif. Pollutants monitored are NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and O3. X X X X Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) (2009) Air Emissions Factor Guide to Air Force Stationary Sources, Methods for Estimating Emissions of Air Pollutants for Stationary Sources at U.S. Air Force Installations. AFCEC Environmental Consulting Division. Dec. Standard Air Force guidance that provides methods and emission factors for various stationary sources and aircraft. Information for criteria pollutants including Pb and PM as well as HAPs species. X X X X X X X X Air Force Civil Engineer Center (AFCEC) (2013) Air Emissions Guide for Air Force Mobile Sources, Methods for Estimating Emissions of Air Pollutants for Mobile Sources at U.S. Air Force Installations. AFCEC Compliance Technical Support Branch. Jan. Standard Air Force guidance that provides methods and emission factors for mobile sources including on-road vehicles, non-road equipment, and aircraft. Criteria pollutants including Pb and PM as well as HAPs. Includes APUs, GSEs, and GAVs. Also, covers aircraft operations and mixing heights. X X X X X X X X X

AIRPARIF (2009) “Campagne de Mesure Autour de L’Aéroport de Paris Charles de Gaulle,” Airparif, Pôle Etudes 7, rue Crillon, 75004 Paris, France. Study of air quality around Paris CDG airport. In the course of an 8-week survey between December 2007 and February 2008, diffusion tubes were used to monitor NO2 concentrations at 120 sites around Paris-CDG airport. These measurements were supplemented by three mobile laboratories, which reported concentrations of NOx, PM10 and PM2.5 on an hourly basis. Concentrations of NO2 were dominated by the generality of urban emissions, in particular near major roads. The mobile laboratories could detect the impact of the airport (with an unfavorable wind direction, NO2 concentrations near the airport could be up to 40% greater than those in central Paris), but not of individual ATMs. The limit value of 40 g NO2 m-3 is exceeded within the conurbation, close to major roads, and close to the airport (perhaps within a few hundred m of the perimeter); but the influence of the airport is not detectable beyond a range of 3.5 km. Such long-term exceedences would cover 28% of the population living within the study zone. Baseline concentrations of PM2.5 are marginal in respect of international norms, but are dominated by road traffic. X X X X X X X AIRPARIF (2012) “Rapport D'Activité & Bilan de La Qualité de L'Air, Année 2011,” Airparif, Pôle Etudes 7, rue Crillon, 75004 Paris, France. AIRPARIF is an organization responsible for monitoring the air quality in the Paris agglomeration. AIRPARIF monitors the air quality and contributes to the assessment of health risks and environmental impacts. This is their (very substantial) annual report for monitoring in 2011. X X X X X X X X X X Arunachalam S., Wang B., Davis N., Baek B.H., Levy J.I. “Effect of Chemistry- Transport Model Scale and Resolution on Population Exposure to PM2.5 from Aircraft Emissions during Landing and Takeoff,” Atmos Environ 45:3294–3300 (2011). LTO concentration contributions from three airports (Atlanta, Chicago O'Hare, and T.F. Green) were predicted with CMAQ. As expected, populations nearest the airport captured most of the effects of PM2.5, but populations farther away resulted in most of the health risks due to secondary pollutants (e.g., ammonium sulfate and nitrates). X X X X X X X Arunachalam, S., A. Valencia, D. Yang, N. Davis, B.H. Baek, R. Dodson, E.A. Houseman, and J.I. Levy (2011). “Comparing Monitoring- Based and Modeling-Based Approaches for Evaluating Black Carbon Contributions from a U.S. Airport,” D.G. Steyn and S.T. Castelli (eds.), Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security 4, DOI 10.1007/978- 94-007-1359-8-102, Springer, The Netherlands, 2011. Three methods/models were compared to estimate aviation contributions to BC concentrations: (1) a statistical method, (2) AERMOD, and (3) CMAQ. The statistical method seems to imply much higher contributions from aviation than AERMOD or CMAQ. X X X X (continued on next page)

Arunachalam, S., M. Woody, B.H. Baek, U. Shankar, and J.I. Levy, (2011). “An Investigation of the Impacts of Aviation Emissions on Future Air Quality and Health,” D.G. Steyn and S.T. Castelli (eds.), Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXI, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security 4, DOI 10.1007/978- 94-007-1359-8-108, Springer, The Netherlands, 2011. CMAQ was used to conduct a health risk study for aviation operations in 2025. Includes the effects of various PM components including secondary sulfate and nitrate particles. The health risk assessments included the use of the EPA's SMAT. X X X X X X X Athens International Airport (2008) “Air Quality Management at the Athens International Airport,” presentation by Michael O’Connor. Microsoft PowerPoint presentation on local air quality management and carbon at Athens International Airport. Provides a summary of the Airport's approach, monitoring and other initiatives. X X X X X X X X X X X Athens International Airport (2009) “Atmosphere,” in English and Greek. Air quality monitoring results for 2008 at Athens International Airport. X X X X X Banatvala J. (2004) “Unhealthy Airports,” The Lancet, 364, 646–648. A general article offering observation and commentary on the health impacts for local communities of aircraft noise and airport air emissions. It makes the statement that health impact assessments (HIAs) should be carried out for significant airport developments and at the pre-planning stage. X X Barrett S.R.H., Yim S.H.L., Stettler M.E.J., and Eastham S. (2012) “Air Quality Impacts of U.K. Airport Capacity Expansion,” A Report by the Laboratory for Aviation and the Environment at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Collaboration with the Energy Efficient Cities Initiative at Cambridge University. A 4-page non-technical report that summarizes the results of two peer- reviewed papers published in the U.K.- based scientific journal Atmospheric Environment (Stettle et al. 2011 and Yim et al. 2012) on the topic of emissions from U.K. airports, their impacts on public health today and in the future, and viable near-term mitigation approaches. Particular attention is paid to the potential for either expanding Heathrow or building a new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. X X X Barrett S.R.H., Britter R.E., Waitz I.A. “Global Mortality Attributable to Aircraft Cruise Emissions,” Environ Sci Technol 44:7736–7742 (2010). Bottom-up modeling exercise using AEDT for emissions and GEOS-Chem for fate and transport globally, with application of PM concentration- response functions as derived from WHO. x x x x x x x Arunachalam, S., B.H. Baek, H.-H. Hsu, B. Wang, N. Davis, and J.I. Levy (2010). “The Influence of Chemistry Transport Model Scale and Resolution on Population Exposure due to Aircraft Emissions from Three Airports in the United States,” Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XX, D.G. Steyn; Rao, S.T. (eds.) 2010, XLVII, 592 pp, ISBN 978-90-481- 3810-4, Springer, The Netherlands, 2010. CMAQ was used to predict air quality impacts (HAPs and PM) from three airports (Atlanta, Chicago O'Hare, and T.F. Green) using different grid resolutions. X X X X X X

Bennett M. and Hoolhorst A. Assessment and Integration Report: Control of Local Air Quality at European Airports. ECATS-R-2010-01 report. 2010. The authors review best practice air quality assessment and mitigation at European airports. There is a focus on NO2 and PM2.5, the main pollutants of concern at major European airports. X X X X X X X X X X X Bennett M., Graham A. and Sinclair P. (2010) “A Statistical Study of the Impact on Local Air Quality of the Shutdown of European Airspace in April 2010,” Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, U.K. Air quality data have been compiled for monitoring sites near five European airports over the period 16–19 April 2010, when much of European airspace was shut as a result of the eruption of the Eyjafjalljökull volcano. These observations were compared with data for previous years and wind roses. At most sites, it is quite difficult to discern a significant decrease in local pollution as a result of the closure of the airport. Possible exceptions are Heathrow and Schiphol, where several monitoring sites lie essentially on the airport boundary and wind directions during the episode were suitable for demonstrating the resultant absence of NOx emissions. PM10 concentrations at most sites were rather high and the implication is that the observed dust was in fact the volcanic ash. X X X X X Bennett, M. and D. Raper, “Impact of Airports on Local Air Quality,” Chapter EAE350, Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010. This chapter provides a good overview of the air quality practices at airports and provides additional details on the European experience. A monitoring overview is particularly important. X X X X X X X X X X X X Bennett, M. and D. Raper, “Impact of Airports on Local Air Quality,” Chapter EAE350, Encyclopedia of Aerospace Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2010. This chapter provides a good overview of the air quality practices at airports and provides additional details on the European experience. A monitoring overview is particularly important. X X X X X X X X (continued on next page)

Bennett M., Christie S.M., Graham A., Garry K.P., Velikov S., Poll D.I., Smith M.G., Mead M.I., Popoola O.A.M, Stewart G.B., and Jones R.L. “Abatement of an Aircraft Exhaust Plume Using Aerodynamic Baffles.” Accepted for publication Environ Sci Tech 2013. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of a possible means of abating the impact of the exhaust emissions of commercial aircraft on the local community. Most substantial industrial emissions to atmosphere are via a tall stack; this is not feasible for the exhaust jet from an aircraft. It is not even practicable to install a blast wall to direct the emissions upward, since this would pose an unacceptable hazard to aircraft over-flying it. The paper points out, however, that the aerodynamic drag and lift delivered by a blast wall can be spread out quite effectively over a succession of modest baffles of light-weight construction. These then suck the momentum out of the jet, allowing its buoyancy to dominate more quickly. By setting the baffles at a suitable angle, they can also deliver significant aerodynamic lift to the exhaust jet. In effect, the array forms a “virtual chimney.” A suitable design was arrived at using theoretical and wind tunnel modeling. It was then tested with a 124 kN exhaust jet, using point samplers and a scanning LIDAR to monitor the dispersion of the jet downstream. From theory and experiment, it was then clear that, if the array was placed suitably close to the source, the jet could be made to leave the surface quite rapidly (i.e., practically by the back row of the array). The array also provided effective shelter against jet blast (it halved the centerline jet velocity) and gave some modest reduction in the engine noise downstream. X X X Blumenthal D.L., W.S Keifer, and J.A. McDonald, “Aircraft Measurements of Pollutants and Meteorological Parameters during the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Program,” Electric Power Research Institute, Report EA- 1909, Research Project 862-3, Apr 1981. Data was collected for model validation of sulfur compounds. Two aircraft were operated for six 2-week intensive studies over various seasons. Measurements, methodologies, and results are described in detail. This document provides historic background. X X X X X x Boyle K.A. Air Quality in Newport Beach, CA: Field Measurements of Ambient Particulates and Associated Trace Elements and Hydrocarbons. Prepared for City of Newport Beach, Sept 2010. Field measurements of ambient PM2.5 were made at six locations in varying proximity to high-volume freeways and John Wayne Airport. Concentrations of particle-associated metals, trace elements, and hydrocarbons were measured and compared to determine if the relative contributions of airport vs. automotive emissions could be assessed for different sampling sites. x x x x x x x

Brunelle-Yeung, Elza and Ian Waitz (2008). “Impact of Subsonic Aviation on Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Incidence due to Atmospheric Ozone Variation.” Submitted to the Fourth Annual Joseph A. Hartman Student Paper Competition. Jan 31. Paper suggests that an increase in ozone concentration due to aircraft NOx emissions may have contributed to decreased cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Aircraft ozone increases were obtained from the IPCC Aviation and the Global Atmosphere report and cancer data were obtained from various sources including the American Cancer Society. X X X X X Buonanno G., Bernabei M., Avino P., and Stabile L. (2012) “Occupational Exposure to Airborne Particles and Other Pollutants in an Aviation Base,” Environ Pollut 170, 78–87. The authors monitored occupational exposure of a crew chief and hangar operator to airborne particles at Los Angeles Airport, USA. Monitoring was carried out downwind of the receptor site, close to the runway and personal monitoring. Various characteristics of airborne particles were measured and reported. X X X X X Callahan, Colleen (2010). “The Plane Truth, Air Quality Impacts of Airport Operations and Strategies for Sustainability: A Case Study of the Los Angeles World Airports.” The Coalition for Clean Air and Environment Now. June. Provides overviews of the air quality contributions from various airports but mainly focuses on the LAWA airports. Provides recommendations for airports to reduce emissions such as the creation of a clean air action plan, banning leaded gas usage by General Aviation, and implementation of solar panels. X X X X X X X X X Carr E., Lee M., Marin K., Holder C., Pedde M., Cook R., Touma J. “Development and Evaluation of an Air Quality Modeling Approach to Assess Near-Field Impacts of Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Operating on Leaded Aviation Gasoline.” Atmos Environ 45:5795–5804 (2011). Air quality modeling using AERMOD linked to comprehensive Pb emissions inventory, applied to ambient Pb near Santa Monica Airport. Monitoring data were used for comparison/calibration. x x x x x x x x Carslaw D.C., Ropkins K., Laxen D., Moorcroft S., Marner B. and Williams M.L. (2008) “Near-Field Commercial Aircraft Contribution to Nitrogen Oxides by Engine, Aircraft Type and Airline by Individual Plume Sampling,” Environ Sci Technol 42, 1871– 1876. The researchers monitored NOx concentrations in the plume of departing aircraft at Heathrow Airport. Monitored were 5618 plumes and, using aircraft movement and FDR data, plumes were correlated to aircraft type, engine type, and thrust setting. The study showed a good relationship between the monitored NOx concentrations and the ICAO databank and a high impact on concentrations from varying takeoff weights and thrust settings. X X X X X Carslaw D.C., Beevers S.D., Ropkins K., Bell M.C. “Detecting and Quantifying Aircraft and Other On-Airport Contributions to Ambient Nitrogen Oxides in the Vicinity of a Large International Airport.” Atmos Environ 40 (2006) 5424–5434. Study of NOx concentrations near Heathrow. Used multiple approaches to isolate airport contributions using seven measurement sites near the airport. x x x x x x (continued on next page)

Carslaw, D.C., Williams M.L. and Barratt B. (2012). “A Short-Term Intervention Study—Impact of Airport Closure due to the Eruption of Eyjafjallajökull on Near-Field Air Quality.” Atmos Environ 54, 328–336, 2012. During the Icelandic volcano eruption in April 2010, European airspace was closed for 6 days. In this study the authors quantified the impact of the airspace closure on concentrations of NOx and NO2 at measurement sites close to London Heathrow Airport. They found a clear effect on NOx and NO2 concentrations close to the airport. They also estimated the annual impact airport emissions have on mean concentrations of NOx and NO2 for different years and compared these estimates with a detailed dispersion modeling study and previous work that was based on the analysis of monitoring site data. For the receptor most affected by the flight-ban approximately 200 m south of the airport, the airport contributes about 13.5 mg m-3 NOx, which is similar to dispersion modeling estimates of 12.0 mg m-3, but approximately twice that of other estimates based on the analysis of ambient measurements. Other measurement sites showed more mixed results. X X X X Castro, Adrian. “Santa Monica Airport Health Impact Assessment (HIA): A Health- Directed Summary of the Issues Facing the Community near the Santa Monica Airport.” Feb 2010. University of California, Los Angeles, Community Health and Advocacy Training Program. This study conducted a Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to provide decisionmakers with information to guide the future of the role of Santa Monica Airport. Investigators found significantly higher levels of total suspended particulate lead due to level of operations by piston-powered aircraft. Within and around takeoff runway end, lead levels were up to 25 times higher than the background levels. Takeoffs and landings are contributing to elevated levels of black carbon; elevated levels of ultrafine particles (UFP); and elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Investigators recommended a “buffer zone” of at least 660 meters between the takeoff area and residents and installation of high-efficiency particle absorbing (HEPA) filters in surrounding schools and homes. X X X X X X X X CATE (2004). “Quotes on Air Pollution from the Aviation White Paper,” Summary prepared by the Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment (CATE), Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, U.K. A collection of quotations taken directly from the U.K. “The Future of Air Transport” white paper published in 2003. The extracted quotes relate to air quality, highlight how this is a key issue for airport expansion in the U.K., and how airports must monitor and manage their emissions. X X CDM, et al. (2012). ACRP Report 78: Airport Ground Support Equipment (GSE): Emission Reduction Strategies, Inventory, and Tutorial. Transportation Research Board. A comprehensive review document of ground support equipment at airports and the practicalities of assessing their impact in terms of emissions and the opportunities for emissions reductions. X X

DEFRA (2007). “The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (Volume 1),” Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, U.K., Cm 7169. The Environment Act 1995 requires the U.K. government to produce a national air quality strategy containing standards, objectives, and measures for improving ambient air quality and to keep these policies under review. This document is the third and latest Air Quality Strategy; previous ones have established the framework for achieving improvements in ambient air quality in the U.K. The strategy describes the history and scope of U.K. air quality legislation, objectives, and pollutants covered; current policies and new measures; and a longer-term view. X X DEFRA (2010) “Air Pollution: Action in a Changing Climate,” Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, U.K., PB13378. This U.K. government report sets out the U.K.'s commitments on improving local air quality and its low carbon transition plan. Significantly, it explores the interrelationships of the two areas and highlights benefits of integrating policies. X DfT (2003) “The Future of Air Transport—Summary,” Department for Transport, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR, U.K. This U.K. white paper provides a national strategic framework for the future development of airport capacity in the U.K., looking forward 30 years. One reason given for this was the requirement to address the environmental impacts that air travel generates. This document is a summary—the full report runs to many documents and pages. The white paper noted the "severe environmental disadvantages" of Heathrow and the government would only support a third runway once it could be confident that the key condition relating to compliance with air quality limits can be met—annual mean concentrations of NO2 must not exceed 40 g/m3. The government's support is also conditional on measures to prevent deterioration of the noise climate and improve public transport access. X (continued on next page)

DfT (2006A) “Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow—Report of the Air Quality Technical Panels,” Department for Transport, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR, U.K. This major study was commissioned in 2004 by the U.K. government’s Department for Transport, as a result of a recommendation made in the U.K. Future of Air Transport white paper, and reported in July 2006. It reported in the following areas: 1. Synthesis of key issues and findings including recommendations made to the DfT for what tools should be used to assess air quality at Heathrow Airport. 2. Establish what constitutes best practice for monitoring and measurement for model development, and its applicability, at Heathrow. 3. Identifying emission sources and calculating emissions, in the form of a detailed “bottom-up” emissions inventory, as an input for dispersion modeling. 4. Dispersion modeling of airport and local emissions. This included an assessment of 5 dispersion models and concluded that the most appropriate model for use at U.K. airports was ADMS-Airport (model developer: Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants http://www.cerc.co.uk/index.php). The whole study was subject to a peer review panel and the final report included their commentary. Although now a dated study, it arguably defined best practice airport air quality assessment at the time. Overall, the panels found that the key pollutants were nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM10). The study found that the statutory annual mean NO2 objective (40 µg/m3) was exceeded at some locations around Heathrow. The study found no breaches of any statutory PM10 objectives. X X X X X DfT (2006B) “Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow—Report of the Air Quality Technical Panels. Appendices 1–11,” Department for Transport, 76 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DR, U.K. The appendices to the full report (DfT, 2006A). X X X X X Diez D.M., Dominici F., Zarubiak D., Levy J.I. “Statistical Approaches for Identifying Air Pollutant Mixtures Associated with Aircraft Departures at Los Angeles International Airport,” Environ Sci Technol 46:8229 8235 (2012). This study examined concentrations of continuously monitored air pollutants measured in 2008 near a departure runway at LAX, considering single- pollutant associations with landing and takeoff (LTO) as well as multipollutant predictors of binary LTO activity. x x x x x

Dodson R.E., Houseman E.A., Morin B., Levy J.I. “An Analysis of Continuous Black Carbon Concentrations in Proximity to an Airport and Major Roadways,” Atmos Environ 43:3764–3773 (2009). BC was measured at 5 monitoring sites on grounds of T.F. Green Airport from 2005–2006. Statistical analysis approaches included smoothed functions of wind speed and direction to determine likely source contributions, and regression models predicting concentrations as function of real-time flight activity and meteorological data. x x x x x x x Duchene N., E. Flueti, I. Fuller, P. Hofmann, U. Janicke, and C. Talerico, “Comparison of Measured and Modeled NO2 Values at Zurich Airport, Sensitivity of Aircraft NOX Emissions Inventory and NO2 Dispersion Parameters: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling for Regulatory Purposes,” pp. 367–371. Measurements at 21 locations near and around the Zurich Airport are described using passive NO2 sampling tubes and a standard analyzer at one location. A sensitivity study of the impact, as well as comparison to modeling, is included. X X X X X X X X Düsseldorf International Airport (2004) “Umweltreport,” Flughafen Düsseldorf, Germany. A general environmental report published by the airport for public consumption. It describes (among other things) how air quality is monitored near the runways. Annual mean NO2 concentrations in 2003 were marginally below 40 g m-3 at both ends of both runways. X X X Düsseldorf International Airport (2009) “Luftqualitätsmessungen, September 2009,” Flughafen Düsseldorf, Germany. Air quality measurements, September 2009. A monthly summary of air quality measurements at the airport. Oddly, this seemed to be the only one immediately available. NO2, O3, SO2, benzene, toluene, and PM10 were reported, together with a summary of basic meteorological statistics. X X X X X X ECAC (2011) “Recommendation ECAC//27- 4 NOx Emission Classification Scheme,” European Civil Aviation Conference, 3, bis Villa Emile Bergerat, 92522 Neuilly sur Seine Cedex, France. The standardized approach to the calculation of an aircraft engine emissions factor for airline charging purposes to be used at any EU airport that wishes to adopt differential charging based on local air quality emissions. X X X Ellermann T. and Massling A. (2010) “Measurement of Ultrafine Particles at the Apron of Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup in Relation to Work Environment,” Danmarks iljøundersøgelser ved Aarhus Universitet (Denmarks Environmental Investigations, University of Aarhus), Aarhus, Denmark. This report presents the results of measurements of number and size- distribution of ultrafine particles at the apron of Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup. In the measuring period, the average number of particles was about 4.4 times higher at the apron (43.000 particles/cm3) than at H.C. Andersens Boulevard (9.800 particles/cm3), which is estimated to be one of the most air polluted streets in Copenhagen. Measurements of the particles’ size- distribution showed that about 90% of the particles at the apron are in the size- fraction from 6–40nm. About 8% of the particles are in the size-fraction from 40–110 nm, and only 2% lie in the size- fraction from 110–700 nm. X X X X X X (continued on next page)

EPA Office of Air and Radiation. Sep 2004. Guidance on Airport Emission Reduction Credits for Early Measures through Voluntary Airport Low Emission Programs. Available from the FAA at http://www.faa.gov/airports/en vironmental/vale This document provides guidance on the Voluntary Airport Low Emission (VALE) program. VALE allows airport managers to reduce emissions accounted for under the General Conformity and New Source Review (NSR) programs. VALE is intended to reduce criteria pollutants and precursors, improve regional air quality, and accelerate the use of new and cleaner technology before an EA or EIS is prepared, and establishes a program to obtain emission “credits.” X X X ENVIRON (2000). Preliminary Study and Analysis of Toxic Air Pollutants from O’Hare International Airport and the Resulting Health Risks Created by These Toxic Emissions in Surrounding Residential Communities. Park Ridge, IL. A study was conducted due to concerns of potential impacts from toxic air pollutants emitted from the airport. Health risk assessments were conducted of the fence line concentrations and the impacts to surrounding residential communities. EU (2008) “Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe,” Official Journal of the European Union, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. From 1/1/2010, two EU limit values for NO2 entered into force: 200 µg/m3 over 1 hour averaging period with 18 permitted exceedences each year and 40 µg/m3 over a 1-year period. From 1/1/2005, two limit values for PM10 entered into force: 50 µg/m3 over 24 hours averaging period with 35 permitted exceedences each year and 40 µg/m3 over a 1-year period. From 1/1/2015 there will be a limit value for PM2.5 coming into force: 25 µg/m3 over a 1-year averaging period. Prior to the limit value entering force, there is a target value that entered into force from 1/1/2010 of 25 µg/m3 over a 1-year averaging period, the same as the limit value. The Directive also sets out limit or target values for SO2, lead, CO, ozone, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. An average exposure indicator (AEI) will be introduced for PM2.5 in 2015: 20 µg/m3 based on a 3-year average (so in 2015 this will be 2013, 2014, 2015). It is the PM2.5 concentration averaged over the selected monitoring stations in agglomerations and larger urban areas, set in urban background locations to best assess the PM2.5 exposure of the general population. An “exposure reduction target” to be set on AEI in 2010, is to be achieved in 2020. Limit and target values have historically been based on the work of the Air Pollution and Clean Air for Europe (CAFÉ) initiative. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ENVIRON (2008). Teterboro Airport, Detailed Air Quality Evaluation. Prepared for the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), Trenton, New Jersey. ENVIRON International Corportation, Groton, Massachusetts, Newark, New Jersey. Project #08-14189A, Final Report. February 11. Funded by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP), the study assessed local air quality contributions from Teterboro Airport including potential health impacts and emissions mitigation measures. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

(continued on next page) Federal Aviation Administration. 2005. O’Hare Modernization Environmental Impact Statement. Federal Aviation Administration. Great Lakes Region FAA EIS for the modernization of the Chicago O’Hare International Airport. Provides a comprehensive modeling and measurement assessment of emissions and air quality impacts for both criteria and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). X X X X X X X X X X X X X Eurocontrol (2005A) “Airport Local Air Quality Studies (ALAQS) Concept Document,” Eurocontrol, Brussels, Belgium. This report outlines the background, objectives, and approach of a Eurocontrol and ICAO project called Airport Local Air Quality Studies (ALAQS), now completed. It aimed to (1) promote best practice methods for airport LAQ analysis concerning issues such as emissions inventory, dispersion, and the data required for the calculations, including emission factors, operational data, and aircraft landing and takeoff profiles; (2) raise the awareness of LAQ issues among airport authorities, focusing on the practical issues of an LAQ study at an airport: data collection, pollutants, methods for inventory, and dispersion; and (3) develop an ALAQS-AV toolset—a geographical information system-based (GIS-based) research tool. This is a test bed that can be used to investigate the sensitivity of different inventory and dispersion methodologies. The choice of a GIS as a test bench simplifies the process of defining the various airport elements (runways, taxiways, buildings, etc.) and allows the spatial distribution of emissions to be visualized. The ALAQS project approach was based on delivering case study reports, guidance material, a database of default parameters for European LAQ, and the ALAQS-AV toolset. X X FAA, “Fact Sheet – Voluntary Airport Low Emission Program,” Oct 9, 2012. Available from the FAA at http://www.faa.gov/airports/en vironmental/vale Provides the latest information about the VALE Program and an overview of FY2012 VALE grants. X X Eurocontrol (2005B) “ALAQS Chopin Airport Case Study, Part 1: Emission Inventory,” Eurocontrol, Brussels, Belgium. This report describes an emissions inventory that was completed for Chopin Airport, Warsaw, Poland. It was one of four airport emissions inventories case studies completed as part of ALAQS. The second phase of this case study was a dispersion modeling study. X X FAA, VALE Program grant summary FY 2005-FY 2012. 2013. Available from the FAA at http://www.faa.gov/airports/en vironmental/vale This Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheet lists all the VALE program grants, amounts, project descriptions, and sponsors. X X FAA, “Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) Program Brochure,” 2013. Available from the FAA at http://www.faa.gov/airports/en vironmental/vale The brochure provides an overview of the VALE program, a list and description of eligible project types, and case studies of selected completed VALE projects. X X

Fanning E., Yu R.C., Lu R., Froines J. “Monitoring and Modeling of Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon at the Los Angeles International Airport: Final Report,” ARB Contract #04-325, 2007. Three field studies were performed in and around LAX in 2005 and 2006. x x x x x x x x Fanning, E. et al. (2007) “Monitoring and Modeling of Ultrafine Particles and Black Carbon at the Los Angeles International Airport: Final Report,” ACB Contract #04- 325. California Air Resources Board, June 20. Study involved a measurement campaign to characterize LAX contributions of PM to surrounding communities. The UFP max spike was seen to occur at 15 nm and the average at 14 nm—these were detectable up to 600 m from the airport. While particle numbers were noticeable in community areas, mass-based concentrations (e.g., PM2.5) were not above background levels. X X X X Fine, P., A. Polidori, S. Teffera (2010) “General Aviation Airport Air Monitoring Study, Final Report,” South Coast Air Quality Management District, Aug 2010. This study was part of a Community- Scale Air Toxics Ambient Monitoring Grant and characterizes the ambient levels of several air toxics adjacent to the Van Nuys and Santa Monica Airports. These are very busy GA airports with Van Nuys having about 450,000 annual LTOs. The document describes the monitoring and provides key findings of concentrations of lead, VOCs, PM, and CO. X X X X X X X X Fraport (2004A) “Lufthygenische Kurzbericht,” Fraport AG, APF-US, 60547 Frankfurt, 22/1/2004. A short report on air quality. This single page report introduces the SOMMI 1 (Self Operating Measuring and Monitoring Installation) in the E corner of Frankfurt International Airport (i.e., between the airfield and a motorway), and reports annual concentrations for the period 1/7/2002 to 30/6/2003. Pollutants measured were CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3, benzene, and PM10. In subsequent years, toluene, xylene, and ethyl benzene were added to this list. X X X X X Fraport (2004B) “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2003,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Annual report on air quality, 2003. This is the first of a series of annual air quality reports by Fraport. Following Fraport 2004A, it describes the commissioning of a mobile monitoring station, SOMMI 2. This was located at two places, both within the airport boundary, over the course of the year. It was noted that 2003 was an exceptional year meteorologically. Mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 1 over the year was 50 g m-3. Pollution rose analysis showed that most of this came from the neighboring motorway. Typically, these reports state relevant statistics of the monitored pollutants, adding some helpful technical commentary. X X X X X X

Fraport (2005) “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2004,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2005,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2006,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2007,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Annual report on air quality, 2004. Another warm year, though not as hot as 2003. The report includes some discussion of the legal implications of pollution limit values. Since these require air quality in residential areas (rather than within the airfield) to be protected, a special measurement program was commissioned close to the nearby town of Kelsterbach, starting in June 2004. Mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 1 over the year was 42 g m-3. X X X X X X Fraport (2006) Annual report on air quality, 2005. Mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 1 over the year was 46 g m-3, that at SOMMI 2 on the apron was 57 g m-3, and that at Kelsterbach 32 g m-3. X X X X X Fraport (2007) Annual report on air quality, 2006. Mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 1 over the year was 47 g m-3, that at SOMMI 2 at the center of the airfield was 39 g m-3, and that at Kelsterbach 32 g m-3. Note that the SOMMI 2 value quoted here was between 1/5/2006 and 30/4/2007, since thunderstorms delayed the preparation of its new site. Time series now show that pollutant concentrations (other than those of CO) had all dropped following the exceptional year of 2003. The report discusses an episode of high PM10 concentrations in March 2007: hourly concentrations at SOMMI 1 peaked at >150 g m-3. This seemed to be a regional phenomenon, but its source was unclear. Such episodes are not unusual. X X X X X X X Fraport (2008) Annual report on air quality, 2007. Mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 1 over the year was 42 g m-3, that at SOMMI 2 at the center of the airfield was 39 g m-3, and that at Kelsterbach 28 g m-3. It may be noted that NO concentrations are much more differentiated, viz. 43, 23, and 16 g m-3 respectively. These are much more closely related to the primary emissions, as could be seen from the pollution roses. The principal local source is the motorway immediately to the E of the airport. By the time this report was prepared, the source of the dust episode in March 2007 had been identified—it was apparently from a dust storm in the Ukraine, following a drought. X X X X X X X X Fraport (2009A) “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2008,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Annual report on air quality, 2008. Because of construction work, SOMMI 1 had to be suspended at the end of September 2008. The mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 2 at the center of the airfield was 40 g m-3, and that at Kelsterbach (now labeled SOMMI 3) 29 g m-3. The September–September mean value at SOMMI 1 was 48 g m- 3. Through the use of a hi-vol sampler, BaP, As, Pb, Cd, and Ni were also measured at SOMMI 1, with mean concentrations of 0.2, 0.8, 7.2, 0.2, and 3.5 ng m-3 respectively—all well within regulatory limits. X X X X X X X (continued on next page)

Fraport (2009B) “Verkurzte Umwelterklärung 2009 für den Standort Flughafen Frankfurt. Fortschreibung der Umwelterklärung 2008,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Short report on the progress of Fraport toward its environmental goals up to 2008. X X X X X X X X X Fraport (2010) “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2009,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Annual report on air quality, 2009. SOMMI 1 restarted operations at a position 400 m SW of its original position, and some 200 m farther from the motorway, on 1/4/2008. The network was extended to monitor the fourth runway, now under construction, with SOMMI 4 between the new runway and the NW corner of the original airfield and SOMMI 5 S of Kelsterbach. The mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 2 was 41 g m-3, and that at SOMMI 3 was 31 g m-3. An attempt was made to correct the measured SOMMI 1 value (48 g m-3) for the missing first quarter of data by interpolation from the SOMMI 2 values. A corrected mean of 48 g m-3 was obtained. PM10 measurements were commissioned at SOMMI 3-5 to monitor dust from the construction works. It appeared that this was well controlled (on-site speed limits, water sprays on construction roads, etc.). X X X X X X X X Fraport (2011) “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2010,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Annual report on air quality, 2010. The mean NO2 concentration at SOMMI 1 over the year was estimated as 45 g m-3 (from 1/11/2010, it was moved to another site further N), that at SOMMI 2 was 39 g m-3, and that at SOMMI 3 was 31 g m-3. A long-term decline in primary NO concentrations was attributed to diminishing emissions from motor vehicles. Airport operations in April of this year were greatly impacted by the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, but modeling and measurements showed that this had only a modest effect on NO2 concentrations at SOMMI 1-3. This was the general experience at European airports, as reported in “Effects of Air Traffic on Air Quality in the Vicinity of European Airports,” published by ACI Europe. There was also some discussion of PM10 from construction activity. At SOMMI 4, beside the construction site of the new runway, this marginally exceeded the regulatory limit, but since the site was within the airport boundary, this was not a legal concern. X X X X X X X X X

Fraport (2012) “Lufthygienischer Jahresbericht 2011,” Fraport AG, FBA-RU, 60547 Frankfurt. Annual report on air quality, 2011. This is a somewhat more substantial annual report than the previous ones, since topical issues required discussion of several additional themes. The new NW runway was in operation from 21/10/2011. Mean NO2 concentrations at SOMMI 1-3 were 46 g m-3, 36 g m-3, and 31 g m-3, respectively, though SOMMI 3 was decommissioned at the end of the year. Detailed dispersion modeling of NO2 concentrations was carried out both for the base case of 2005 and for a 2020 planning scenario. Generally, off-site concentrations should be reduced as a result of reductions in road vehicle emissions; on-site concentrations may, however, increase with the growth in ATMs: concentrations on the aprons may exceed 60 g m-3. There will also be an impact from Terminal 3, which will become operational in 2016. Close to the sources, agreement between the model and the 2005 monitored data is quite good; farther away, the model overestimates monitored concentrations. There is some discussion of the use of the Romberg formula to model the conversion of the primary NOx emission to the regulated NO2 concentration. The report also comments that the bulk (at least ) of the local AQ impact from an aircraft in takeoff run originates from before the aircraft has left the ground. There is also some discussion of the modeling of odor nuisance from kerosene. X X X X X X X X X X Fraport (2012) “Environmental Statement 2011 Including the Environmental Program until 2014, for the Organizations Fraport AG, N*ICE and FCS at Frankfurt Airport,” published by Fraport AG, Frankfurt Airport Services Worldwide, Sustainability Management and Corporate Compliance 60547 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. An annual environmental report for Fraport activities at Frankfurt Airport in Germany. The report is in English and data is up to and including 2010. A summary of air quality data is presented. X X X X X X X Gatwick Airport Ltd (2013) “Gatwick Airport: Conditions of Use 2013/14 Including Airport Charges Effective 1st April 2013,” Gatwick Airport Ltd, 5th Floor, Destination Place, South Terminal, Gatwick Airport, West Sussex, RH6 0NP, U.K. Information issued by Gatwick Airport in the U.K., which includes details of its aircraft emissions charging scheme and charges. X X (continued on next page)

German Federal Government (2012) “Gesundheitsgefährdung durch Schadstoffemissionen des Luftverkehrs. Antwort der Bundesregierung auf die Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Sabine Stüber u.a. Bundestagsdrucksache 17/9630.” (“Risks to Health from Toxic Emissions Arising from Air Transport. Reply of the Federal Government to the Short Questionnaire from the MPs Sabine Stüber et al., Federal Parliamentary Press, 17/9630”). A useful, brief, and clearly written response for non-technical readers. It stresses the importance of fine particulate as a delivery mechanism of toxins to the human body. Regarding toxicity, it refers to research work by DLR (Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrt) and EASA (the European Aviation Safety Agency), without citing individual reports. There are some questions regarding fuel dumping, de- icing fluids, and CO emissions, which the government considers to be of minor relevance, though there may be environmental problems with benzotriazole in de-icing fluid. The response also references some studies of the external costs of air transport in Europe: the great bulk of this comes from climate change with only (supposedly) 1.58% from air pollution. The final question dealt with occupational disease among airport workers. Unsurprisingly, this mostly involved hearing impairment (59.5%), though skin diseases were also frequent (22.9%), and diseases related to asbestos exposure, sadly, still very common (10.9%). A list of AQ monitoring stations near German airports is provided. X X X X X Graham A. and Raper D. (2003) “Air Quality in Airport Approaches: Impact of Emissions Entrained by Vortices in Aircraft Wakes,” Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, U.K. Exhaust from aeroplanes is entrained within a pair of wingtip vortices trailing in their wake. An aeroplane exerts a downward force on the air, and so the wake must descend. Exhaust pollutants may thus be conveyed to the ground close to airports far more effectively than through ambient atmospheric dispersion alone. A kinematic model of vortex-mediated pollutant transport has therefore been developed, harnessing results from dynamic models in the literature to estimate the size of the neglected term in ground-level concentrations. Model runs show that in (10 m) winds of 2–4 m s 1, nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the vortex wakes of narrow-body turbofan aeroplanes may contribute 2 µg m 3 or more to mean diurnal ground-level concentrations, up to 2 km downwind of a busy runway. X X X X X Graham, A., R. Jones, V. Tsanev, I. Mead, M. Bennett, S. Christie, M. Hilton, M. Walsh, D. Grainger, D. Peters, C. Ansell, R. Jones, and J. Lee, “Final Report: Aviation Emissions and their Impact on Air Quality,” Omega Report, Manchester University, Feb 2009. This document describes measurements at U.K. airports. While NOx is the primary pollutant of concern, Ox, CO and CO2 also are measured as well as meteorological parameters. Novel ideals of LIDAR and optical absorption spectroscopy are included. X X X X X X

HAL (2011) “Heathrow Air Quality Strategy 2011–2020,” Heathrow Airport Limited, London, U.K. Describes the air quality situation at Heathrow, compliance with legal requirements and the airport strategy. An action plan is included for reducing emissions of NOx and particulates. The document states that Heathrow Airport Ltd (HAL) recognizes that NO2 concentrations are above EU limit values in some areas but it points out that HAL operations are not the only contributor to this. HAL says that it will work with other organizations to reduce emissions arising from road traffic and aircraft. There is a repeated message by HAL that poor air quality at Heathrow has a lot to do with non-airport-related road traffic and the general high level of local emissions. Also, that HAL is only directly responsible for some airport-related emissions, the others (e.g., road traffic and aircraft) are the direct responsibility of others and it can guide and influence these. HAL uses compliance, or not, with the EU limit values to decide if there is a public health impact. The focus is clearly on meeting the limits, which are not described in the strategy in terms of public health impacts. X X X X X HAL (2013) “Heathrow Airport Limited Conditions of Use 2013/14 Including Airport Charges from 1 April 2013,” Heathrow Airport Limited, The Compass Centre, Nelson Road, Hounslow, Middlesex TW6 2GW, U.K. Information issued by Heathrow Airport in the U.K., which includes details of its aircraft emissions charging scheme and charges. X X Helmis C.G., Sgouros G., Flocas H., Schäfer K., Jahn C., Hoffman M., Heyder C.H., Kurtenbach R., Niedojadlo A., Wiesen P., O'Connor M., and Anamaterou E. (2009) “The role of Meteorology on the Background Air Quality at Athens International Airport,” Atmos Environ 45, 5561– 5571. The authors undertook measurements of wind, mixing height, and air quality using remote sensing and surface-based single-point instrumentation. They found that under low background wind conditions, the development of local flows (sea and land breeze cells) over the greater area preserves high concentrations of air pollutants, which are mainly attributed to airport emissions, local activities and traffic. When the background flow is strong, the diurnal cycle of all concentrations was significantly reduced by more than 50%, due to advection and the subsequent mixing of the lower atmosphere. The calculated Hilbert spectra of the main pollutants showed that meteorology plays a prescriptive role on the evolution of air pollutants, determining the influence of local-scale characteristics at each monitoring station. X X X X X X Herndon, Scott, et al. (2012) ACRP Report 63: Measurement of Gaseous HAP Emissions from Idling Aircraft as a Function of Engine and Ambient Conditions, Transportation Research Board (TRB). Discusses the work conducted in measuring aircraft emissions during idling conditions (lower than the standard ICAO 7% power). Provides a method to predict emissions indices based on fuel flow and ambient temperature for a representative engine. X X X (continued on next page)

Hoolhorst A., Beukenhorst O., and Brok P. (2009) “Options to Reduce Aircraft Emissions Impact in the Airport Environment,” ECATS deliverable D5.c.31. The authors assessed a range of options to reduce local air quality pollutants from aircraft and related emissions. Road traffic emissions are excluded. Technical, operational, and policy measures are included. X X X X X X Hoolhorst A., Erbrink J.J., and Scholten R.D.A. (2007) “Luchtkwaliteit rond luchthaven Schiphol Voor het MER korte termijn 'Verder werken aan de toekomst van Schiphol en de regio,” National Aerospace Laboratory report no. NLR- CR-2007-361. Annex B.2. Air quality around Schiphol airport. For the short-term environmental impact assessment: “Further Work on the Future of Schiphol and the Region.” Extensive air quality modeling for the Schiphol area is reported. The authors use the KEMA STACKS model for a 2007 reference scenario and for two scenarios in 2010 allowing for passenger growth from 437 kPax to 493 kPax. In no scenario are the Dutch norms for PM10 or benzene exceeded. There could well be exceedences of the norm for NO2, however, and this would partly arise from airport activities. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the effects of 10 possible measures to reduce the airport’s impact; it appears that these could jointly be sufficiently effective. The most effective interventions seem to be (p. 38) the use of external sources of electricity and cabin air at the aircraft parking points (i.e., instead of using auxiliary power units) and the deployment of electrically powered service vehicles on the apron. X X X X X X X X X X X X Hoolhorst A., Erbrink J.J., Kokmeijer E., and Scholten R.D.A. (2008) “Luchtkwaliteit rond luchthaven Schiphol Verfijningsberekeningen voor het MER korte termijn 'Verder werken aan de toekomst van Schiphol en de regio,” National Aerospace Laboratory report no. NLR- CR-2008-241. Air quality around Schiphol airport. More detailed calculations for the short- term environmental impact assessment: “Further Work on the Future of Schiphol and the Region.” This report describes more detailed concentrations than carried out by Hoolhorst et al. (2007). It also describes the model parameters in some detail. The two scenarios modeled assumed 447 kPax and 485 kPax. Potential layouts of ground source power were investigated. These calculations confirm the effectiveness of ground source power in reducing NO2 concentrations on Schiphol Plaza. X X X X X X X X X X X X Hsu H.H., Adamkiewicz G., Houseman E.A., Vallarino J., Melly S.J., Wayson R.L., Spengler J.D., Levy J.I. “The Relationship between Aviation Activities and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Concentrations near a Mid- Sized Airport,” Atmos Environ 50:328–337 (2012). Monitored UFP data near T.F. Green Airport were used to develop regression models. The results showed relatively small contributions from the airport, mainly because of relatively low aircraft operations. X X X X X

Hsu H.H., Adamkiewicz G., Houseman E.A., Vallarino J., Melly S.J., Wayson R.L., Spengler J.D., Levy J.I. “The Relationship between Aviation Activities and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Concentrations near a Mid- Sized Airport,” Atmos Environ 50: 328–337 (2012). UFP concentrations were monitored with 1-minute resolution at 4 monitoring sites surrounding T.F. Green Airport in 2007 and 2008. Regression models were developed to predict concentrations as a function of LTO activity, meteorology, and other factors. To better pinpoint the timing in the LTO cycle most contributing to elevated concentrations, a lag model used considered terms between 5 minutes before and 5 minutes after the departure or arrival. x x x x x Hsu H.H., Adamkiewicz G., Houseman E.A., Zarubiak D., Spengler J.D., Levy J.I. “Contributions of Aircraft Arrivals and Departures to Ultrafine Particle Counts Near Los Angeles International Airport,” Sci Tot Environ 444:347–355 (2013). Aircraft flight activity and near-field continuous UFP concentrations (≥ 6 nm) were measured at five monitoring sites over a 42-day field campaign at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). x x x x x Hsu H.H., Adamkiewicz G., Houseman E.A., Zarubiak D., Spengler J.D., Levy J.I. Contributions of Aircraft Arrivals and Departures to Ultrafine Particle Counts Near Los Angeles International Airport,” Sci Tot Environ 444:347–355 (2013). Monitored UFP data were regressed with aircraft activities at LAX. The results showed significant correlation and indicate significant contributions from aircraft. X X X X X X Hu S., Fruin S., Kozawa K., Mara S., Winer A.M., and Paulson S.E. (2009) “Aircraft Emission Impacts in a Neighborhood Adjacent to a General Aviation Airport in Southern California,” Environ Sci Technol 43, 8039–8045. The authors measured a range of air pollutants near a general aviation airport (Santa Monica Airport, CA) for private planes and corporate jets in the spring and summer of 2008. They found that emissions of ultrafine particles were significantly elevated when compared to background pollution levels. Levels of these pollutants were up to 10 times higher at a downwind distance from the airport equal to about one football field and as much as 2.5 times higher at distance equal to about six football fields. The study suggests that, "current land-use practices of reduced buffer areas around local airports may be insufficient." X X X Hubbell, Bryan. 2001. Evaluating the Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reductions: Recent Developments at the U.S. EPA. U.S. EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Innovative Strategies and Economics Group. An overview-type paper that describes the general monetization of air quality impacts from various industries, especially highway and stationary sources. Discusses the importance of epidemiologists and economists to work together in monetizing the benefits of air pollution regulation. X X X X X (continued on next page)

ICAO (2011) “Air Quality Guidance Manual.” International Civil Aviation Organization, Montreal, Canada. The industry guidance document for local air quality management at airports covers the preparation of an emissions inventory, dispersion modeling, measurements and mitigation options. Interestingly, the guidance sets out what would be required to produce an emissions inventory under different approaches—simple, advanced, and sophisticated. The report also sets the context for the guidance given, such as giving information on regulatory drivers and why an airport may choose to manage air quality. X X X X ICAO, “Airport Air Quality Manual,” Doc. 9889, International Civil Aviation Organization, 2011. Best practices for air quality measurements at airports are discussed in Chapter 6 of this report. Three appendices also discuss methods and references. X X X X X X X Ionel I., Nicolae D., Popescu F., Talianu C., Belegante L., and Apostol G. (2009) “Measuring Air Pollutants in an International Romania Airport with Point and Open Path Instruments,” Rom Journ Phys 56, 507–519. Monitoring results for VOCs, SO2, NOx, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, CO and O3 over a 3-day period are reported in this paper. X X X X X X X Ionel, I., D. Nicolae, F. Popescu, C. Talianu, L. Belegante, and G. Aposol, “Measuring Air Pollutants in an International Romania Airport with Point and Open Path Instruments,” Rom Journ Phys, Vol 56, Nos. 3–4, pp. 507–519, Bucharest, 2011. Two monitoring stations were used near the apron to monitor VOCs, fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), NO, NO2 and NOx, CO, O3, SO2, and other gases for a 3-day continuous measurement project. Meteorology was also reported. X X X X X X X X Jamin Koo, Qiqi Wang, Daven K. Henze, Ian A. Waitz, Steven R.H. Barrett, 2013. “Spatial Sensitivities of Human Health Risk to Aircraft Emissions,” Atmos Environ 71 (2013) 140–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.01.0 25. The GEOS-Chem global chemistry model was used to conduct a study to assess premature death from exposure to various pollutants emitted from aircraft. The study is global and provides sensitivities to pollutants by location. X X X X X X Jefferson T. and Ferroni E. (2009) “The Spanish Flu through the BMJ’s Eyes: Observations and Unanswered Questions,” British Medical Journal, 339, 1397–1399. Included in this literature review as an example of the caution that should be applied in interpreting limit values for individual pollutants because humans compete for survival in a complex ecology. At the time of the Spanish flu epidemic, it was noted that exposure of workers to NO2 appeared to reduce their susceptibility to influenza. NO2 is certainly toxic to humans, but perhaps it is even more toxic to airborne viruses. (Gregor 1919, quoted by Jefferson and Ferroni 2009.) X X Kim, Brian, et al. (2012). ACRP Report 71: Guidance for Quantifying the Contribution of Airport Emissions to Local Air Quality. Transportation Research Board (TRB). Provides an overview of previous airport air quality studies. Presents a framework to include measurements with modeling to comprehensively understand airport contributions to local air quality. The measurement work provides indications of ambient concentration contributions from the airport as well as daily and seasonal trends. X X X X X X X X X X X X X

(continued on next page) Kinsey, John S., et al. (2010). Physical Characterization of the Fine Particle Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiement (APEX) 1-3. Atmos Environ 44 (2010) 2137–2156. Describes the work conducted during the three APEX 1-3 measurement campaigns to collect PM data, and their derivation of EI values. The size distributions of the primary modes were lognormal with minor accumulation modes at high power. X X X Klapmeyer M.E. and Marr L.C. (2012). CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport, Environmental Science and Technology 46(20), 10974– 10981. CO2, NOx, and PM ambient measurements were performed next to an airport. Results showed meteorological factors affecting CO2 and NOx while PM was mainly affected by aircraft operations. X X X X X Langridge J.M., Gustafsson R.J., Griffiths P.T., Cox R.A., Lambert R.M., and Jones R.L. (2009) “Solar Driven Nitrous Acid Formation on Building Material Surfaces Containing Titanium Dioxide: A Concern for Air Quality in Urban Areas?” Atmos Environ 43, 5128–5131. The use of external building surfaces coated with titanium dioxide has been put forward as a method for removing NO2 from the ambient air. It has been proposed at several European airports. This paper, while accepting that this occurs, challenges the concept because of the commensurate formation of gaseous nitrous acid. X KM Chng Environmental, Inc. 1999. Findings Regarding Source Contribution to Soot Deposition, O’Hare International Airport and Surrounding Communities. Burlington, MA. Due to concerns from the local community, a study was conducted to determine the soot (PM) contributions from O’Hare International Airport. Using chemical fingerprinting techniques, samples from several sites around the airport showed that the soot did not resemble characteristics of jet exhaust but rather those of other urban sources including motor vehicles. X X X X X X X Lee G. (2012) “Development of Techniques for Rapidly Assessing the Local Air Quality Impacts of Airports,” Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. A M.Sc. thesis. In summary, it tests a methodology for carrying out dispersion modeling of PM2.5 emissions for aircraft at a large number of airports. The approach taken using RDMS was found to over-predict AERMOD produced concentrations by ~5% but reduces modeling time by ~95%. The study also estimated early deaths as a result of the airport emissions. X X X X X X Levy J.I., Woody M., Baek B.H., Shankar U., Arunachalam S. “Current and Future Particulate Matter- Related Mortality Risks in the United States from Aviation Emissions During Landing and Takeoff. Risk Anal 32: 237–249 (2012). Bottom-up model linking CMAQ with concentration-response functions for PM mortality in the U.S. Emphasis on emissions in 2005 and 2025 from 99 airports around the U.S., considering separately influence of emissions, population growth and aging, and changing non-aviation concentrations on the trajectory of health risks. x x x x x x x

Levy, Jonathan, et al. (Oct 2008) “High-Priority Compounds Associated with Aircraft Emissions,” PARTNER Project 11, final report on subtask: Health Risk Prioritization of Aircraft Emissions Related Air Pollutants. Report correctly points out that previous, similar papers have reported high-priority compounds based on emissions and toxicity alone without taking into account fate and transport (population exposure). Focused on total population health risk rather than individual health risk. Consideration for the spatial domain and differences in airports (e.g., different locations, seasons, etc.) also were taken into account. AERMOD and CMAQ were used for the dispersion modeling. Several criteria pollutants and HAPs species were selected as a starting point. The toxicity determinations of each pollutant are presented. Ultrafine PM risks outweigh those from HAPs, but there are high uncertainties. Among HAPs risks, Formaldehyde dominates. Although HAPs risk is less than PM, respiratory impacts from HAPs are a concern, especially with relatively higher exposure to acrolein. X X X X X X X Lobo, Prem et al. (Jul 2011) SAE E31 Methodology Development and Associated PM Emissions Characteristics of Aircraft APUs Burning Conventional and Alternative Aviation Fuels. PARTNER Project 34 final report. The purpose of the project was to test the SAE E31 measurement methodology and to gather further APU emissions data. Measurements were conducted at the University of Sheffield using a mounted APU. PM size distributions and non-volatile fractions were obtained. Emissions from biodiesel were found to be higher than those for Jet A and natural gas derived Fisher Tropsch fuel. X X X Lobo, Prem, et al. (Oct 31, 2007). “The Development of Exhaust Speciation Profiles for Commercial Jet Engines.” Final Report. JETS APEX2. California Air Resources Board and the California Environmental Protection Agency. The report presents aircraft emissions data collected from a measurement campaign conducted at Oakland International Airport. The pollutants measured included criteria pollutants, CO, and hydrocarbon species at various power settings. The development of the speciation profiles was the primary goal. PM size distributions were found to be lognormal. Gas-to-particle conversion was observed with increasing distance from the exhaust exit plane. X X X X X Lobo, Prem et al. (2008). Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield (UNA-UNA) Study. PARTNER Report No. PARTNER COE-2008-002. Describes the engine emissions measurements conducted at Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (previously known as UNA-UNA study). Various sensitivities and trends are discussed (e.g., emissions by engine type and power setting). Mainly focused on better understanding emissions by engine type. X X X X

(continued on next page) London Assembly (2012) “Plane Speaking, Air and Noise Pollution around a Growing Heathrow Airport,” London Assembly Environment Committee. Published by Greater London Authority, City Hall, London, U.K. The Committee comprises a small number of cross-party MPs. The report doesn't contain any new work but does provide a commentary on the air quality impacts of Heathrow Airport and makes recommendations. The report isn't concerned with the debate about a third runway but about Heathrow as it grows from a current passenger throughput of 69 million per year to a potential 90–95 million once the current terminal developments are completed. This is without a new runway and any significant increase in ATMs, as Heathrow is near its movement capacity limit, but is a result of larger aircraft. Recommendations include Heathrow Airport Limited increasing the number of greener, quieter aircraft; ensuring on- site vehicles meet the latest EU emissions standards; and reducing airport-related road traffic. The report highlights a range of issues that will need to be tackled to improve surface access to the airport and to encourage passengers and employees to use public transport more for their journeys to and from the airport. X X London City Airport (2012) “Air Quality Action Plan 2012–2015,” London City Airport, City Aviation House, Royal Docks, London, U.K. This action plan sets out 19 specific mitigation measures to reduce airport- related air quality emissions. The document also sets out the broader context to these measures and includes information on the Airport's air quality measurement program. The number of odor complaints since 2000 is reported. X X London Gatwick Airport (2006) “Gatwick Emission Inventory 2002/3 (Public Access Version),” London Gatwick Airport, 5th Floor, Destination Place, South Terminal, Gatwick Airport, West Sussex, RH6 0NP, U.K. An airport emissions inventory for Gatwick Airport. X X X X X MA (2012) “Air Quality Community Information Sheet,” Manchester Airport plc, Manchester, U.K. Several page, non-technical description of the air quality issue surrounding Manchester Airport. Monitored concentrations of NO2 are presented for the last 15 years. Background information on odors and fuel jettisoning is also given. X X X X X Maurice, L. and David S. Lee (2007). Assessing Current Scientific Knowledge, Uncertainties, and Gaps in Quantifying Climate Change, Noise, and Air Quality Aviation Impacts. Final Report of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Committee on Aviation and Environmental Protection (CAEP) Workshop. Montreal, Canada. Oct 29–Nov 2. Provides an overview of the views on emissions/air quality (as well as other environmental concerns) by members of ICAO/CAEP—thus providing an overall international view. The paper acknowledges weaknesses in current understanding of PM and HAPs species emissions. Also, emissions inventories by themselves may satisfy certain regulatory requirements, but they need to be tied to dispersion modeling to provide a direct link to health assessments. X X X X X X

Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (2006) “De luchtkwaliteit rond Schiphol. MNP-bevindingen over het onderzoek naar de uitstoot van het vliegverkeer en de luchtkwaliteit rond Schiphol door ADECS Airinfra BV in het kader van de Evaluatie Schipholbeleid,” Report No. 500133001/2006, Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau, PB 303, 3720 AH Bilthoven, Netherlands. Air quality around Schiphol. MNP’s interpretation of the investigation by ADECS Airinfra BV of the emissions of air transport and of air quality around Schiphol within the framework of policy evaluation for Schiphol). This document criticizes ADS (2005). It reckons it is too optimistic. The document includes some interesting sensitivity analyses of NO2 concentrations on the effective emissions height (raising this from 5 m to 15 m halves the modeled concentrations) and on the division between modes (~55% comes from take-off and most of the rest from idling). It complains that the ADS report does not list these sensitive parameters. X X X X X X X X X McGulley, Frick and Gilman, Inc. 1995. Final Report: Air Quality Survey, Seattle- Tacoma International Airport. Port of Seattle, WA. An air quality measurement study was conducted in the vicinity of Seattle- Tacoma International (Sea-Tac) Airport. Ambient levels of various toxic organic compounds and carbon monoxide were measured. Comparisons to other urban areas were made and the resulting concentrations were found not to be similar. Mitchell, Kenneth L. (2006). “Airports and Air Toxics,” Airport Noise & Air Quality Symposium. University of California, Berkeley. Palm Springs, CA. An overview presentation that provides coverage of airport contributions to air quality, especially focusing on PM and HAPs. Indicates the need for better measured data and better quantification methods/models. X X X X MNPCA, “Update on Air Monitoring Near the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport,” Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, May 2006. Starting in 2005, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) added air toxic and fine particulate air monitoring sites in residential neighborhoods near the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP). This document reports the MPCA analysis of the first six months of air toxics and fine particulate data at the sites. The resulting air toxics concentrations were compared to other Twin Cities’ monitoring locations as well as inhalation health benchmarks provided by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Minnesota Department of Health. The results of four locations are reported for PM2.5, BC, and five HAPs. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Municipality of Anchorage, Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport Air Toxics Monitoring Study, Environmental Services Division, Municipality of Anchorage, Apr 2003. Ten monitoring stations were used to characterize the HAPs around the airport. While 34 compounds were attempted to be measured, only 8 were above reporting limits and included (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m,p- xylene, o-xylene, CO, ethane, and ethyne). Results and methodology is included in the report. X X X X X X X X X X

(continued on next page) NASA (2006) “Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX).” This study ran an aircraft engine at a range of power settings and with different sulphur content fuels. Measurements were taken of non- volatile and volatile particles at varying distances from the engine exhaust. Gaseous pollutants, NOx and NO2 and hydrocarbons also were measured. The purpose of the measurements was to inform future emissions indices. X X X NETCEN (2006) “Air Quality Modelling for Gatwick Airport 2002/03,” National Environmental Technology Centre, AEA, Harwell, U.K. A dispersion modeling study carried out for using a previously produced emissions inventory for Gatwick Airport. Contour maps are presented for NO2 and also for total emissions and airport only emissions for NOx and PM10. X X X X X Onasch, T.B., J.T. Jayne, S. Herndon, D.R. Worsnop, R.C. Miake-Lye, I.P. Mortimer, and B.E. Anderson (2009). Chemical Properties of Aircraft Engine Particulate Exhaust Emissions. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 25(5): 1121–37. The chemical properties of the particulate exhaust emissions from an in-use commercial aircraft engine were measured and characterized in April 2004, as part of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) using a suite of instruments. The test engine was a CFM56-2-C1 and was sampled at 11 different throttle settings, using 3 fuel compositions, and at 3 sample distances. The differences in particulate matter emission number, size, mass, and chemical composition are reported. Owen B. and Paling C. (2005) “Air Quality Assessment 2004 and 2019 Bristol International Airport.” Report prepared by Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, U.K. This study looks at the local air quality impacts of operations at Bristol International Airport. The emissions of key pollutants to the air have been estimated and then the dispersion of these pollutants has been plotted to determine the resultant ground level pollutant concentrations. Emission estimates (inventories) for Bristol International Airport have been constructed for the years 2004 and 2019. This report presents the methods and data sources used and the results of the air quality impacts. Aircraft represent the single largest source of emissions of NOx, CO, HCs and PM10 at the airport. There were no major sources of SO2 at the airport, with emissions from aircraft being low. All estimated air pollution concentrations indicate that there are no expected exceedences of air quality standards within the local airport area for 2004 for nitrogen dioxide or particulate matter. However, for 2019 exceedences of the annual average nitrogen dioxide standard are predicted for a small area within the airport boundary. Levels of nitrogen dioxide are predicted to be well below the annual average standard outside the airport perimeter and at any residential properties. X X X X X X

Passchier, W., Knottnerus, A., Albering, H., and Walda, I. Public Health Impact of Large Airports. Reviews on Environmental Health, 2000, Vol 15, No. 1-2, pp 83–96, Health Council of the Netherlands. This study is a discussion of the probable influences on public health in the vicinity of airports. There are more factors to consider in addition to air pollution from aircraft, “An airport can operate only with an infrastructure of roads and railways, and with related business for freight handling lodging, catering, and so on, nearby.” The dominant environmental factors are air pollution, noise, accidents, soil and water pollution, and the appearance of the environment. Thus, the environmental factors in an airport operations system affect the population cumulatively. X X X Penn, S.L., S. Arunachalam, and J.I. Levy, 2012. “The Effects of Airport Activity on Black Carbon Concentrations Near Runways at Los Angeles International Airport.” Presented at the 22nd Annual Meeting of Exposure Science, Seattle, WA, Oct 28–Nov 1, 2012. Black carbon (BC) monitors were used to determine BC concentrations at various locations around a runway. The monitored data were regressed based on location and aircraft activities. Significant correlation with aircraft departures were found. X X X X X Peters D., Grainger D., and Smith A. (2009) “Local Air Quality Characterising Near Surface Aircraft PM.” Authors from University of Oxford, published by OMEGA project, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, U.K. The authors describe how they have created "SPARCLE," an instrument suitable for deployment in an airport environment that is capable of discriminating different types of particulate matter pollution—a "fingerprint." They show how this new instrument has been tested and shown to have the ability to distinguish between steel brake particles and tire particles, over the PM2.5 and PM10 range. They state that such a tool will be very useful for air quality assessments at airports. X X X Petzold A., Hotes A., and Radig A. (2008) “Measurement of Soot Particles with State-of-the-Art Methods as a Basis for a New Certification Approach,” Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre Oberpfaffenhofen 82234 Wessling, Germany and AVISTRA GmbH Reinhardtstr. 58 10117 Berlin, Germany. The authors have carried out a literature review and desk-based study to investigate the concept of a limit value for aircraft engines at certification, along the lines of those for other pollutants. They draw a number of conclusions about how this may be done, such as, limit value would have to be related to the rated thrust in order to match the concept of limiting values for gaseous emissions from aircraft engines, agreement is required whether any limiting value has to take fuel composition (sulphur content, bio fuels) into account since fuel properties may influence engine emission properties, and whether the limit value applies to mass and/or number of particles. Combining the effects of fuel efficiency improvement and increase in air traffic numbers, any limiting value for particulate matter emissions has to aim at a reduction of particle emissions growth to less than 65% over the next 20 years; otherwise this limiting value will be without impact. X X X X

(continued on next page) Public Health Impact of Large Airports—Report. Health Council of the Netherlands: Committee on the Health Impact of Large Airports. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands (1999) 1999/14E. ISBN:90-5549-279-5. A comprehensive report (1999) written in response to a request from the Dutch Government's Minister of Health, Minister of Transport, and Minister of the Environment. The report focuses directly on the public health impact of local changes in environmental factors including quality of life close to airports at distances up to 10 km and includes activities of businesses attracted to the airport region. The health impact of several factors are considered: (1) air pollution, (2) noise, (3) accidents, (4) soil and water pollution at the airport, (5) importation of infectious diseases, (6) appearance of the environment, (7) occupational health risks at the airport. The conclusion is that airport operations have the potential to cause clinically observable disease in the long-term although definitive assessments are lacking. The committee recommends that airport developments should be assessed on their public health consequences in an integrated manner. Over 280 references are cited. The report recognizes that contributions from aircraft, airport operations, and road traffic are intricately mixed, and air pollutant levels around large airports are similar to those in urbanized areas and are to a large extent determined by road traffic emissions. At such concentrations public health effects are to be expected. Also, there is evidence that episodes of air pollution can cause short-term effects like an increased mortality rate and an increased frequency of hospital admissions due to acute respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity. Although it is plausible that air pollutants contribute in a modest way to cancer incidence, there is no evidence for specific contributions from local sources in an airport operations system. Sufficient evidence exists for odor-induced annoyance. The study summarizes the health effects and assesses how good the evidence is on a three-point scale. X X Pope III C.A. and Dockery D.W. (2006) “Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect,” J Air & Waste Manage Assoc 56, 709–742. This paper is a review that focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate the understanding about the effects of PM on human health. The review is long and contains a substantial amount of information on particulate matter and public health. X X X

Puente-Lelievre (2009) “La Qualité de l’air en Milieu Aéroportuaire: étude sur l’aéroport Paris-Charles-De- Gaulle,” Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Paris XII. Air quality in an airport environment: study of Paris-CDG airport. This is a modeling and monitoring study of NOx, O3 and hydrocarbons around Paris- CDG airport. The model was used to simulate the regional impact of the airport on a summer O3 event and a winter NO2 event: it struggled with the latter since the spatial resolution was rather coarse and the winds were light. At a downwind site, the airport perhaps contributes 15–20 g m-3 to short-term NOx concentrations. Measured airside concentrations of HCs showed concentrations of saturated HCs at 5–7 g m-3 and of aromatics at 10–15 g m-3. This is similar to what is seen as urban background. Being a doctoral thesis, the document includes an extensive bibliography of air quality around airports, but associated with measuring and modeling air quality, rather than with health effects. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Ratliff, Gayle, et al. (2009) “Aircraft Impacts on Local and Regional Air Quality in the United States,” PARTNER Project 15, final report. Oct. A system-level analysis of U.S. airports was conducted using the top 325 airports for nonattainment areas. Emissions from non-aviation sources were obtained from the EPA's National Emissions Inventory, and CMAQ was used for the dispersion modeling work. The overall results generally showed less than 1% concentration. X X X X X X X X RIDEM, “Characterization of Ambient Air Toxics in Neighborhoods Abutting T.F. Green Airport and Comparison Sites: Final Report,” Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Apr 2008. This report describes sampling methods and results performed between April 2005 and August 2006 by RIDEM. HAPs, associated with aircraft operations were monitored and concentrations reported. Toxics reported to be elevated in local neighborhoods were benzene, 1,3- butadiene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel particulate and fine particles (PM2.5). Due to methodological limitations, PAHs, acrolein and naphthalene were not measured in this study. Thirty different volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with mobile and stationary sources were successfully monitored. X X X X X X X X SAL (2010) “Creating an Atmosphere for Change, Stansted Air Quality Strategy 2010–2015,” Stansted Airport Limited, Essex, U.K. An air quality strategy document for London Stansted Airport for the period 2010–2015. It is typical of such documents and sets out the context for the strategy—about Stansted Airport and its development, the regulatory context, existing air quality measurements data and the results of an emissions inventory and dispersion modeling exercise. It then goes on to describe the broader strategy before giving the specific actions and timescales. Performance indicators are also presented. X X X

(continued on next page) SCAQMD, “General Aviation Airport Air Monitoring Study: Follow-Up Monitoring Campaign at the Santa Monica Airport, Final Report,” South Coast Air Quality Management District, Apr 2011. Between April 2006 and March 2007, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) conducted a field study at the Santa Monica Municipal Airport (SMO) to characterize the impact of aircraft emissions and airport activities on the surrounding communities. Ambient concentrations of total suspended particulate lead (from the leaded fuel used in piston-driven aircraft) and ultrafine particles (UFP) were measured. This report took advantage of a temporary suspension of all airport activities due to construction and measured the ambient concentrations of combustion-related pollutants including UFP, black carbon (BC) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) before, during, and after curtailment of aircraft activities. Methods and results are presented. X X X X X X X X X X Schlenker W., Walker W.R. “Airports, Air Pollution, and Contemporaneous Health,” NBER Working Papers Series, Working Paper 17684 http://www.nber.org/papers/w 17684, Dec 2011. An econometric investigation that attempts to exploit the fact that network delays originating from large airports on the East Coast can increase runway congestion in California, with corresponding influence on local air pollution, without significant confounding from other local events. x x x x Schurmann G., Schafer K., Jahn C., Hoffmann H., Bauerfeind M., Fleuti E., and Rappengluck B. (2007) “The Impact of NOx, CO, and VOC Emissions on the Air Quality of Zurich Airport,” Atmos. Environ 41, 103–118, 2007. Measurements of NO, NO2, CO, and CO2 were conducted with open path devices at Zurich Airport, Switzerland, to determine real in-use emission indices of aircraft during idling. Additionally, air samples were taken to analyze the mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Temporal variations of VOC mixing ratios on the airport were investigated, while other air samples were taken in the plume of an aircraft during engine ignition. A number of conclusions were drawn from the study. The authors also noted differences from emission indices published in the emission database of the International Civil Aviation Organization with their measurements. X X X X X Sequeira C.J. (2008). “Relationships between Emissions-Related Aviation Regulations and Human Health.” Presented at the 10th PARTNER Advisory Board Meeting. Ottawa, CA. Mar 15. A study was conducted using 325 U.S. airports to determine potential stringency strategies to reduce health impacts. Emissions were modeled using EDMS and obtained from the EPA's NEI. Dispersion modeling was accomplished using CMAQ. Health cost-benefits were valued using BenMap. Reductions in NOx emissions and fuel sulfur would help to reduce U.S.-wide premature mortality by 40%. X X X X X

Sivertsen B (2003) “Air Pollution Impact Assessment for Sharm El-Sheikh Airport,” report prepared by the Engineering Consultants Group (ECG) for the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Egypt and Norwegian Institute for Air Research. Part of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) related to air pollution emitted from the different sources at the proposed Sharm El- Sheikh International Airport. Based on measurements and modeling of ground- level concentrations due to emissions from road traffic and aircraft operations. The study found that concentrations are normally well below the air quality limit values given in Law No. 4 of Egypt and by the World Health Organization guideline values. The most “critical” case is the maximum 1- hour average NO2 concentration in the unloading and parking zone at the terminal building. The maximum concentration may reach 75% of the air quality limit for Egypt, and is higher than the WHO guideline. The main air pollution problem in the background atmosphere is suspended particles originating mainly from natural wind- blown dust. X X X X X X X Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) (2009). “Procedures for the Calculation of Aircraft Emissions.” SAE AIR 5715. July. Provides guidance on modeling aircraft emissions and performance. Emissions models include the ICAO standard method, BFFM2, P3T3, the DLR Method, FOA, etc. Some uncertainty assessments showing potential errors and comparisons of the methods are presented. X X X X X X South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) (2010). General Aviation Airport Air Monitoring Study, Final Report. USEPA. Aug. Measurement study to characterize concentration levels around VNY and SMO. These are very busy GA airports with Van Nuys having about 450,000 annual LTOs. The document describes the monitoring and provides key findings of concentrations of lead, VOCs, PM, and CO. Lead concentrations were 2 to 9 times higher than background, but generally lower than the 150 ng/m3 standard. Lead build-up on nearby soil is a concern. PM2.5, EC, and OC were similar or below those of background. UFP levels were significantly higher than background (600 times). CO from airport was not shown to be significant. HAPs were higher in the winter than in the summer. X X X X X X

(continued on next page) Stettler M.E.J, Eastham S., Barrett S.R.H. (2011) “Air Quality and Public Health Impacts of U.K. Airports. Part I: Emissions,” Atmos. Environ. 45, 5415–5424. 2011 This study is an emissions inventory of U.K. airports (95% of U.K. passengers) for the local air quality pollutants (NO2, CO, SO2, HC, PM2.5) and CO2 for the year 2005. The authors have calculated emissions from three sources at each airport: (1) aircraft landing and takeoff (LTO) operations, (2) APUs, and (3) airside support equipment (or GSE). Uncertainties are quantified, based on an analysis of data from aircraft emissions measurement campaigns and analyses of aircraft operations. The authors have reviewed previous methodologies and emissions measurement studies to inform their calculations, e.g., the First-Order Approximation (FOA3) method, currently the standard approach used to estimate particulate matter emissions from aircraft, was found to be over an order of magnitude different compared to measurements. Modified methods to approximate organic carbon emissions, arising from incomplete combustion and lubrication oil, and black carbon are used. The study makes assumptions on times in mode for each airfield. The calculated emissions from this study are used as the basis for Part II of this work (Yim et al., 2013). X X X X X X X X Steve H.L. Yim, S.H.L.; Barrett, S.R.H., “Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom,” Environ Sci Tech 46, 4291 4296. 2012. This study quantifies the number of early deaths per year in the U.K. from PM2.5 exposure from combustion emissions. Included within combustion emissions is aviation within a category of “other transport.” The same research team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has completed two other studies that look specifically at U.K. aviation emissions (Stettler 2011 and Yim 2013). X X X SUVA (2011) “Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz, 2011,” Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt. “Limit Values at the Workplace,” 2011, Swiss Accident Insurance Institute. This does what it says on the tin, being a list of short-term and long-term occupational exposure limits for a wide range of chemicals. In format, it is very similar to the equivalent British EH40. Besides the quantitative limit values, the document includes useful explanatory material regarding aspects of toxicity and other hazards to health. X X X X X X Tarrasón L., Jonson J.E., Berntsen T.K., Rypdal K. Study on Air Quality Impacts of Non-LTO Emissions from Aviation, final report to the European Commission under contract B4- 3040/2002/343093/MAR/C1. 2004. Literature review and modeling study to determine the contribution of LTO emissions vs. cruise emissions to air quality in Europe. x x x x x x x

Tesseraux I. (2004) “Risk factors of Jet Fuel Combustion Products.” Toxicology Letters, 149, 295–300. A publication looking at the speciation of HC emissions in jet engine exhausts and comparing them with what is typically seen in diesel engine emissions. Nothing distinctive was found in the jet engine exhausts. By implication, there was “no air pollution–derived health risk indicator for urban emissions other than the ones present in urban air.” Note, however, that the author makes no discussion of the physical state of the HC: there is nothing regarding particulate matter. X X X Tesseraux I. (2006) Ausbau Flughafen Frankfurt Main. “Unterlagen zum Planfeststellungsverfahren. Gutachten G14: Humantoxikologie. Karlsruhe,” 17.12.2006. “Extension to Frankfurt Airport. Basis for the Planning Process, Deliverable G14: Human toxicology.” A highly relevant document, containing an excellent review and bibliography. The author recognizes (p 38) that morbidity and mortality from air pollution are especially dominated by ultrafine particulate matter. There may also be synergistic effects, e.g., between VOCs and NO2 or fine particles—or even noise! The author reviews limit values and estimated quantitative health impacts published by WHO, the EU and the Bundesrepublik. It is noted (p 52) that NO2 concentrations in the neighborhood of the airport exceed the EU limit value of 40 g m-3, particularly at heavily trafficked locations. Dispersion calculations for the current (2005) situation and for a base case and a planning case in 2020 are made for a range of toxicologically relevant pollutants. The toxicological analysis then amounts to comparing calculated concentrations with limit values and guide values. Calculated concentrations for 2005 agree well with the monitored values (p 67). Limits are exceeded for some pollutants (NO2, soot, BaP), but there are generally only small differences between the three modeled cases. There seems to be no evidence that emissions specifically from an airport are any more toxic than those in a conventional urban environment. Emission estimates in other deliverables are referenced. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

(continued on next page) Tesseraux, I. “Risk Factors of Jet Fuel Combustion Products,” Toxicology Letters, 2004. 149: pp 295–300. Proceedings of EUROTOX 2003. Science for Safety. Authors found aircraft emissions vary with engine type, engine load, and fuel. Among jet aircrafts there are differences between civil and military jet engines and their fuels. Combustion of jet fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx, particles, and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted hydrocarbons (HCs), no compound (indicator) characteristic for jet engines could be detected so far. Jet engines do not seem to be a source of halogenated compounds or heavy metals. They contain, however, various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. A comparison between organic compounds in the emissions of jet engines and diesel vehicle engines revealed no major differences in the composition. Risk factors of jet engine fuel exhaust can only be named in the context of exposure data. Using available monitoring data, the possibilities and limitations for a risk assessment approach for the population living around large airports are presented. The analysis of such data shows that there is an impact on the air quality of the adjacent communities, but this impact does not result in levels higher than those in a typical urban environment. X X X X X X The Danish Ecocouncil (2012) “Air Pollution in Airports. Ultrafine Particles, Solutions, and Successful Cooperation,” the Danish Ecocouncil, Copenhagen, Denmark. This study was carried out by a number of partner organizations at Copenhagen Airport. Pollutant measurements were made and a comparison was made to occupational exposure standards as set out in the Danish “Health and Safety at Work Act.” The authors conclude employee exposure to ultrafine exhaust particles from aircraft and diesel engines in airports is an urgent and overlooked work-related challenge potentially affecting the health of millions of people. The report makes a number of recommendations to be adopted by ICAO and another set of recommendations for every airport. X X X X Tetra Tech, Inc. (2013). LAX Air Quality and Source Apportionment Study, Volume 1. Executive Summary. Final Report. June 18. One of the largest and most comprehensive airport measurement (including some modeling) studies was conducted to assess airport contributions of air pollutants to local air quality. The study showed that while most criteria gas concentrations around the airport were below the NAAQS, PM2.5 levels were close to the NAAQS with less than 20% contributed by the airport. The smaller- sized ultrafine particulate (UFP) matter were found to originate from jet exhaust while the larger UFP were found to be from motor vehicles. Further studies on UFP health effects are necessary. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Thiemens, M.H., Isotopic Measurement and Analysis Approach to Uniquely Relate Aircraft Emissions to Changes in Ambient Air Quality, Final Report, PARTNER-COE, Project 33, Nov 2010. (need final pub details) The isotopic measurement approach was used during the AAFEX (Alternative Aviation Fuels Emissions Experiment) campaign to measure the isotopic fractionation in secondary sulfate and nitrate particulate matter (PM) formed due to gaseous precursors released during aircraft engine combustion. This PM isotopic fractionation was measured as a function of distance and fuel type. The isotopic enrichments in these aircraft- related particulate matter were found to be highly distinctive. This unique isotopic fingerprint in aircraft-related PM is caused by a combination of chemical processes during combustion under high temperature and pressures. Uniqueness of this fingerprint in aircraft-related PM makes the isotopic a possible approach in linking aircraft emissions to airport community-scale variability in air quality. X X X X X X Thiemens M.H. (2011) Use of Isotopic Measurement and Analysis Approach to Uniquely Relate Aircraft Emissions to Changes in Ambient Air Quality. PARTNER Project 33 Final Report. June. The study was conducted based on the premise that isotopes of sulfate particles from aircraft could be uniquely identified apart from particles from other sources. The study found that the relatively high humidity in the Los Angeles area may have diluted the ability to identify the isotopes. Also, the lower-than-expected concentrations caused issues in properly identifying isotopes. It is recommended that future research in this area be conducted in lower humidity areas. X X X X X Underwood B.Y. (2007) “Revised Emissions Methodology for Heathrow: Base Year 2002.” AEA Energy & Environment, Birchwood Park, Warrington, U.K. 2007. This inventory applies the PSDH recommendations to a previous emissions inventory that was completed to inform the U.K. Future of Air Transport White Paper. X X X X X X Underwood B.Y., Walker C.T., and Peirce M.J. (2010) “Heathrow Airport Air Quality Modelling for 2008/9: Results and Model Evaluation.” AEA Energy & Environment, Birchwood Park, Warrington, U.K. 2007. This report, produced by AEA for BAA, presents the results of an emissions inventory and dispersion modeling study carried out for Heathrow Airport for the year 2008/09. Aviation emissions sources and local major roads are included in the inventory. The authors also report on a model validation exercise. This report is the third of a series, the other two being the emissions inventory study and the dispersion modeling work. NOx, NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 pollutants are included in the study. Contour plots are provided for these pollutants. This study has formed the basis of the Heathrow Air Quality Strategy (HAL 2011). X X X X X X Tunnicliffe W.S., O’Hickey S.P., Fletcher T.J., Miles J.F., Burge P.S., Ayres J.G., “Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in a Population of Airport Workers,” Occup Environ Med 1999; 56:118–123. Cross-sectional epidemiological investigation of workers at Birmingham International Airport (U.K.) to determine if exposure to aircraft fuel or jet exhaust might be associated with respiratory symptoms or abnormal lung function. x x x x

(continued on next page) Unique (2005) “Airport APU Emissions at Zurich Airport,” Unique (Flughafen Zürich AG), P.O. Box, CH-8058 Zurich. The scope of this study is to present a methodology and emission factors for the emissions calculation of auxiliary power units (APU). X X X X X United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1999). Evaluation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Subsonic Commercial Jet Aircraft. USEPA, Air and Radiation. EPA420-R-99-013. April. The EPA conducted an emissions inventory–based study of 10 U.S. airports to determine the contribution of airports to local air quality (no dispersion modeling was conducted). The comparison years were 1990 and 2010. The 1990 aircraft component of the regional mobile emissions ranged from 0.6–3.6% while the 2010 emissions ranged from 1.9–10.4%. X X X X USEPA (2006). Expanding and Understanding the Master List of Compounds Emitted by Mobile Sources—Phase III. Final Report. Assessment and Standards Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality. USEPA. EPA420-R- 06-005. Provides a review of literature summarizing all of the chemical species emitted from mobile sources (including aircraft) in order to expand/update the EPA full report. X X X X X X X USEPA (2006). Master List of Compounds Emitted by Mobile Sources. Assessment and Standards Division, Office of Transportation and Air Quality. USEPA. EPA420-B- 06-002. EPA's master list of compounds emitted from mobile sources including aircraft. X X X X X X X URS Corp. 2003. Select Resource Materials and Annotated Bibliography on the Topic of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Associated with Aircraft, Airports, and Aviation, Federal Aviation Administration. Provides a summary of the knowledge base on airport/aircraft hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions, including a rank order of HAP species. Vanderbilt P. and Lowe J. (2002) “Health Risk Assessment of Air Toxics from Airports: The State of the Science & Strategies for the Future,” presented at the Dreams of Flight Airport Air Quality Symposium, 28 Feb 2002 by Pamela Vanderbilt, CH2M HILL, 2485 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 600, Sacramento, USA and John Lowe, CH2M HILL, 1 South Main Street, Suite 1100, Dayton, USA. PowerPoint presentation that describes an overview of the airport air quality situation. It covers regulatory requirements and current understanding of health impacts at the time—note that this was in 2002, and is dated now. X X X X X X X X X X X X X Vennam L.P., Vizuete W., and Arunachalam S. (2011) “An Assessment of Aviation- Related Hazardous Air Pollutants from a U.S. airport using CMAQ,” in Proceedings of the 10th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2011. CMAQ was used to model contributions of HAPs contributions from T.F. Green Airport. Includes the impacts of seasons and spatial variability. X X X X

Verkehrs-Club der Schweiz (2012) ‘Testparcours für die Messung der Feinstaubbelastung in acht Schweizer Städten'. Test profiles for monitoring fine particulate concentrations in eight Swiss towns. A joint action of the Swiss Travel Club and the Doctors for the Environment Society. The study describes mobile measurements of fine particulate in eight Swiss cities in January and February 2012. Instruments used were (1) a ‘miniDiSC’ developed by Martin Fierz, (http://www.fierz.ch/minidisc/) that monitored both the particle number concentration in the range 103–106 cm- 3 and the mean particle diameter in the range 10–300 nm with a 3 s sampling time; and (2) a Personal Dust Monitor (http://www.conteng.it/Bollettini/Perso nalDustMonit_En.pdf) that measured gravimetric concentrations divided between PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 with a 1 minute sampling time. Though unrepresentative, measured concentrations of fine particulate seem high enough to be of concern. The report includes a modest discussion and bibliography of the health effects of such particulate. X X X X X Wahl C., Rindlisbacher T., and Kapernaum M. (2009) “Online Determination of Aircraft Engine Nanoparticle Emission Indices at Zürich Airport,” ECATS Progress Meeting Schliersee, Sept 2009. PowerPoint presentation made at an ECATS meeting of the results of a study at Zurich Airport, Switzerland. The authors measured particle mass and number per kg fuel burnt (approx. 4% maximum thrust) for 11 aircraft taxi movements (10 different engine variants). They calculated the total particle mass using the ICAO CAEP First Order Approximation (FOA3) method and correlated these results with their measurements. They found a good correlation. X X X X Wayson R.L., Fleming G.G., and Kim B., Final Report: The Use of LIDAR to Characterize Aircraft Initial Plume Characteristics, FAA- AEE-04-01, DTS-34-FA34T- LR3, Federal Aviation Administration, Feb 2004. LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) equipment was chosen as the measurement technique to characterize aircraft plumes operating at LAX airport. By scanning with the LIDAR in a defined direction over a period of time with many LIDAR pulses, the distribution of particles over the region of the sweep (e.g., a vertical plane or plume cross section) can be determined and the plume characterized. Cross- sections of the plume were measured at a variety of distances behind the aircraft during takeoff roll. This final study report is based on an analysis of 4,138 LIDAR sweeps, or cross sections, collected at LAX. Methodology and results are included in the report. This report represents the first use of this technique for this source in the United States. X X X X X X

(continued on next page) Wayson, R.L., G.G. Fleming, G. Noel, J. MacDonald, W.L. Eberhard, B. McCarty, R. Marchbanks, S. Sandberg, J. George, and R. Iovinelli, LIDAR Measurement of Exhaust Plume Characteristics from Commercial Jet Turbine Aircraft at the Denver International Airport, FAA- AEE-08-02, DOT-VNTSC- FAA-08-05, Federal Aviation Administration, Apr 2008. This is the third in a series of measurements on this topic with the first two conducted at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Atlanta’s Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL). This study was done at the Denver International Airport (DEN). A major goal in all three studies has been to measure the initial plume characteristics of jet exhaust in support of obtaining increased accuracy in air quality dispersion modeling efforts. All three studies have resulted in cross sections of the plume that can be quantified and visualized giving initial plume characteristics including plume rise, horizontal plume standard deviation, and vertical plume standard deviation. In addition, some local sampling was conducted on the airfield. X X X X X X Wayson, R., et al. (2009). “Methodology to Estimate Particulate Matter Emissions from Certified Commercial Aircraft Engines.” Air & Waste Management Associated (A&WMA) 59:91– 100, Jan. Presents the First Order Approximation (FOA) used to derive PM EIs from Smoke Numbers, taking into account the sulfate and volatile (fuel organics). X X Webb S., et al. (2008). ACRP Report 6: Research Needs Associated with Particulate Emissions at Airports. Transportation Research Board (TRB). Provides primer on aircraft particle emissions including composition. Recognizes lack of PM data and provides knowledge gaps. "The present understanding of particle properties is insufficient to evaluate the health and environmental effects from exposure to various types and sizes of PM." Aircraft PM emissions are primarily in the ultrafine range. X X Westerdahl D., Fruin S.A., Fine P.L., Sioutas C., “The Los Angeles International Airport as a Source of Ultrafine Particles and Other Pollutants to Nearby Communities,” Atmos Environ 42 (2008) 3143–3155. Air monitoring was performed in the vicinity of LAX during the spring of 2003, to determine the spatial extent of influence of airport emissions on downwind residential populations. x x x x x x x x Whitefield, P. et al (2008) ACRP Report 9: Summarizing and Interpreting Aircraft Gaseous and Particulate Emissions Data. Transportation Research Board (TRB). Provides primer on better understanding aircraft PM emissions and their characteristics. Reviews and describes PM data from various measurement campaigns including APEX1, JETS-APEX2, Delta/Atlanta, and APEX3. X X X

WHO (2003) “Health Aspects of Air Pollution with Particulate Matter, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide,” Report on a WHO Working Group, Bonn, Germany, 13–15 Jan 2003. This report presents the findings of a review undertaken by a World Health Organization working group. The review looks at scientific evidence on the adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) since the second edition of WHO’s Air Quality Guidelines (AQG) for Europe in 1996. The working group recommends the use of fine particulate matter, (PM2.5), as the indicator for health effects induced by particulate pollution such as increased risk of mortality in Europe, to supplement the commonly used PM10. It also acknowledged the evidence that ozone produces short-term effects on mortality and respiratory morbidity, even at the low ozone concentrations experienced in many cities in Europe. Based on these findings, the group recommended that WHO should update exposure-response relationships for the most severe health outcomes induced by particulate matter and ozone presented by Air Quality Guidelines. The group also concluded that an update of the current WHO AQG for nitrogen dioxide was not warranted. X X X X X WHO (2006) “Air quality guidelines. Global update 2005. Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide.” World Health Organization for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. WHO produced air quality guidelines for Europe in 1987 and 1997. This report is an update produced in 2005 for four pollutants. Guidelines for other pollutants are as described in the 2nd edition (1997). This report is a review of the scientific literature and a consideration of its implications. Revised guidelines are set out. X X X X X WHO (2006) “Health Risks of Particulate Matter from Long- Range Transboundary Air Pollution,” World Health Organization for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark. Particulate matter is a type of air pollution that is generated by a variety of human activities, can travel long distances in the atmosphere, and causes a wide range of diseases and a significant reduction of life expectancy in most of the population of Europe. This report summarizes the evidence on transboundary PM pollution. It highlights its effects, as well as the sources of particulate matter, its transport in the atmosphere, measured and modeled levels of pollution in ambient air, and population exposure. It shows that long-range transport of particulate matter contributes significantly to exposure and to health effects. The authors conclude that international action must accompany local and national efforts to cut PM emissions. X X X X

(continued on next page) Wood E.C., Herndon S.C., Timko M.T., Yelvington P.E., and Miake-Lye R.C. (2008) “Speciation and Chemical Evolution of Nitrogen Oxides in Aircraft Exhaust Near Airports,” Environ Sci Technol, 42, 1884–1891. This study utilizes a chemical kinetics combustion model to better understand the previously observed measurements of the mix of NO and NO2 from aircraft engine exhausts. Experimental evidence is presented of rapid conversion of NO to NO2 in the exhaust plume from engines at low thrust. The rapid conversion and the high NO2/NOx emission ratios observed are unrelated to ozone chemistry. NO2 emissions from a CFM56-3B1 engine account for approximately 25% of the NOx emitted below 3000 feet (916 m) and 50% of NOx emitted below 500 feet (153 m) during a standard ICAO landing and takeoff cycle. Nitrous acid (HONO) accounts for 0.5% to 7% of NOy emissions from aircraft exhaust depending on thrust and engine type. Implications for photochemistry near airports resulting from aircraft emissions are discussed. X X X X Wood E., et al. (2008) ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis. Transportation Research Board (TRB). Provides a prioritization of HAPs species based on toxicity and emission rates. Discusses sources and potential risks, but does not significantly include discussion of atmospheric concentrations. X X X X X Woody, et al. (2011) “An Enhanced Sub-Grid Scale Approach to Characterize Air Quality Impacts of Aircraft Emissions at the Hartsfield- Jackson Atlanta International Airport,” 10th Annual CMAS User's Conference, Chapel Hill, NC. The Puff-in-Grid (PinG) capability within AMSTERDAM/CMAQ was used to model PM concentrations and compared to the non PinG approach. The puff approach showed noticeably higher airport contributions from ATL airport. X X X X Woody M., Arunachalam S., West J.J., and Shankar U. (2010) “A Comparison of CMAQ Predicted Contributions to PM2.5 from Aircraft Emissions to CMAQ Results Post-Processed Using the Speciated Modeled Attainment Test,” in Proceedings of the 9th Annual Models-3 CMAS Users Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, Oct 2010. The EPA's SMAT is used with CMAQ to determine the potential for use of SMAT. The results indicate that the use of SMAT produces results similar to those from CMAQ alone and are not unexpected. X X X Woody, M. (2010) “The Impacts of Aviation Emissions on Current and Future Particulate Matter: The Effects of the Speciated Model Attainment Test on the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model Results,” paper submitted to the PARTNER Joseph A. Hartman Student Paper Competition, Feb 7. Aviation contributions to U.S. air quality were modeled for 2005 (0.037 ug/m3) and 2025 (0.0127 ug/m3). The CMAQ results were post-processed through SMAT. "The combination of higher amounts of aircraft emissions and lower background emissions in the future lead to the increased absolute contributions of PM2.5 from aircraft." X X X X

Woody M. (2012) “Aircraft Emissions' Contributions to Organic Aerosols in a Regional Air Quality Model using the Volatility Basis Set,” paper submitted to the PARTNER Joseph A. Hartman Student Paper Competition, Jan 31. The volatility basis set (VBS) was used within CMAQ to predict organic aerosol concentration contributions from aircraft emissions. The starting aircraft emissions were predicted using the FOA3 method. The CMAQ-VBS modeling work appeared to produce better predictions of PM2.5 and total carbon. X X X X Yim S.H.L., Stettler M.E.J., and Barrett S.R.H. (2013) “Air Quality and Public Health Impacts of U.K. Airports, Part II: Impacts and Policy Assessment,” Atmos Environ 67, 184–192, 2013 Using the emission estimates made in Part I of this study (Stettler et al. 2011), the authors assess current (2005) and future (2030) aviation impacts on U.K. air quality and public health using a multi-scale air quality modeling approach under three scenarios: (1) no capacity increase; (2) unconstrained growth with a third runway at Heathrow Airport; and (3) unconstrained growth with Heathrow replaced by a new Thames Estuary hub airport. Options for mitigating both present-day and future impacts: (1) desulphurizing jet fuel; (2) electrifying GSE; (3) widespread use of single engine taxiing; and (4) use of fixed ground electrical power so as to avoid use of aircraft APUs. LTO, APU, and GSE emissions are spatially apportioned and industry-derived approach and climb-out angles are used. Regional and local-scale dispersion models are used to derive PM2.5 concentrations. The two model outputs are combined. A concentration- response function is then applied to estimate the increase in early deaths due to aviation-related emissions and the associated PM2.5 exposure, using population data. The authors document how they have projected data for 2030. The authors estimate that 110 early deaths occur in the U.K. each year due to U.K. airport emissions (2005 data). They estimate that up to 65% of the health impacts of U.K. airports could be mitigated by desulphurizing jet fuel, electrifying GSE, avoiding use of APUs and use of single-engine taxiing (caution needs to be applied because of the assumptions made here). Two plans for the expansion of U.K. airport capacity are examined—expansion of London Heathrow and new hub airport in the Thames Estuary. The authors report on the relative changes in attributable early deaths due to PM2.5 exposure of aviation-related emissions. X X X X X X X X

Yu, K.N., Cheung Y.P., Cheung T., and Henry R.C. (2004) “Identifying the Impact of Large Urban Airports on Local Air Quality by Nonparametric Regression,” Atmos Environ 38, 4501– 4507. This study examined hourly concentrations of CO, NOx, SO2, and respirable suspended particles (RSP) taken in the vicinity of Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX). The average concentration as a function of wind speed and direction was estimated by a mathematical technique called nonparametric regression. Their results show that SO2 can be used to identify wind speeds and directions associated with emissions from aircraft. Using this assumption and the nonparametric regression plots for the other pollutants the authors say that you can identify the impact of aircraft on local air quality. At LAX, CO and NOx are dominated by emissions from ground vehicles going in and out of the airport. However, near HKIA, aircraft are an important contributor to CO and RSP. X X X X X Zhu, Y., et al. (2011) “Aircraft Emissions and Local Air Quality Impacts from Takeoff Activities at a Large International Airport,” Atmos Environ 43, 6526–6533. Study involved the use of SMPS next to LAX to count particles by size ranges to develop distributions. The highest counts were correlated with aircraft takeoff events, and highest size counts were around 14 nm. The mean particle size seemed to slightly increase with aircraft weight. Concentrations of UFP were found to be elevated at 600 m downwind as opposed to UFP from freeways that seem to dissipate to background levels after 300 m. X X X

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 135: Understanding Airport Air Quality and Public Health Studies Related to Airports explores the following air quality issues: the literature regarding standards and regulations; issues at airports; health impacts and risks; and the industry’s current understanding of its health impacts.

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