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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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Suggested Citation:"Section 4 - Tools." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22338.
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S E C T I O N 4 Tools

85 T O O L 1 Checklist of Potential Stakeholders How to use: Identify stakeholders pertinent to the region that may collaborate in planning for, responding to or recovering from a disaster or provide support for a major planned event. Identify local contacts for applicable stakeholder groups. Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Federal Stakeholders U.S. DOT FHWA FTA FAA FRA Maritime Administration (MARAD) Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) FMCSA Other U.S. DOT modal administrations as appropriate NTSB Amtrak DHS FEMA TSA U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Customs and Border Protection Science and technology federal research agencies and national laboratories U.S. Secret Service Health and Human Services (HHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Administration on Aging (AoA) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (continued on next page)

86 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Indian Health Service (IHS) EPA Regional offices Department of Commerce (DOC) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration—Catch Sharing Plan DOC-Interstate Commerce— Permitting for utility workers and equipment to traverse non-impacted states Department of Defense (DOD) All branches Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation ADA enforcement National Organizations AASHTO AASHTO Special Committee on Transportation Security and Emergency Management (SCOTSEM) APTA Association of Metropolitan Planning Associations (AMPO) American Planning Association (APA), Transportation Subgroup Business Civic Leadership Center (BCLC) (Affiliate of U.S. Chamber of Commerce focused on business-government partnerships for emergencies) Business Executives for National Security (BENS) National Association of Regional Councils (NARC) Tool 1. (Continued).

Checklist of Potential Stakeholders 87 Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information National Association of Development Organizations (NADO) (rural focus) National Traffic Incident Management Coalition (NTIMC) National Motor Freight Association (NMFA) National Freight Transportation Association (NFTA) Freight forwarders associations (e.g., Air Freight Forwarders Association [AFFA]) American Association of Port Authorities (AAPA) Association of American Railroads (AAR) Shortline Railroad Associations (SRA) American Bus Association (ABA) ATA American Waterways Operators (AWO) Inland Rivers, Ports and Terminals Association (IRPTA) Gulf Intracoastal Canal Association (GICA) Retail Industry Leaders Association (RILA) National Emergency Management Organizations International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM) Disaster training schools and consortia, such as Emergency Management Institute (EMI), National Disaster Preparedness Training Center (NDPTC), and Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) National Emergency Management Association (NEMA) National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) (continued on next page)

88 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information National Emergency Medical Services Association (NEMSA) National Alliance for State Animal and Agricultural Emergency Programs (NASAAEP) National Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) (with local chapters) American Red Cross United Way (211 services) Assisted Living Federation of America (ALFA) Independent Living Centers AARP Faith-Based Organizations (e.g., Salvation Army, Catholic Charities) Nonprofit organizations with a niche focus on emergency management [e.g., Easter Seals (persons with disabilities); Save the Children (caring for children in emergency situations] National Animal Rescue and Sheltering Coalition (NARSC) American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Agencies that provide services to people who have impaired or no vision or impaired or no hearing; who have mobility, sensory, or cognitive limitations; who have limited or no English proficiency; who have low income; and who are very young or very old State Stakeholders State DOTs Transportation agencies (highway, airport, transit, freight, maritime, rail) Territorial equivalents of transportation agencies Tool 1. (Continued).

Checklist of Potential Stakeholders 89 Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Traffic operations offices/intelligent transportation systems (ITS) sections Maintenance offices Planning offices (metropolitan, rural, and statewide) Safety offices Other State Agencies Departments of Environmental Protection (DEPs) Other state, territorial, and Tribal agencies (including statewide authorities) Department of Health Law Enforcement/ Emergency Services State emergency management offices/ Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) partners Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs)/Joint Telecommunications Centers (JTCs) State patrols National Guard State Associations State rail associations (members of the American Association of Railroads]) State Trucking Associa- tions (STA) (part of ATA) Regional Government/ Agencies Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and Regional Planning Commissions(RPCs) Rural Planning Organizations (RPOs) Tribal Planning Organizations (Tribal Transportation Planning Organizations, often part of state DOTs) Traffic Management Centers (TMCs) Fusion Centers (continued on next page)

90 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information EOCs (state, regional, and/or local) Bi-state authorities (e.g., Expressway authorities) Local Government Stakeholders City and County Public works departments Traffic engineering departments Planning, land use, and transport (through MPOs) Transit agencies, both public and private, including school buses Law Enforcement/ Emergency Services Law enforcement (Police and Sheriffs) Fire and rescue Emergency medical services (EMS) Medical examiners/ coroners Hazmat services Dispatch services Public health Utilities Water departments Wastewater departments Gas and electric power companies Communications companies Private Companies Towing and recovery operators Towing and barge owners and operators Heavy equipment owners and operators Hazardous Materials (Hazmat) contractors Motor carrier companies Insurance companies Traffic media Livery (rail and freight) Paratransit service providers Air freight/air charter Tool 1. (Continued).

Checklist of Potential Stakeholders 91 Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Other Local Community Organizations Community Emergency Response Teams (CERTs) Volunteer Organizations Active in Disasters (VOAD) United We Ride (UWR) (mandated collaboration for transportation services between social service providers) (Local) chambers of commerce Citizens’ and neighborhood groups Local livestock associations (e.g., cattlemen’s associations) Local animal rescue/shelter organizations Community-based organizations (CBOs) (e.g., food banks, multi- cultural chambers of commerce, and community centers) Transportation Sector Trucking associations Freight rail operators Technical Societies (e.g., ITS state chapters, state sections; Institute of Transportation Engineers [ITE]) Automobile associations Event/Sports Venues Venues Arenas Stadiums NASCAR and other racing venues Field sports (e.g., soccer, baseball) complexes Golf courses Designated Venues Major League Baseball playoffs, World Series, All Star games National Football League Super Bowl (continued on next page)

92 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Stakeholders Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Professional Golf Association and Ladies Professional Golf Association, major tournaments (e.g., the U.S. Open) NASCAR races Operation Sail Major League Soccer Championships National-level political and other conventions Tool 1. (Continued).

93 T O O L 2 Checklist of Potential Transportation Assets (High Level) How to use: Wherever possible, inventory assets, especially those that will be critical to address in disasters and emergencies, such as the number of local bridges. In most cases, transportation asset management systems will have good records of locations and conditions of transportation assets. Potential Assets Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Aviation Aircraft Air Traffic Control Systems Airports Commercial Military Other Highway Infrastructure and Motor Carrier Bridges Tunnels Roadways Bike Paths Sidewalks Vehicles Automobiles Trucks carrying hazardous materials Other commercial freight vehicles Motorcycles Motor coaches School buses Bicycles Maritime Ports Ferries Waterways Coastline Intermodal Landside Connection Facilities

95 T O O L 3 Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) How to use: In advance, tally the numbers of each resource that could be available for a disaster, emergency, or significant event. Use the comments column to note any concerns about accessing the resource, confirmed availability, additional needs, and so forth. Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Department of Transportation Equipment and Assets Barricades Emergency Management Agency (EMA) units for inter- operable communication Fixed traffic cameras that feed into the emergency operations center (EOC) Installations at selected sites that can be activated as needed Laptops to control fixed camera tilt, zoom, and timing Mobile units to cover dead zones Portable units for network operations Real-time traffic counters (continued on next page)

96 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Tool 3. (Continued). Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Reflector cones Traffic control equipment Variable message signs (VMS) (permanent and portable) Situational Awareness Flow maps for traffic capacity and time GIS maps Lidar Traffic management centers (TMCs) Security cameras for critical infrastructure Intrusion detection systems for critical infrastructure (e.g., bridges, hatches, control centers) Management Communication –Intra-agency, –Interagency and external with the public –Web-based EOC or similar software program –Website and other electronic communication –Satellite phones Evacuation maps (updated annually)

Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) 97 Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Strategies like toll waive policy, reverse lanes, traffic management (e.g., turn prohibitions) Personnel ICS training NIMS compliance First responder standard identification Maintenance personnel Mid-level staff or administrative staff to sit in the EOC National Guard to assist with traffic control, security, crowd control Operations personnel in the EOC People at barricades Person(s) in the field to assess actual conditions and remain in contact with the EOC Traffic officers at key inter- sections Routes Arterial roads Freeways Highways (Interstate, federal, state, and county) Bridges Tunnels Rail lines Waterways (continued on next page)

98 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Tool 3. (Continued). Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Vehicles DOT and police sport-utility vehicles with cameras Heavy equip- ment [e.g., earth movers, backhoes, bulldozers (may be through contractors); debris removal, reconstruction] Mobile command centers Police helicopters with cameras Snow plows, other snow removal equipment Trucks equipped with radios Vehicles equipped with reflector cones and VMS in the field Emergency Management Equipment and Assets NTAS/ Reverse 9-1-1® emergency alert notification Event radio channels to communicate with people in the field Hardwired, secure telephone lines with direct links to regional municipalities

Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) 99 (continued on next page) Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Voice Interoperable Program for Emergency Response (VIPER) on mobile phones on same frequency Situational Awareness Satellite phones Critical infrastructure adjacent to facilities Threats to special events Maps of hurricane and surge zones, flood zones, wildfire areas, etc. Possibly a registry listing populations with access and functional needs, medical or other special needs, or pets or livestock (updated every 2 years) State Medical Asset Resource and Tracking Tool—a Web- based tool to track hospital bed count daily Trigger points and evacuation timeline Management Web EOC, E-team

100 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Tool 3. (Continued). Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Annual county inventory of medical special needs/fragile populations and available ambulances Annual inventory of resources in counties not at risk Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for all agencies participating in the evacuation Gap analysis (between number of vehicles available and number needed for evacuation) List of vehicles in county available for evacuation Private Assets and Logistics Management System (PALMS)—Tool to manage private-sector assets that can be accessed during an evacuation Standard Operating Guidelines (SOG), updated every 2 years Statewide mutual aid agreements for ambulances Web-based EOC

Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) 101 (continued on next page) Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Personnel ICS training NIMS compliance First responder standard ID Contacts in other agencies for real-time information Emergency medical personnel in EOC with decision-making authority State incident management team available to help counties with evacuation Logistics staff to coordinate resources and resource requests Personnel to update registry information Vehicles Ambulances (basic life support, advanced life support, bariatric), private and public Paratransit vehicles Emergency medical vehicles Fire department vehicles School buses (areas without mass transit)

102 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Tool 3. (Continued). Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Metropolitan Planning Organization/ Council of Governments (MPO/COG) Situational Awareness/Data 511 service operated by state to provide updates on state and Interstate highways 211/311 non- emergency numbers Digital warehouse (demographic, land use, traffic data) GIS maps Mapping tool to provide information to evaluate placement of law enforcement and equipment Weather information Hurricane tracking Traffic flow information, including contra flow map Modeling capabilities Evacuation models by zip code, traffic analysis zone/ neighborhood, city, county, or state Hurricane models

Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) 103 (continued on next page) Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Monitoring of blue tooth numbers/other probe data to monitor traffic flow Reliable data from traffic cameras Management Centralized Traffic Operations Center (TOC) Convening leaders of different agencies to discuss evacuation plans Funding coordination Study to help public information officers reach populations with access and functional needs Personnel Staff support to committees for planning and after-action reviews GIS staff Transit Agency and Other Transportation Providers Equipment and Assets Evacuation route signage Generators at transit facilities GPS on buses

104 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Meters in stations to count number of people allowed into stations Parking lots where stalled vehicles can be towed Queue ropes Radios on buses Subway stations (both non- accessible and ADA accessible) Situational Awareness Assessment to identify number of people who need assistance to evacuate from special facilities, their physical characteristics (e.g., ambula- tory, able to transfer from wheelchair to bus seat, needs wheelchair, needs stretcher) and the type of vehicle they need Estimates of time required to load and unload buses, drive to destination, and return Hyper-alert application for mobile phones to alert staff and operators Drivers/operators as real-time view of roadway status, people’s status and needs Tool 3. (Continued).

Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) 105 (continued on next page) Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Joint Rail Control Center Maps for drivers (e.g., to off-site bus storage areas, pickup, transfer, and drop off points) Management 3-1-1 system to coordinate requests for evacuation transportation Communication – Internal, interagency, and external – Employee preparedness letters – Social media – Subscription service – Website Credentials/ identification for all personnel Designated pickup and transfer points Documents to track assets and operators’ hours Off-site vehicle storage Registry (2-1-1, access and functional needs, medical needs, special needs) Shelter for transit facility personnel Signal systems Software that integrates resource requests with reimbursement

106 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Tool 3. (Continued). Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Transportation resources database to track vehicle status Web-based EOC Personnel ICS training NIMS compliance First responder standard ID Dispatcher Drivers Law Enforcement Transit personnel assigned to EOC Transit personnel to track vehicles and number of evacuees (if an evacuation event) Key Infrastructure Arterial roads Freeways Highways- Interstate, federal, state, and county Bridges Tunnels Rail lines Waterways Vehicles Buses – Numbers – Sizes – Capacities (in passenger seats; in wheelchairs) – Lift-equipped – Axle height (for flooding)

Transportation Resources (Detailed Checklist) 107 (continued on next page) Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Buses, continued – Turning radius (for suitability in neighbor- hoods) – Fuel type (e.g., natural gas buses will have limited range outside normal fueling radius) Paratransit vehicles – Number, – Capacity (in wheelchairs) – Capacity (in passenger seats) Rail vehicles – Subway (capacity, constraints, e.g., cannot operate if power is out) – Street cars (capacity, constraints, similar to subways) – Commuter rail (capacity, constraints, similar to subways and street cars) – Dual power? Private-Sector Partners: Business, Utilities, Communications, Owners, and Operators of Critical Infrastructure Equipment and Assets Situational Awareness/ Intelligence

108 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Tool 3. (Continued). Resources Number Emergency/ Disaster Planned Event Does Not Apply Comments/ Contact Information Management Personnel Routes Community- Based/Faith-Based Organizations (CBOs/FBOs) Equipment and Assets Situational Awareness/ Intelligence Management Personnel Routes

109 T O O L 4 Sample Transportation Security and Hazard Mitigation Strategies for Various Project Modes and Types How to use: Review the types of projects and sample strategies. Select those most appropriate for the region, and determine whether they are being applied. Type of Project Sample Strategies (Consider as Appropriate) All Types Planning and coordinating to prepare for natural or human-made disasters at site-specific and regional levels in terms of physical and electronic infrastructure. Conducting vulnerability assessments and, if appropriate, participating in exercises.a Maintaining security during construction or maintenance. Enhancing communication between security planners and other project participants and regional entities. Providing signage and information for the public regarding any specifics of what to do in an emergency.g Road Projects Coordinating with security planners, which can include: preventing incidents by limiting access to sensitive areas, planning for redundancy with extra consideration of how to get emergency vehicles to priority sites, and considering evacuation needs and any role the facility might have in recovery efforts such as for freight movement.a, b Coordinating with ITS and operations planning, including how the facility would be used for the general public in an emergency.g Taking an all-hazards approach to planning for the facility. Bus and Train Projects (including both passenger trains and freight trains) Considering a range of security issues in selecting infrastructure, such as rail cars or buses.d Continuing to maintain security at sensitive locations for passengers and for operations. Further training a wide range of staff to be ready for an incident on a vehicle or a major event, including the front-line staff who would be at stations and on vehicles.c Further coordinating planning of how to help move people and goods in the event of a regional emergency. (continued on next page)

110 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Type of Project Sample Strategies (Consider as Appropriate) Bridges and Tunnels Restricting public access to sensitive areas, such as by means of fencing, setbacks and/or shielding.a, e Monitoring access, such as by protective lighting or cameras.a Designing for access by various emergency personnel. Coordinated site-specific and regional planning if the bridge may be used as a detour or for evacuation. ITS and Operations Safeguarding infrastructure in disasters, which can include planning for backup power for traffic signals. Integrating various ways to protect information in system (also known as cyber-security) and other recommended information technology security practices. Coordinating how transportation and communications infrastructure can be used in various types of emergencies.g This may include overcoming matters of who paid for different elements of the ITS system. Participating in TMCs that can manage the flow of traffic on highways and provide a coordinated response for emergencies statewide, and training for their use in emergency management situations. Participating in ways to communicate transportation information in emergency situations. This can include how 511 traveler information systems can be used to broadcast information and encouraging use of subscriber emergency systems and text alert systems that send alert messages to cell phones and other hand-held devices. Bicycling and Walking Facilities Addressing security as well as crime-prevention techniques, such as lighting and restricting access from paths or other facilities to sensitive infrastructure.e Addressing the role of walking or bicycling facilities in the event of a major evacuation. Research indicates that in a major event, such as that experienced on 9/11, many people may choose to walk even when distances were substantial.f Considering how to communicate closures before people have traveled a long way and/or safe directions to proceed in cases of major events.f, g Considering how to coordinate bicycle and walking facilities with recreational facilities in flood-prone areas to assist with flood mitigation. Site Design and Buildings Applying security elements or Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), including site design and more usual features such as security lighting.e Coordinating with municipal or other security planning for natural or human- made events. Integrating the ability to communicate in an emergency in the design and engineering of sites. This includes how to leave the site (not just the building) and in what directions it may be safe to proceed.f Land Use and Development Planning Including reference to security planning in master plans and other plans; including general contacts or references may be useful because this can be a confusing field. Coordinating with security planners on how staging and logistics would work in an emergency so long-term land use and transportation decisions can be coordinated with potential immediate transportation needs during an event. (continued on next page) a, b, d Tool 4. (Continued).

Sample Transportation Security and Hazard Mitigation Strategies for Various Project Modes and Types 111 Type of Project Sample Strategies (Consider as Appropriate) areas, require extensive clear zones [clear of fuel for fires]; in flood zones, relocate structures and substitute recreation areas or other low-intensity use where possible). Environmental Planning Considering human-made and natural event security planning is useful in designing parks and other open facilities, in addition to crime-prevention planning.e Including hazard mitigation planning, such as preventing mud slides and other proactive approaches. Seeking opportunities for environmental planners and transportation planners to work together on minimizing environmental effects of events on the transportation network. Economic Development Planning In addition to usual planning for continuity at individual private or nonprofit organizations, considering continuity of broader matters such as transportation. Planning by business districts or similar organizations of many entities on how to deal with major events, specifically including transportation elements. Source: Adapted with minor modifications from DVRPC (2010) “Fitting the Pieces Together- Improving Transportation Security Planning in the Delaware Valley.” Used with permission. References: a. NCHRP Report 525, Volume 14: Security 101: A Physical Security Primer for Transportation Agencies (TRB 2009). b. NCHRP Synthesis 320: Integrating Freight Facilities and Operations with Community Goals (TRB 2003). c. Safety Action Plan for the Delaware Valley (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: DVRPC, 2009) and TCRP Report 86, Volume 5: Security-Related Customer Communications and Training for Public Transportation Providers (TRB 2004). d. TCRP Synthesis 80: Transit Security Update (TRB 2009). e. Using Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Problem-Solving. (U.S. Department of Justice 2007). f. Managing Pedestrians During Evacuations of Metropolitan Areas (FHWA, 2007). g. Communicating with the Public Using ATIS During Disasters: A Guide for Practitioners (FHWA 2007). Considering restrictions to land use based on hazards (e.g., in fire-prone Land Use and Development Planning (cont.)

113 T O O L 5 Checklist for Emergency Events Affecting Multiple Jurisdictions, Transportation, and Interdependencies How to use: 1. Review and discuss events that could impact the region. Indicate likelihood and consequences, and note if an event or impact absolutely does not apply to the region. Review and discuss the transportation consequences of any event that does apply, along with potential ripple effects. 2. Review and update the checklist throughout the planning process with planning partners. Use the tool to trigger thinking about consequences to infrastructure and people, what responses might be required, and additional partners who may be needed. 3. Review and discuss whether a planned special event would be a good test of the types of coordination, communication, and operational strategies that would be needed in an emergency event (i.e., could a planned special event become an exercise for planning this type of event?) 4. Review and discuss whether such an event would be more likely in tandem with a planned special event (e.g., human-caused institutional acts) or have a greater consequence if it were to coincide with a planned special event. 5. Review and discuss when planning regional exercises—tabletop to full-scale—to identify scenarios. Resources may include: 1. Local emergency plans 2. FEMA HAZUS Software (a method for estimating losses from disasters) 3. FEMA flood zone maps 4. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI)/other risk assessments 5. Sea Lake and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH)(an estimate/model of storm surge heights from the National Hurricane Center) 6. Local nuclear power plant emergency plans

Potential Hazards Likelihood (High/ Medium/ Low) Consequence (High/ Medium/ Low) Potential Regional Transportation Impact (High/ Medium/ Low) Does Not Apply Can Be Exercised with Planned Special Event? (Y/N) Greater Likelihood or Consequence with Planned Special Event? (Y/N) Comments Natural Earthquake Flood Storm surge Hurricane/typhoon Ice storms Snow storm/ blizzard Landslide/mudslide Naturally occurring epidemic/pandemic Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanic eruptions Wildfires Human-Caused/ Intentional Bomb threat/other threat of violence Fire/arson Riot/civil disorder Sabotage (external and/or internal actors) Security breach Cyber attack Terrorist assault using explosives, firearms, or conventional weapons War Workplace violence Tool 5. (Continued).

Potential Hazards Likelihood (High/ Medium/ Low) Consequence (High/ Medium/ Low) Potential Regional Transportation Impact (High/ Medium/ Low) Does Not Apply Can Be Exercised with Planned Special Event? (Y/N) Greater Likelihood or Consequence with Planned Special Event? (Y/N) Comments Human-Caused/ Unintentional Accidental contamination or hazardous materials spills Accidental damage to or destruction of physical plant and asset(s) Accident that affects transportation system Gas outage HVAC system failure or malfunction Inappropriate training on emergency procedures Power outage Software/hardware failure or malfunction Unavailability of key personnel Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) failure or malfunction Voice and data telecommunications failure or malfunction Water outage

117 T O O L 6 Key Steps to Effective Collaboration How to use: A shared and compelling transportation need transcends jurisdictional boundaries and can best be addressed through regional collaboration. The following steps can aid planners in identifying and responding to transportation needs. Step 1. Describe the geographic area in the region: populations; geography, transportation resources and assets; hazards and potential significant events; and communication assets and needs. Step 2. Identify the common issues or needs that are perceived to be mutual problems and opportunities in planning for disasters, emergencies, and significant events, such as the following: • Information sharing • Compatible technologies systems • Movement of people and goods • Safety • Response to incidents, human-made and natural • Homeland security programs, including evacuations • Transport of hazardous materials • Economic • Recovery and restoration of normal operations • Leverage multiple funding sources • Resource sharing across agencies and jurisdictions Step 3. Identify existing networks or groups within the region that are engaged in transportation planning, such as the following: • State departments of transportation (state DOTs) • Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) and regional planning commissions (RPCs) • Traffic management centers (TMCs) • United We Ride • Direct service providers who provide or use paratransit

118 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Step 5. Call or email key contacts to schedule a meeting, or ask to be invited to a meeting with these agencies and others that are engaged in emergency management planning. • Think about the key message before the call. What is the purpose of creating or joining a collaborative network? What are the benefits? • Use hazard vulnerability assessments in emergency operation plans as conversation starters. Step 6. Secure support from the leadership of these organizations. Step 4. Use existing address books or contact lists to identify potential collaborators. Identify agencies and stakeholders involved in emergency planning, such as emergency managers. Identify stakeholders who may not currently be involved in emergency planning but who need to be, such as businesses, utilities, and representatives of community groups who may require transportation services. Source: Adapted from TCRP Report 150. (2011).

119 T O O L 7 Questions for Collaborative Partners and Other Stakeholders to Ask Each Other How to use: To develop a comprehensive plan built on the principles in this guide, planners and all vested stakeholder organizations must ask and be prepared to answer these important questions. These questions are conversation starters, and the answers can help lead to other questions that draw out information about specific details that apply to each region. 1. What disasters, emergencies, and significant events do you plan for? 2. What low-probability events should be planned for that are not currently considered? 3. How well prepared are you for disasters and emergencies? 4. How do you view your role in these atypical events? • What are your responsibilies? • What are your priories? • How are the roles and responsibilies incorporated into your regional planning? • What capabilies and resources can you provide? • What transportaon infrastructure/services do you need access to? Do you have a priority list? • How can you beer integrate security, emergency management and migaon planning into your regular pracces? 5. Where do you fit into your regional planning efforts? 6. Who are the key people you need to talk to? 7. What is the best way to communicate and share information with each other . . . • Before an atypical event? • During such an event? • Aer an atypical event? 8. What is the chain of authority if/when a particular decision-maker is unavailable? 9. What is your restoration process? How are locations prioritized for restoration? 10. How can other regional stakeholders and the public participate and contribute to the planning? 11. What long-term goals and objectives that address disasters, emergencies, and significant events can be accomplished through our regional collaboration?

121 T O O L 8 Strategies to Exercise Regional Transportation Plan for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events How to use: In conjunction with other training materials (see the section on Exercise Resources) use this tool as a high-level checklist to carry out the exercise program. Resources: 1. NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises (TRB 2006). 2. Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program (HSEEP) (FEMA Training). STRATEGIES STATUS Initiate exercise program management by developing and executing an exercise program. 1. Multi-year training and exercise program planning. (planned exercises on specific dates). 2. Planning and executing individual exercises. 3. Tracking improvements. Develop exercise documentation. Exercise documents are the most tangible elements of design and development. Different exercise types require different documentation. They may range from simple sign-in sheets to media releases and exercise evaluation guides. 1. Situation manual. A situation manual (SITMAN) is the participant handbook for discussion-based exercises. It provides background information on the scope, schedule, and objectives for the exercise. It also presents the scenario narrative for participant discussions during the exercise. 2. Exercise plan. The exercise plan (EXPLAN) is the participant handbook for operations-based exercises. The EXPLAN provides controllers, evaluators, players, and observers with information such as the exercise purpose, scope, objectives, and logistical information. (continued on next page)

122 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events 3. Controller evaluator handbook. Controller evaluator (C/E) handbooks supplement EXPLANs for operations- based exercises. The C/E handbook contains information in more detail about the exercise scenario and guides controllers and evaluators in their roles and responsibilities. 4. Master scenario events list. The master scenario events list contains a chronological listing of the events and injects that drive operations-based exercise play. 5. Exercise evaluation guides. Exercise evaluation guides (EEGs) provide evaluators with a checklist of critical tasks to be completed by participants during an exercise. EEGs contain the information to be discussed by participants, space to record evaluator observations, and questions to consider after the exercise. Develop the evaluation of the exercise that assesses its performance on three levels: 1. Task level. Assesses the ability of individual players or teams to perform a required task during an exercise. 2. Organization level. Assesses the ability of an organization, discipline, or function to perform its role in responding to an event. 3. Mission level. Assesses the ability of the intergovernmental community, as a whole, within the region to achieve expected outcomes in responding to an event. Develop a structured testing schedule. Testing should occur at least annually for an entire organization. All new/incoming employees should be briefed on the plan, or take full training if they will be directly involved in emergency events. Determine which target groups will be included in the testing of plans. • First responders • Emergency management personnel • New hire employees • Exis ng employees • General public • Private-sector representa ves Tool 8. (Continued).

Strategies to Exercise Regional Transportation Plan for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events 123 Decide which type of exercise should be used to test the plan. • Discussion-based exercise? (Centers on par cipant discussion.) • Opera ons-based exercise? (Focuses on ac on-oriented ac vi es such as deployment of resources and personnel.) Design the format of the exercise. • Seminar: An informal discussion-based exercise led by a presenter or facilitator, used to teach or orient par cipants. • Workshop: A formal discussion-based exercise led by a facilitator or presenter, used to build or achieve a product. • Tabletop exercise: This type involves senior staff, elected or appointed officials, or other key personnel in an informal group discussion centered on a hypothe cal scenario. • Game: A simula on of opera ons using rules, data, and procedures designed to depict an actual or assumed real- life situa on. • Drill: A supervised ac vity that tests a specific opera on or func on of a single agency. • Funconal exercise: A single or mul -agency ac vity designed to evaluate capabili es and mul ple func ons using simulated response. • Full-scale exercise: A high-stress mul -agency, mul jurisdic onal ac vity involving actual deployment of resources in a coordinated response, as if a real incident had occurred.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 777: A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events uses foundational planning principles, case studies, tips, and tools to explain implementation of transportation planning for possible multijurisdictional disasters, emergencies, and other major events. In addition to the guide, there is a contractor's final research report and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project.

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