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S E C T I O N 5 Additional Information
127 A Access and Functional Needs Populations: Populations whose members may have additional needs before, during, and after an incident with regard to functional areas, including but not limited to maintaining independence, communication, transportation, supervision, and medical care. Individuals in need of additional response assistance may include persons with disabilities; persons living in institutional settings; elderly persons; children; persons from diverse cultures; persons with limited English proficiency or who are non-English-speaking; or transportation-disadvantaged persons. C Council of Governments (COG): A voluntary association of local governments that operates as a planning body. The COG collects and disseminates information, reviews applications for funding, and provides services for its member governments. Cognitive Disabilities and Developmental Disabilities: Disabilities that may affect a personâs ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, do math, or follow instructions. Critical Infrastructure: Assets and services âso vital to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those mattersâ (USA Patriot Act 2001). D Department of Homeland Security (DHS): A federal agency that leads the unified national effort to secure the United States, preserve citizensâ freedoms, and prepare for and respond to all hazards and disasters. Disaster: A large-scale adverse event that overwhelms the resources of the affected community. The Stafford Act defines a federally declared major disaster as âany natural catastrophe . . . or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosionâ which causes damage of sufficient severity to warrant disaster assistance to supplement resources of states, local governments, and disaster relief organizations (Stafford Act, PL 100â707). Glossary Note: Many of the definitions that appear in the glossary are used or adapted from copy in NCHRP Report 740.
128 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Disaster Planning Cycle: A cycle consisting of phases of activity related to emergency management, including mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Dynamic Message Sign (DMS): A traffic control device used in conjunction with traffic management systems to communicate real-time traffic information about roadway or adverse weather conditions and special events. Also called a variable message sign (VMS), a change- able message sign (CMS), or an electronic message sign. E Emergency: Usually an adverse event that can be handled with existing community resources. The Stafford Act defines a federally declared emergency as âany occasion or instance for which . . . federal assistance is needed to supplement state, Tribal, and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastropheâ (Stafford Act, PL 100â707). Emergency Management: The discipline of dealing with and avoiding both natural and human- made disasters. It involves preparedness, response, and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters. It deals with the processes used to protect populations or organizations from the con- sequences of disasters, wars, and acts of terrorism. Emergency management does not necessarily avert or eliminate the threats themselves, although the study and prediction of the threats is an important part of the field. Emergency response is a subset of emergency management. Emergency Management Agency (EMA): A state or local government agency that provides support to the local community in response to an emergency situation. May also be called an Office of Emergency Management (OEM), an Office of Emergency Services (OES), or another similar name. Emergency Operations Center (EOC): An established location or facility in which local and state staff and officials can receive information pertaining to an incident and from which they can provide centralized management, direction, coordination, and support to emergency operations when a major emergency or disaster strikes. Emergency Planning Cycle: A planning cycle made up of four basic elementsâ(1) response, (2) recovery, (3) mitigation, and (4) preparednessâbracketing a disaster as illustrated in: Figure 6. The preparedness planning cycle is a subset of the emergency planning cycle. Emergency Support Function (ESF): An organizational designation that helps provide the greatest possible access to federal departmental and agency resources, regardless of which agency has those resources. ESFs align categories of resources and provide strategic objectives for their use. ESFs use standardized resource management concepts. Support agencies are assigned based on the availability of resources in a given functional area. Environmental Justice: The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people, regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. Events of National Significance: These events include a Presidential Decision Directive and are events such as the Super Bowl, the Republican and Democratic National Conventions, presidential inaugurations, Operation Sail 2000, the Olympics, and other major events of national interest. Figure 6. Emergency planning cycle.
Glossary 129 F Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): A part of the DHS, the federal agency charged with building and supporting the nationâs emergency management system. FEMAâs mission is to support U.S. citizens and first responders to ensure that local and state agencies, and public and private-sector entities, work together to build, sustain, and improve capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate hazards. First Responder: The first responding unit to arrive at an incident scene. Traditionally, this term describes public safety emergency responders, but it includes transportation agencies responding to traffic incidents. Functional Needs: Needs that include communication, transportation, medical, independence, and supervision needs. For example, functional communication needs are experienced by people who have low literacy, speak English as a second language or not at all, have limited or no eyesight, or have impaired or no hearing. Functional transportation needs are experienced by people who are elderly, disabled, or carless. Fusion Center: A local, regional, or state communications and analysis center organized to assemble, assess, and disseminate threat- and risk-related information from federal, regional, and local sources that include other state, local, Tribal, territorial, and private-sector entities. H Hazard Mitigation Planning: Planning aimed at identifying hazards and risks within communities and developing ways and means of reducing potentially disastrous losses of life and property. Longer-range planning in the emergency management field is exemplified in hazard mitigation planning. I Incident: In a transportation context, an event that has the potential to result in unintended harm or damage. International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM): A nonprofit professional organization that provides information, networking and opportunities to its members and advances the emergency management profession. L Long-Range Transportation Plan (LRTP): A jurisdictionâs way of looking at the needs of its transportation system over a period of time. The LRTP is updated every 5 years, but looks ahead 25 years or longer. Projects can range from simple highway landscaping to billion- dollar highway and transit projects. Variations of the LRTP include the Constrained Long- Range Plan (CLRP), a long-range transportation plan that identifies projects and programs in a region over a 25-year period. The Financially Constrained Long-Range Transportation Plan (FCLRP) identifies all regionally significant transportation projects and programs that are planned in a metropolitan area. A major plan update is required every 4 years; however some metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) update their CLRP every year.
130 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events M Major Disaster: â[A]ny natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, land- slide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explo- sion, in any part of the U.S. which in the determination of the president causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under this Act to supplement the efforts and available resources of states, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused therebyâ (Stafford Act). Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)/Memorandum of Agreement (MOA): Documents that outline the intentions of two or more different agencies or jurisdictions to work together on a continuing and lasting basis, toward maximum cooperation and mutual assistance. In the context of readiness and response, MOUs and MOAs typically confirm a mutual aid agreement for reciprocal emergency aid in case of emergencies too extensive to be dealt with effectively unassisted. MOUs and MOAs are also developed between a local agency and outside organizations or private companies to ensure that the necessary resources are available in the event of an emergency. Legal Background: MOU with DHS In 2007, the U.S. DOT and DHS entered into a MOU that gives DHS primary responsibility for transportation emergency preparedness and response, and the DOT a supporting role of technical assistance. FEMAâs roles now include pre-positioning commodity transportation assets; moving commodities, goods, equipment, and emergency response personnel; and planning and coordinating the evacuation of persons, including accounting for the needs of individuals with household pets and service animals before, during, and after an evacua- tion. The U.S. DOTâs supporting (technical assistance) roles include reporting damage to transportation infrastructure, coordinating alternate transportation services, and coordinating the restoration and recovery of the transportation infrastructure. N National Disaster Preparedness Training Center (NDPTC): A member of the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium that works collaboratively to develop and deliver training and education in the areas of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. National Emergency Management Association (NEMA): A nonprofit professional associa- tion for emergency management directors from 50 U.S. states, eight U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia. National Emergency Medical Services Association (NEMSA): A registered labor union and nonprofit mutual benefit corporation that specializes in the labor representation of pre-hospital emergency medical services professionals.
Glossary 131 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): An international nonprofit organization that is the leading advocate of fire prevention and an authoritative source on public safety. NFPA publishes more than 300 codes and standards intended to mitigate fire and other risks. National Incident Management System (NIMS): A system used to coordinate emergency preparedness and incident management among various federal, state, Tribal, territorial, and local agencies. NIMS provides the template for the management of incidents. National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP): A plan that provides the framework to guide the integration of efforts to promote the safety and security of the nationsâ critical infrastructure. NIPP integrates the concepts of resilience and protection within an all-hazards environment. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA): A federal agency that pro- vides, among other services, daily weather forecasts, severe storm warnings, and climate monitoring. Network: A representation of the interconnection of organizations and their components showing how they work together to solve problems they cannot address on their own. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO): A nonprofit entity formed as an association based on the interests of members, individuals or institutions and that is not created by a government. It may work cooperatively with governments serving a public purpose. O Operations: As used in this guide, the management and operational strategies and technologies used in the performance of surface, rail, air, and marine transportation systems, and emergency management. P Paratransit: The family of transportation services that falls between the single-occupant automobile and fixed-route transit. Examples include taxis, carpools, vanpools, minibuses, jitneys, demand-responsive bus services, and specialized bus services for persons who have mobility impairments or who are transportation disadvantaged. Planning: For emergency management, a key component of the emergency preparedness cycle, accomplished according to NIMS principles. Planning, however, can mean differ- ent things to different people even within the same organizations, and it becomes even more complicated when bridging disciplines, such as emergency management and trans- portation. Transportation also has several different contexts for planning: short-range operations planning (including event planning) and longer-range capital planning. (See Appendix B for more information about emergency management and transportation planning.) Planned Special Event: An emergency transportation operations term that applies to advance planning and coordination to develop and deploy the operational strategies,
132 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events traffic control plans, protocols, procedures, and technologies needed to con- trol traffic and share real-time information with travelers and other stake- holders on the day of the planned event (U.S. DOT 2012). Preparedness Planning Cycle: A subset of the FEMA emergency planning cycle, by which preparedness is achieved and maintained through a continu- ous cycle of planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluat- ing, and taking corrective action. Ongoing preparedness efforts among all those involved in emergency management and incident-response activities ensure coordination during times of crisis. Moreover, preparedness facili- tates efficient and effective emergency management and incident-response activities. The cycle involves several phases, as illustrated in Figure 7. See also Emergency Planning Cycle. R Resource: An asset or reference that can be employed on an as-needed basis. S Stakeholder: A person or an organization that has a direct interest (a stake) in the outcome of a course of action. Significant Events: Non-recurring or infrequent events that place an unpredictable but sig- nificant demand on the transportation system and require collaboration among agencies that do not routinely work together. (See also Events of National Significance.) Stafford Act: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq., also called Public Law 100â707) establishes the authority for the federal govern- ment to respond to disasters in support of state and local governments; defined two levels of adverse events, emergency and major disaster; and provided for the Federal Disaster Relief Fund. FEMA coordinates the response. T Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX): Texas A&M Universityâs national emergency response and rescue training center, operated to enhance the capabilities of emergency respond- ers and local officials to prepare for, respond to, and recover from catastrophic events. Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA): A FEMA mandated self- evaluative risk analysis process designed to identify significant event core capability impacts, the ability of the state to meet the needs associated with those impacts, and the desired state level for the core capability. Development of the THIRA incorporates a five-step process as follows: 1. Identify the threats and hazards of concern. 2. Give the threats and hazards context (i.e., describe them in ways that will be meaningful). 3. Examine core capabilities using threats and hazards. Explore desired outcomes. 4. Set capabilities targets. 5. Apply the results. The THIRA is intended to be scalable, actionable, and useful. Plan Organize/ Equip TrainExercise Evaluate/ Improve Figure 7. FEMA preparedness planning cycle.
Glossary 133 Traffic Management Center (TMC): The hub of a transportation management system, where information about the transportation network is collected and combined with other opera- tional and control data to manage the transportation network and produce traveler informa- tion. The TMC is the focal point for communicating transportation-related information to media and the motoring public. Transit: The overall category of transportation modes that are operated by a service provider and transports users, generally more than one. Users are charged a fee for use of the transpor- tation service (e.g., bus, train). Transportation Improvement Program (TIP): A 6-year regional financial program that describes the schedule for obligating federal funds to state and local projects. The TIP con- tains funding information for all modes of transportation including highways and high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities as well as transit capital and operating costs. Transportation Planning: A field involved with the evaluation, assessment, design, and siting of transportation facilities (generally streets, highways, footpaths, bike lanes and public transport lines). Transportation System: A system for moving persons or goods, consisting of three components: the vehicle, the guideway (or infrastructure), and the operations plan (or procedures and schedules). Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Groups of people who do not have access to personal transportation for reasons of health, disability, income, geographic location (e.g., within large metropolitan areas or in large rural areas with little or infrequent service), or personal preference. Transportation-disadvantaged populations generally rely on public transportation on a frequent or near-daily basis. U U.S. DOT: A federal agency whose mission includes keeping members of the traveling public safe and secure, increasing their mobility, and having the U.S. transportation sys- tem contribute to the nationâs economic growth. The U.S. DOT is made up of 12 operating administrations and bureaus. Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP): A program prepared each year by MPOs, in cooperation with member agencies, to describe the transportation planning process and transportation-related activities anticipated within the region during the year. The program documents each projectâs funding by source (federal, state, and local), explains how funds will be expended (type of project), and assigns responsibility for each work task. V Vulnerable Populations: A term meant to include people who, because of access and functional needs, may require additional assistance in the event of an emergency. Vulnerable populations include people who are especially vulnerable because of their financial circumstances, place of residence, health, age, functional or developmental status, ability to communicate effectively, or presence of chronic illness or disability. These populationsâ existing vulnerabilities (age, poverty, disability, language, or mobility) are exacerbated in times of emergencies or disasters.
134 ABAG Association of Bay Area Governments AHC All Hazards Consortium AMPO Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations AoA Administration on Aging BART Bay Area Rapid Transit District BCLC Business Civic Leadership Center (an affiliate of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce BENS Business Executives for National Security BRT Bus Rapid Transit C/E Controller Evaluator CAEP City Assisted Evacuation Plan CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CERT Community Emergency Response Teams CDL Commercial Driverâs License CLRP Constrained Long-range Plan CMS Changeable Message Sign COG Council of Governments COOP Continuity of Operations Plan CPTED Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design DCHSEMA DC Homeland Security Emergency Management Agency DC DOT District of Columbia Department of Transportation DMS Dynamic Message Sign DOT Department of Transportation EEG Exercise Evaluation Guide EM Emergency Management EMA Emergency Management Agency EMAC Emergency Management Assistance Compact EMI Emergency Management Institute EOC Emergency Operations Center ESF Emergency Support Function EXPLAN Exercise Plan FCLRP Financially Constrained Long-Range Plan FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency GIS Geographic Information System GOHSEP Governorâs Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness Hazmat Hazardous Materials HGAC HoustonâGalveston Area Council HHS Health and Human Services Abbreviations
Abbreviations 135 HOV High Occupancy Vehicle HSEEP Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directive IAEM International Association of Emergency Managers ICS Incident Command System IPS Integrated Planning System ITS Intelligent Transportation Systems KOIN Kentucky Outreach and Information Network LA BEOC Louisiana Business Emergency Operations Center LANHA Louisiana Nursing Home Association LEPC Local Emergency Planning Committee LHMP Local Hazard Mitigation Plan LIDAR Laser Imaging Defining Radar LRTP Long-Range Transportation Plan MACOG Missouri Association of Councils of Government MARAD Maritime Administration MATOC Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coordination Michigan DOT Michigan Department of Transportation MJ-LHMP Multijurisdictional Local Hazard Mitigation Plan MOA Memorandum of Agreement MOU Memorandum of Understanding MPO Metropolitan Planning Organization MSTOP Multi-State Transportation Operation Program MTA Metropolitan Transportation Authority MTC Metropolitan Transportation Commission MWCOG Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments NADO National Association of Development Organizations NARC National Association of Regional Councils NASAAEP National Alliance for State Animal and Agricultural Emergency Programs NCR National Capital Region NDPTC National Disaster Preparedness Training Center NEMA National Emergency Management Association NEMSA National Emergency Medical Services Association NFPA National Fire Protection Association NGO Non-Governmental Organization NIMS National Incident Management System NIPP National Infrastructure Protection Plan NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPO Nonprofit Organization NRF National Response Framework NTAS National Terrorism Advisory System NYMTC New York Metropolitan Transit Council OEM Office of Emergency Management OES Office of Emergency Services PALMS Private Assets Logistics Management System PDM Pre-Disaster Mitigation PFAC Program, Finance, and Administrative Committee PNWER Pacific Northwest Economic Region PortSTEPï Port Security Training and Exercise Program RCCC Regional Consortium Coordinating Council RDD Radiological Dispersion Device
136 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events RDR Center for Regional Disaster Resilience RECP Regional Emergency Coordination Plan R.E.S.C.U.M.E. Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation RITIS Regional Integrated Transportation Information System RPC Regional Planning Commission RPO Rural Planning Organization or Regional Planning Organization RTP Regional Transportation Plan SCOTSEM Special Committee on Transportation Security and Emergency Management SEMA State Emergency Management Agency SITMAN Situation Manual SMCOG Southwest Missouri Council of Governments SOG Standard Operating Guidelines STA State Trucking Associations STIP State Transportation Improvement Program TCC Transportation Coordinating Committee TEEX Texas Engineering Extension Service THIRA Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment TIP Transportation Improvement Program TMC Traffic Management Center TRANSCOM Transportation Operations Coordinating Committee TSSP Transportation Sector Specific Plan UASI Urban Area Security Initiative VIPER Voice Interoperable Program for Emergency Response VMS Variable Message Sign VOAD Volunteer Organizations Active in Disasters WMATA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
137 Manuals and Guides Information about accessing guides is provided in the Reference section. The Big Picture â¢ NCHRP RRD 333/TCRP RRD 90: A Guide to Planning Resources on Transportation and Hazards (2009), which presents Natural Hazards Informer (No. 4, September 2009), exam- ines the interconnected aspects of economy, people, infrastructure, and land, development, and natural systems, as they relate to disaster preparedness and transportation planning, in a very brief guide (44 pages, including case studies and references). â¢ NCHRP Report 525, Vol. 16: A Guide to Emergency Response Planning at State Transpor- tation Agencies (2010) provides step-by-step information and associated tools and resources to support the development and coordination of all transportation-related elements of emer- gency response including evacuation and reentry planning. â¢ Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System (ICS) for Transportation Professionals (2006), from FHWA, distills the fundamentals of the ICS and NIMS into a brief guide (less than 100 pages) using clear language and diagrams. Collaboration and Outreach â¢ TCRP Report 150: Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit (2011) outlines a step-by-step process for creating a multi- agency network to plan for the communication needs of vulnerable populations, regarding their transportation options in emergencies. This toolkit provides a guiding framework and tools for constructing a scalable, adaptable communication process built on a network of agencies from the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. â¢ Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101: Version 2.0: Emergency Management Planning Guide for Special Needs Populations: Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans (2010), from FEMA and the DHS Office for Civil Rights and Liberties, contains basic guidance. â¢ Regional Transportation Operations Collaboration and Coordination: A Primer for Work- ing Together to Improve Transportation Safety, Reliability and Security, from the FHWA Office of Travel Management, Office of Operations, identifies the benefits and process of devel- oping collaboration on regional transportation operations. It also includes a self-assessment and examples of regions that are already benefitting from this type of collaboration. â¢ Considering Security and Emergency Management in the Planning of Transportation ProjectsâA Guide for Planners of New Transportation Projects (2012), also from FHWA, Resources
138 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events provides an excellent beginning reference for collaboration around this crucial topic in a succinct guide (15 pages plus brief appendices). It addresses the following four questions: (1) Why should project planners consider security and emergency management measures in the project planning process? (2) Who are potential partners in the project planning process? (3) What are some examples of security and emergency management measures project planners can consider? (4) When should project planners incorporate security and emergency management considerations during planning? â¢ TCRP Report 106/NCHRP Report 536: Practitionerâs Handbook: From Handshake to Compact: Guidance to Foster Collaborative, Multimodal Decision Making (2005) provides guidance to achieve different levels and formality of collaborative agreement, including checklists and assessment forms. â¢ NCHRP Report 690: A Guidebook for Successful Communication, Cooperation and Coor- dination Strategies Between Transportation Agencies and Tribal Communities (2011) provides essential information and guidance for any entity working with Tribal commu- nities, including background on sovereign nations, with implications for transportation projects, suggestions for working through cultural issues and concerns, and self-assessment checklists. Transportation Operations and Asset Management Related to Planning for Disasters, Emergencies and Significant Events â¢ NCHRP Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation (2013) was developed for management and emergency response planners at state transportation agencies as they and their local/regional counterparts assess their emergency response plans and identify areas needing improvement. The report includes a step-by-step process for planning, consistent with FEMAâs Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101 and includes checklists, templates, and a workshop-in-a-box guide to planning, carrying out, and doc- umenting meetings, in particular for coordinating transportation and other agencies and jurisdictions. â¢ NCHRP Report 525: Surface Transportation Security, Volume 6: Guide for Emergency Transportation Operations (2005) focuses on an enhanced role for state departments of transportation (state DOTs) as participants with the public safety community in an inter- agency process, coordinating activities with law enforcement, fire service, and emergency management. â¢ Response, Emergency Staging, Communications, Uniform Management, and Evacuation (R.E.S.C.U.M.E.): Concept of Operations (2012), from FHWA, discusses the user-oriented Concept of Operations document that describes quantitative and qualitative system char- acteristics for a proposed system. The R.E.S.C.U.M.E. bundle includes four applications: Advanced Automatic Crash Notification Relay, Incident Scene Pre-Arrival Staging Guidance for Emergency Responders, Incident Scene Work Zone Alerts for Drivers and Workers, and Emergency Communication for Evacuation. The U.S. DOT Office of Emergency Transportation Operations maintains scores of online documents covering the range of policies, practices, and guidance related to traffic incident management, traffic management related to planned special events, and emergency transpor- tation operations for disasters. Examples of relevant publications from other FHWA include the following: â Risk-Based Transportation Asset Management: Building Resilience into Transportation Assets Report 5: Managing External Threats Through Risk-Based Asset Management (2013), the final report in this FHWA series, focuses on âblack swanâ events, and how the three Rsâredundancy, robustness, and resiliencyâwhen integrated into asset management practices, can help agencies more ably cope with a wide and unpredictable range of threats.
Resources 139 Report 5 discusses climate change adaptation, geologic hazards, scour hazard programs and more, including lessons from Hurricane Irene and Hurricane Sandy. This report can be accessed online at: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/pubs/hif13018.pdf. â Designing for Transportation Management and OperationsâA Primer (2013), an FHWA publication that includes designing for natural hazards and security from the earliest stages of project development. The primer can be accessed online at: http://222.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/ publications/fhwahop13013/fhwahop13013.pdf. Exercise Resources â¢ NCHRP Report 525 / TCRP Report 86, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises (TRB 2006) Assists transportation agencies in developing drills and exer- cises in alignment with the National Incident Management System (NIMS). â¢ FEMA has vast resources on hazard identification and disaster preparedness, including exer- cises, response and mitigation. Policy Recommendations â¢ Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative (2012), a National Research Council report that explains the research, findings, and recommendations the nation can take to bolster its resil- ience to natural and human-induced disasters. Disaster Resilience also offers examples of communities that have shown resilience in the face of disaster. â¢ Response and Recovery for Declared Emergencies and Disasters: A Resource Document for Transit Agencies (2012), updated by the FTA to address transit response, recovery, and fund- ing in response to declared emergencies and disasters, provides best practices in emergency preparedness and disaster response and recovery. Policy News Article â¢ âEveryday Armageddon,â Newsweek (December 3, 2012) talks about how, in a post- Hurricane Sandy New York City, it is a cardinal political move to invest in the nationâs outdated public and corporate infrastructure. The article highlights the importance of pre- ventive work and investment instead of sinking money on remediation post-disaster. Case Studies â¢ âBringing Down Barriers to Ensure Seamless Travel Across State LinesâSouthern Traffic Incident eXchange (STIX) Programâ (2012), by the I-95 Corridor Coalition, goes into detail about the STIX Program, which was created to enable Interstate and interregional incident notification, information sharing, and coordination among the states of Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and South Carolina. â¢ Planning for Resiliency: Adapting the Transportation System to Emerging Vulnerabilities (2013), the 2013 annual report of the NYMTC, looks into the impacts that Hurricane Sandy had on New York City when it hit in October 2012 and highlights the process of restoration that followed and how planning changed in the aftermath of the hurricane. â¢ Regional Partnerships: Enabling Regional Critical Infrastructure Resilience (2011), a study by DHS, looks into the critical role partnerships play in promoting and enhancing regional resilience, focusing particularly on the specific nature of these regional critical infrastruc- ture partnerships through case studies. This report serves as a guide for newly developing and mature regional critical infrastructure partnerships.
140 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events â¢ The Role of Business in Disaster Response (2012), by the Business Civic Leadership Center (associated with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce), presents case studies of businesses providing leadership and community support in areas of preparedness, public-private partnerships, logistics, food, information technology, insurance, infrastructure, and debris removal. â¢ Transportation During and After Hurricane Sandy (2012), from the Rudin Center for Trans- portation Policy and Management at the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University (NYU), looks at New York Cityâs preparations before Hurricane Sandy and how the hurricane demonstrated the strengths and limits of the cityâs transportation infrastructure. This report looks into the key investments and policies that should be consid- ered to assure the viability of our infrastructure during future disasters. Evolving Information â¢ Holistic Coasts: Adaptive Management of Changing Hazards: A Summary Report Based on the 4th Assembly of the Gilbert F. White National Flood Policy Forum (2013), which addressed âHuman Adjustments in CoastsâAdaptive Management in Response to Chang- ing Hazards, Risks, and Ecosystems.â At the forum, 100 invited experts on flood policy, law, governance, engineering practice, biological sciences, transecting disciplines, sectors, land- scapes, and US regions spent a day and a half developing recommendations on approaches the nation can use to adjust human occupancies and management of the coasts. The pub- lished report is available online at: http://www.asfpmfoundation.org/pdf_ppt/ASFPM- Foundation_HolisticCoasts_Forum2013_Web_Version.pdf.
141 American Public Transportation Association. November 30, 2012. âBART Teams with UC Berkeley to Adopt Earth- quake Early Warning System.â Passenger Transport. Available online at: http://newsmanager.commpartners. com/aptapt/issues/2012-11-30/10.html. Atkinson, J., J. Bauer, K. Hunt, K. Mullins, M. Myers, E. Rensel, M. Swisher, and R. Taylor. February 2013. Design- ing for Transportation Management and OperationsâA Primer. FHWA. Accessed 7/20/2013. Available online at: http://222.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/fhwahop13013/fhwahop13013.pdf. ATR Institute, G. C. Migliaccio, G. Knoebel, R. Martinez, D. Albert, and J. Hurd. 2011. NCHRP Report 690: A Guidebook for Successful Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination Strategies Between Trans- portation Agencies and Tribal Communities. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Business Civic Leadership Center. (2012). The Role of Business in Disaster Response. Accessed online 2/10/2013. Available online at: http://bclc.uschamber.com/document/role-business-disaster-response- report. Campbell, S., D. Leach, K. Valentine, M. Coogan, M. Meyer, and C. Casgar. 2005. TCRP Report 106/NCHRP Report 536: Practitionerâs Handbook: From Handshake to Compact: Guidance to Foster Collaborative, Multi- modal Decision Making. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. City of Portland, Oregon. 2011. Comprehensive Plan. Available online at: http://www.portlandoregon.gov/ bps/34249. Clift, W. August 31, 2009. National Capital Region 2009 Presidential Inauguration Regional After-Action Report Summary. DCHSEMA. Available online at: http://mwcog.org/. Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC). March, 2010. Fitting the Pieces TogetherâImproving Transportation Security Planning in the Delaware Valley. Accessed online 9/25/2013. Available online at: http://www.dvrpc.org/asp/pubs/publicationabstract.asp?pub_id=09018. DeBlasio, A. J., A. Zamora, et al. 2002. Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations, Northridge EarthquakeâJanuary 17, 1994. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, U.S. Department of Transportatino, ITS Joint Program Office. Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2011. Strategic Foresight Initiative: U.S. Demographic Shifts. Accessed online, March 27, 2013. Available online at: http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=6022. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Web pages addressing disaster mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, education, and references. Available online at: http://www.fema.gov/. Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2010. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101: Developing and Main- taining Emergency Operations Plans, Version 2.0, November 2010, p. 4-2. Federal Emergency Management Agency and the Department of Homeland Security Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. 2010. Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 301: Emergency Management Planning Guide for Special Needs Populations. Federal Emergency Management Agency. 2012. National Response Framework (NRF). The NRF is updated periodically and information on the most current version of the NRF is available online at: http://www.fema. gov/national-response-framework. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Full Risk System Knowledgebase. Information available at: https:// www.fema.gov/office-national-capital-region-coordination-0/full-spectrum-risk-knowledgebase. Federal Highway Administration. February 2006. Simplified Guide to the Incident Command System (ICS) for Transportation Professionals. U.S. Department of Transportation. Available online at: http://ops.fhwa.dot. gov/publications/ics_guide/. Federal Highway Administration. 2007. Managing Pedestrians During Evacuations of Metropolitan Areas. U.S. Department of Transportation. FHWA-HOP-07-066. References
142 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Federal Highway Administration. 2007. Communicating with the Public Using ATIS During Disasters: A Guide for Practitioners. U.S. Department of Transportation. FHWA-HOP-07-068. Federal Highway Administration. May 2012. Considering Security and Emergency Management in the Planning of Transportation ProjectsâA Guide for Planners of New Transportation Projects. U. S. Department of Trans- portation. FHWA-HEP-12-040. Federal Highway Administration. 2007. Managing Pedestrians During Evacuations of Metropolitan Areas. U.S. Department of Transportation. FHWA-HOP-07-066. Fischer, E., RLA, ASLA, APA, IAEM. 2012. Table 1: Introduction Connections Between Transportation Systems Planning and Operations Planning Guidance and Emergency Operations Planning and Recovery Planning Guidance. Developed for this project. USDOT, FHWA, Hawaii. Foster, H. D. 1997. The Ozymandias Principles: Thirty-one Strategies for Surviving Change. Victoria, British Columbia: Southdowne Press. HAZUSï. Information about this software is available at: http://www.fema.gov/hazus/hazus-mitigation-recovery- planning. Lanka, T., A. Wiek, and R. Ries. 2009. Environmental Decision Making in Multi-Stakeholder Contexts: Applica- bility of Life Cycle Thinking in Development Planning and Implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 17 No. 1, pp. 67â76. LeDuc, A., L. Juntunen, E. Stocker. 2009. NCHRP RRD 333/TCRP RRD 90 and Natural Hazards Informer Num- ber 4: A Guide to Planning Resources on Transportation and Hazards. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Litman, T. 2006. âLessons from Katrina and Rita: What Major Disasters can Teach Transportation Planners. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 132, pp. 11â18. Available online at: www.vtpi.org/katrina.pdf. Matherly, D., et al. 2011. TCRP Report 150: Communication with Vulnerable Populations: A Transportation and Emergency Management Toolkit. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Matherly, D., et al. 2013. TCRP Report 740: A Transportation Guide for All-Hazards Emergency Evacuation. Trans- portation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. McCormick Taylor, Inc. 2006. NCHRP Report 525/TCRP Report 86: Transportation Security, Volume 9: Guidelines for Transportation Emergency Training Exercises. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. Available online at: http://www.trb.org/Main/Public/Blurbs/157158.aspx. Murray-Tuite, P. M., and R. Bhatkoti. (In Press). Increasing Transportation Network Resilience. In Dynamic Route Guidance and Traffic Control. Murray-Tuite, P., and B. Wolshon. (2013). Assumptions and Processes for the Development of No-Notice Evacuation Scenarios for Transportation Simulations. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. National Governors Association. 2007. A Governorâs Guide to Homeland Security. NGA Center for Best Practices, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012. New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission. 2009. After Action Review: December â08 Ice Storm Final Report. Regional Consortium Coordinating Council. 2011. Regional Partnerships: Enabling Regional Critical Infrastruc- ture Resilience, p. 5. Reiter, N. 2013. âKey Success Factors for Marathon Bombing Medical Care.â The Safety Blog (blog), Rave Mobile Safety. Available online at: http://www.ravemobilesafety.com/key-success-factors-for-marathon-bombing- medical-care/. Transportation Research Board. April 2013. SHRP 2 Renewal Project Brief: Managing Utility Conflicts to Achieve the 3 Cs: Communication, Coordination, and Cooperation. Available online at: http://www.trb.org/Main/ Blurbs/168885.aspx. United States Department of Homeland Security. 2009. National Infrastructure Protection Plan. Available online at: http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/NIPP_Plan.pdf. United States Department of Homeland Security. 2012. National Response Framework. Available online at: www. fema.gove/national-response-framework. United States Department of Justice. 2007. Using Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design in Problem- Solving. U.S. DOT Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Problem-Solving Tools, Series No. 8. Madison: Uni- versity of Wisconsin Law School Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 2007. United States Department of Transportation. N.D. Regional Transportation Operations Collaboration and Coor- dination: A Primer for Working Together to Improve Transportation Safety, Reliability, and Security. FHWA, Office of Travel Management, Office of Operations. Available online at: http://ntl/bts.gov/lib/jpoddocs/ repts_te/13686/13686.pdf.
References 143 United States Department of Transportation. 2012. Response and Recovery for Declared Emergencies and Disas- ters: A Resource Document for Transit Agencies. Federal Transit Administration, Washington, D.C. Wilson, C. December 12, 2012. âU.S. Will Have a Majority-Minority Population by 2043, Census Predicts.â The Lookout (blog), Available online at: http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/lookout/u-majority-minority-population- 2043-census-predicts-164735561.html. Wlaschin, B. March 2013. Risk-Based Transportation Asset Management: Building Resilience into Transportation Assets. Report 5: Managing External Threats Through Risk-Based Asset Management. FHWA. Available online at http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/asset/pubs/hig13018.pdf.
145 A P P E N D I X A Summary Comparison Between Disaster and Emergency Planning and Significant Event Planning Disaster/Emergency Significant Event Key Differences Presidential Declaration Yes(Under the Stafford Act) Yes for event of national significance; No for other major events that still warrant multijurisdictional coordination Location Not known in advance Known Date/Time Not known in advance Known Size/Scale Not known in advance Approximate size usually known in advance Notice Days to minutes to no notice, depending on type of event Usually months to prepare Impact on Transportation Infrastructure Varies depending on event, damage and impacts can be severe and long-lasting Short-term significant traffic congestion usually present; Planning, communications, and intermodal coordination can mitigate worst effects Recovery Period Usually long-term days or months to years Usually not applicable; Minor or major short-term clean up Lead Agency for Planning and Coordination Usually emergency management Varies depending on event; often event sponsor with support from government and non-government stakeholders Planning Goal Resilience A smooth, successful event (continued on next page)
146 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Disaster/Emergency Significant Event Key Similarities in Requirements for Multijurisdictional Planning Communication Among stakeholders & with public Among stakeholders, with potential attendees and general public Collaboration Among public, private, and nonprofit stakeholders Among event planners and multijurisdictional stakeholders Comprehensive Examine broad range of potential disasters, consequences, and responses Prepare for the expected event, plan for contingencies, the unexpected, âWhat Ifâ Coordinated Understand national DHS guidance and local participants in the ICS, NIMS, and potential roles Develop a structure and organized plan for action Inclusive Engage diverse advocates or representatives of the whole community in planning, including people with access and functional needs; Disasters hit everyone Engage diverse advocates or representatives of the whole community in planning, including people with access and functional needs; Attendees likely to be diverse Flexible Disasters donât follow scripts Planned events rarely follow prescribed scripts âto the letterâ Exercised Exercises (of many different types and scales) help work out potential problems prior to a full- scale disaster âDry runsâ help improve plans; Practicing procedures at a smaller real event helps; A major planned event also can be used to test elements of a disaster plan response Continuous/Iterative Circular nature of emergency planning cycle fosters continuous improvement; Most multijurisdictional transportation planning for disasters and emergencies can benefit from adopting cyclic planning, whether or not a multijurisdictional emergency management framework exists Planning can be continuous (lessons learned from one large event can be applied to a subsequent event); Procedures and relationships also may help deal with smaller events and day-to-day activities Appendix A. (Continued).
147 A P P E N D I X B Emergency Management and Transportation Planning Emergency Management Planning In January 2009, DHS published the Integrated Planning System (IPS), which established a standardized and national approach to emergency planning. The IPS laid out a planning process for federal departments and agencies to use in the development of emergency planning documents. This process has assisted in the development of plans that are more consistent with their state, regional, and local emergency management counterparts and has enabled better coordination and collaboration at all levels of interaction. Planning is an essential element for training and for incident response. FEMA developed the Planning âPâ as simple guidance. See http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/ICSResource/assets/PlanningP.pdf Hazard Mitigation Planning Longer-range planning in the emergency management field is exemplified in hazard mitigation planning. State, Tribal, and local officials develop and adopt mitigation plans to meet the require- ments of the Stafford Act. These must be updated every 3 years (for states) or 5 years (for local and Tribal communities). Emergency managers often lead this effort. The multijurisdictional hazard mitigation planning guidance provides the official guidance on these requirements and procedures for approval of hazard mitigation plans. Regulations and guidance on state, local, and Tribal mitigation planning can be found on the FEMA website. See http://www.fema.gov/ mitigation-planning-laws-regulations-guidance Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) All 50 states and six territories and all Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant recipients were required to submit their first annual THIRA to FEMA by December 31, 2012. FEMA has defined a five-step process intended to broaden discussion on risk assessments to include the full community in a region or a state in a conversation about hazards, desired outcomes, capa- bilities, and priorities. Some emergency managers and planners see promise in the process but anticipate that it will take several years to realize its full potential. The five steps are: 1. Identify the threats and hazards of concern. 2. Give the threats and hazards context (describe them in ways that will be meaningful to people). 3. Examine core capabilities using threats and hazards. Explore desired outcomes. 4. Set capabilities targets. 5. Apply the results. It is intended to be scalable, actionable and useful. The THIRA does not replace the 3-year or 5-year hazard mitigation planning requirement as described above, but if done well it could substitute for the Multijurisdictional Hazard
148 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Mitigation Plan (MJ-LHMP). This is a requirement for receiving FEMA grants. Complete, current information about the THIRA can be found at the FEMA website (http://www.fema. gov/threat-and-hazard-identification-and-risk-assessment). Transportationâs Role in THIRA Transportation infrastructure is specifically identified in the guidance. Transportation per- sonnel should be at the table and ask about the THIRA plan status if they have not been asked to participate, especially after the first-year hurdle is overcome. Transportation Planning Short-range operations planning, including event planning, usually occurs in close coordi- nation with emergency management and law enforcement, following NIMS and ICS protocols. Different agencies may take the lead depending on the type of event. For example, emergency managers would not typically be the lead in planning for a planned special event or event of national significance, but would actively participate. Some of the projects will be completed in the near future, while others will be only in the initial planning stage. Projects must be included in both the Constrained Long-Range Plan (CLRP) and the Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) to be eligible for FHWA or FTA funding. Grants often require consideration of security issues, among other conditions. Build- ing security and hazard mitigation measures into a project from the very early design stages is much less costly than retrofitting a project or having to replace it prematurely because of a foreseeable threat or hazard. Long-range planning staff should consult with or include staff knowledgeable about security, hazards, risk analysis and mitigation. A TIP is a 6-year financial program that describes the schedule for obligating federal funds to state and local projects. The TIP contains funding information for all modes of transportation, including highways and high occupancy vehicle (HOV) facilities, as well as transit capital and operating costs. The TIP represents an agencyâs intent to construct or implement a specific project and the anticipated flow of federal funds and matching state or local contributions. State, regional, and local transportation agencies update the TIP each year (or at least every 2 years) to reflect priority projects in the CLRP. Designs, project costs, and potential funding sources and amounts typically become more precise and refined as projects get closer to implementation. As projects proceed, it is important to continue to include knowledgeable security, hazards, risk analysis, and mitigation staff so as not to overlook the long-term value of investments in security and mitiga- tion. Expert staff also may be able to advise on new technologies or techniques that will reduce costs or multiply benefits. In many cases, measures that improve security and reduce potential effects from a terrorist act also reduce risk from natural hazards or human-caused accidents. Each year, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) are required to prepare a Unified Planning Work Program (UPWP) in cooperation with member agencies. The UPWP describes all metropolitan transportation and transportation-related air quality planning activities anticipated within the region during the year. Given that the UPWP essentially serves as the master regional transportation planning funding application, it particularly emphasizes docu- mentation of planning activities to be performed with funds provided to MPOs by the FHWA and the FTA. The UPWP is an integrated document that includes the work of member agencies, consultants, and MPO staff. Table 3 provides sample graphics for the transportation and emergency management planning processes described in this appendix. The tables below the graphics demonstrate the commonal- ity of planning steps among the different planning processes.
Emergency Management and Transportation Planning 149 Table 3. Similarities in steps among different planning processes.* Emergency Management and Mitigation Planning Processes Di ag ra m Multi-Hazard Mitigation Planning Guidance (FEMA) http://www.fema.gov/hazard-mitigation-planning-overview Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101 Version 2.0 http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/divisions/npd/CPG_101_V2.pdf Go al s Step 1: Organize Resources â¢ Identify Resources â¢ Identify and Organize Interested Members of Community and Technical Expertise Step 3: Determine Goals and Objectives â¢ Determine Operational Priorities â¢ Set Goals and Objectives A na ly si s Step 2: Assess Risks â¢ Identify Characteristics and Potential Consequences of Hazards Step 2: Understand the Situation â¢ Identify Threats and Hazards â¢ Assess Risk De ve lo pm en t Step 3: Develop Mitigation Plan â¢ Determine Priorities â¢ Identify Strategy to Minimize Undesired Eï¬ects Step 4: Plan Development â¢ Develop and Analyze Course of Action â¢ Identify Resources â¢ Identify Information and Intelligence Needs Step 5: Plan Preparation, Review, and Approval â¢ Write the Plan â¢ Review the Plan â¢ Approve and Disseminate the Plan Im pl em en ta ti on Step 4: Implement Plan and Monitor Progress â¢ Maintain Community Involvement â¢ Carry out Periodic Evaluations and Revisions to Keep the Plan Relevant Step 6: Plan Implementation and Maintenance â¢ Exercise the Plan â¢ Review, Revise, and Maintain the Plan Co lla bo ra ti ve Pl an ni ng (Occurs as part of Step 1 and is therefore not a distinctive/standalone step within the planning process) Step 1: Form a Collaborative Planning Team â¢ Identify Core Planning Team â¢ Engage the Whole Community in Planning *Steps in the table are aligned by content; non-sequential numbering reï¬ects the fact that the steps may occur in varying order in diï¬erent planning procedures. (continued on next page)
150 A Guide to Regional Transportation Planning for Disasters, Emergencies, and Significant Events Transportation Planning and Operations Processes Di ag ra m Regional Concept for Transportation Operations (RCTO) http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/moguidebook/chap_3.htm Go al s Step 1: Regional vision and goals Step 1: Motivation Step 3: Evaluation and prioritization of strategies An al ys is Step 2: Alternative improvement strategies â¢ Operations â¢ Capital Step 2: Operations objective De ve lo pm en t Step 4: Development of Transportation Plan â¢ Long-range planning (LRP) Step 3: Approach Step 5: Development of Transportation Improvement Program â¢ State Transportation Improvement Plan (S/TIP) Step 4: Relationships and procedures Step 6: Project Development Step 5: Resource arrangements Im pl em en ta ti on Step 7: Systems operations â¢ Implementation â¢ Monitor system performance â¢ Data Step 6: Physical improvements Co lla bo ra ti ve Pl an ni ng (Occurs as part of the critical factors and input not as a distinctive/standalone step within the planning process) Step 4: Relationships and procedures Table 3. (Continued).
Abbreviations and acronyms used without deï¬nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation