National Academies Press: OpenBook

A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response (2014)

Chapter: Assessment Tools and Checklists

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Page 41
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Page 45
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Page 45
Page 46
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Page 46
Page 47
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
×
Page 47
Page 48
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Page 48
Page 49
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
×
Page 49
Page 50
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
×
Page 50
Page 51
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
×
Page 51
Page 52
Suggested Citation:"Assessment Tools and Checklists." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2014. A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22414.
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Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 41 Assessment Tools and Checklists This section contains the following tools (the chapter and exhibit numbers in the parentheses indicate the sections of the guide that discuss each tool): Page 42 Sample Pandemic Activation Matrix (Chapter 1, Exhibit 7): Provides a sample activation matrix. The chart can be customized to transportation organizations and be included as the Activation Matrix in a pandemic plan/annex. Page 43 Pandemic Vulnerability Assessment Tool (Chapter 2, Exhibit 12): Assists transportation organizations in identifying vulnerability to a pandemic. Use this assessment to facilitate an internal discussion about where the organization’s vulnerabilities are and how to best address them with limited time and budgetary resources. Page 44 Decision Making and Partnership Planning Tool (Chapter 3, Exhibit 13): Assists transportation organizations in breaking down specific planning issues within the context of an ICS type response. Use this planning tool to deter- mine how specific planning issues translate to a response using the ICS. Page 46 Preventing the Spread of Disease Checklist (Chapter 4, Exhibit 16): Pro- vides a checklist of disease prevention actions transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. Page 48 Providing Services During a Pandemic Checklist (Chapter 5, Exhibit 21): Provides a checklist of service-related issues transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. Page 50 Workforce Checklist (Chapter 6, Exhibit 25): Provides a checklist of workforce- related actions transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. Page 52 Public and Media Relations Checklist (Chapter 7, Exhibit 28): Provides a checklist of public information actions transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. It is important to recognize that many of these tools and checklists will have to be updated frequently during a pandemic response. This effort serves many purposes: situational aware- ness, documentation and resource allocation are among the most important.

42 A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Purpose: Provide a sample activation matrix for a pandemic plan/annex. Directions: Customize the chart to an organization and include as the activation matrix in a pandemic plan/annex. Transit system managers may use this matrix to help organize their thinking and decision making when confronting a possible pandemic. STANDBY/Alert/ Monitoring MINOR IMPACT MODERATE IMPACT MAJOR IMPACT Describe the impact in general terms Outbreak of a pandemic, or potentially, pandemic, disease somewhere in the world Current outbreak in another state or contiguous country Current outbreak locally with notable changes in absenteeism and ridership Significant impact locally with challenges to providing services Describe the local impact in detail Situation requires monitoring The illness has not yet, but is reasonably expected to, impact community Conditions or activities exceed normal resource utilization for response or capabilities/capacities diminished but can be carried out within the confines and capabilities of the organization with some modifications Response requires a community/regional response to save lives and maintain continuity of operations Need to activate emergency operations plan? Maybe Yes, partially Yes Yes Need to activate incident management team? Maybe Yes, partially Yes Yes Need to activate command center? Maybe Yes, partially Yes Yes Need to communicate with local EOC? Yes Yes Yes Yes Need to communicate with employees and the public? Yes Yes Yes Yes What non- pharmaceutical measures to prevent the spread of disease? Case containment Social distancing Infection control Case containment Social distancing Infection control Sample Pandemic Activation Matrix

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 43 Purpose: Assist transportation organizations in identifying vulnerability to a pandemic. Vulnerabilities are most present for a pandemic when the organization is not prepared. As a result, this tool focuses on level of preparedness. Directions: Use this assessment to facilitate an internal discussion about where the organization’s vulnerabilities are and how to best address them with limited time and budgetary resources. ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A Obtain real, demonstrable, substantive, long-term executive support for pandemic preparedness. Participate regularly in local emergency planning committee (if functioning) and other local forums. Establish relationship with local public health department. Familiarize management with local and state public health powers. Understand how a pandemic will likely impact the organization. Conduct comprehensive planning and develop realistic and useful emergency management plans and emergency operations plans. Plan for the impact of a pandemic on employees and customers. Establish policies to be implemented during a pandemic. Allocate resources to protect employees and customers during a pandemic. Develop a continuity of operations plan that addresses issues such as order of succession and command structure. Work with public health and emergency management to ensure that transportation personnel are considered "essential services" where they, and their family, may receive priority for limited resources such as vaccines. Determine staff training needs based on their expected job functions. Train on the ICS and NIMS. Obtain appropriate PPE and other supplies. Ensure preventative maintenance program is in place for PPE and other supplies. Train on the PPE. Develop internal protocols (e.g., PPE, structure and vehicle disinfectant). Obtain EPA-approved disinfectant. Exercise regularly both internally and within the community. Evaluate the effectiveness of the transit organization's emergency management program on a regular basis. Promote and support emergency planning and preparation for personnel families. Pandemic Vulnerability Assessment Tool

44 A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Purpose: Assist transportation organizations in breaking down specific planning issues within the context of an ICS type response. This checklist is designed to provide a starting point and is not exhaustive of all possible actions. Directions: Use this planning tool to determine how specific planning issues translate to a response using the ICS. Note that this tool is organized by function and that one person can be assigned more than one function. ACTIONS N O T ST A RT ED % IN P R O G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A COMMAND Have the roles, responsibilities, and authorities of the incident commander and command staff been identified and documented? Has a crosswalk been developed to identify who may fulfill different functions (including those who are cross-trained)? Has the safety officer been authorized in writing to modify or terminate any activity they consider to be unsafe? Has the organization established relationships with external agencies that they will likely need to liaise with during an emergency? Have the persons that may be tasked with public information been trained and exercised on their function? Has the organization identified persons that may serve as technical specialists? Has an EOC or DOC been identified, equipped, and readied for activation? Have the allied organizations been identified and contact list including key information been developed? Has organization participated in forums with emergency management, public health, and transportation organizations regarding emergency management? Has organization established a DOC, transportation multi-agency coordination center (MACC) or equivalent if appropriate? Has organization developed and validated memorandum of agreement or memorandum of understanding, mutual aid agreements, service agreements? Has leadership made a commitment and statement of executive support? Identify the order of succession for decision-making roles. Identify decisions that can only be made by an outside governance board during a disaster. Leadership has been trained and exercised in ICS/NIMS. Decision Making and Partnership Planning Tool

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 45 ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A Is planning capable of conducting effective situation information collection and analysis? Can planning generate an appropriate and effective incident/event action plan? Can planning track attainment of objectives, strategies, and tactics throughout an operational period? OPERATIONS Have branches, divisions, groups, and units been identified for use by the transit system? Has staff been trained on expected job functions? Can operations develop effective tactics to carry out objectives and strategies in coordination with planning? Can operations clearly articulate resource needs to logistics to carry out assigned tactics? Are different procedures or protocols required during emergencies for staff to use? LOGISTICS Has logistics identified and developed agreements with external resources (i.e., services and equipment)? Can logistics track the status of personnel and equipment? Can logistics provide needed employee well-being services and family care? Has logistics developed a draft communications plan for use during an emergency? FINANCE What additional personnel costs will be associated with implementing this policy? What additional supply/equipment costs will be associated with implementing this policy? Will tracking personnel time require additional steps? How vulnerable is the organization to claims from how this policy is implemented? Identify how payroll and other crucial financial services can operate when impacted with a high level of absenteeism. Determine how decreased services for an extended time will impact revenue collection and financial capacity. PLANNING Have criteria been established for activation of the plan and opening of the EOC/DOC?

46 A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Purpose: Provide a checklist of disease prevention actions transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. This checklist is designed to provide a starting point and is not exhaustive of all possible actions. Directions: Use the chart below to plot progress. ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A CLEANING AND DISINFECTION OF TRANSPORTATION ASSETS Has organization established how transit stations will be cleaned and disinfected during a pandemic? Has organization established how transit and other vehicles will be cleaned and disinfected during a pandemic? Has organization established how passenger vehicles will be cleaned and disinfected during a pandemic? Has organization established how other transportation assets (e.g., customer service centers, public sites, offices, dispatch centers, maintenance facilities) will be cleaned and disinfected during a pandemic? VACCINES Have front line transportation workers been included in local plans for vaccinating key personnel (e.g., in line behind public safety, nurses, and doctors)? CASE CONTAINMENT MEASURES Will employees be screened upon arrival at work for symptoms (e.g., fever, etc.) and sent home or for medical care if they appear ill? Has the organization determined how to ensure that sick employees are staying home in order to stop the spread of the disease? How will employees who become sick during a shift be sent home and replaced if appropriate? SOCIAL DISTANCING MEASURES Will social distancing practices be established in the work areas that do not include interface with riders (e.g., maintenance facilities, offices)? Will social distancing practices be established in areas where riders are present (e.g., vehicles, bus stops, stations, customer service centers)? Are there methods established to encourage/enforce social distancing? INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES Is staff interacting with the public expected to wear personal protective equipment? If so, is the PPE available and maintained? Are there reliable means to replace personal protective equipment when expended? Preventing the Spread of Disease Checklist

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 47 ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A Is staff trained and exercised in use of PPE to establish and maintain competency? Is staff trained in identifying PPE donning, inspection, failure, doffing, and signs and symptoms of physical and mental stress while using PPE? If using respiratory equipment, is staff provided medical clearance from a licensed health professional? Is staff that use respiratory protection enrolled in a respiratory protection program pursuant to applicable OSHA standards? Is aggressive hand washing using soap/water and non-water hand sanitizers for staff and riders a part of the infection prevention program? Are opportunities for hand washing available, convenient, and maintained? Has a cleaning schedule for the component parts of the transit system (e.g., vehicles, stations, industrial work areas, office work areas) been established? Have EPA-approved disinfectants been acquired or can they be quickly and reliably accessed? Are there protocols, and has staff been trained and equipped, for conducting cleaning where chemicals are used or aerosols generated (e.g., steam cleaning)? How will transportation vehicles (e.g., bus and rideshare) follow public health orders for social distancing (e.g., limiting number of passengers per vehicle, only every third seat occupied, no standing riders)? Will passengers with disease symptoms be allowed to board transportation vehicles? How can drivers and other passengers operate with minimal physical interaction? How will the organization address employees’ emotional stress based on fear of infection, illness, and possible death? Are family emergency plans for staff in place? Are transportation organization personnel identified as "essential services"?

48 A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Purpose: Provide a checklist of service-related issues transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. This checklist is designed to provide a starting point and is not exhaustive of all possible actions. Directions: Use the chart below to plot progress. ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO GR ES S CO M PL ET ED N /A IDENTIFYING ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS Compile organizational functions. Determine criteria for selecting essential functions. Identify essential functions (e.g., payroll, bus service, etc.) and areas of responsibility. Identify supporting processes and systems for each essential function. Identify key management, technical, and supporting personnel. Prioritize essential functions. Define which functions are essential. SERVICE CHANGES Identify how an impact to basic local services (e.g., trash pickup, street-cleaning, etc.) may impact ability to provide transportation services. Identify alternate fuel and spare parts vendors, including executing agreements that have been validated. Identify alternate staffing configurations (e.g., retired workers). Actively involve labor organizations in planning process, if represented. Define which services are essential and which can be suspended temporarily. Identify what level of absenteeism could be tolerated from each service area before capabilities or capacity must be altered. Identify how some business operations (if any) could shift to having work performed from home with little warning? Identify which transportation lines and/or routes can be altered temporarily. Identify alternative means of servicing essential and peripheral routes. Identify ACS and POD to address destinations generated by the response to the disease outbreak. DEMAND What services could find their demand decrease during a pandemic and why? What services could find their demand increase during a pandemic and why? REVENUE How would a reduction in service demand impact revenue? How would an increase in service demand impact revenue? Would the impact on revenue be significant enough to impact the organization’s ability to continue paying employees or vendors? Providing Services During a Pandemic Checklist What are the indirect and direct costs to a reduced need for services? What are the indirect and direct costs to an increased need for services?

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 49 ACTIONS N O T ST A RT ED % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A PASSENGERS WITH ACCESS AND FUNCTIONAL NEEDS How does the organization define passengers with access and functional needs? How will passengers with access and functional needs (e.g., wheelchair, assistance, etc.) be impacted by services that see an overall decrease or reduction? Will an increase in an overall need for services increase the number of passengers with access and functional needs? DENY SERVICE If denying services, how will organization present alternative means for individuals to travel (e.g., ambulance, taxi, dedicated vehicles on routes or on- demand, etc.)? Denying services may be controversial and will require clear and consistent use of protocols. How will these protocols be developed upon receipt of public health directives? PERSONAL PROTECTION Surgical masks are a means to minimize the spread of airborne or droplet particles from an ill person sneezing or coughing, but does not protect against becoming infected. Under what circumstances will the transportation authority provide passengers (all or those with symptoms) with masks, request/require use during ride and prepare to dispose of them properly? Is the infrastructure in place to fit test and train workers on use of N95s? Note that N95 respirators or equivalents (e.g., P100, APR/PAPR with HEPA filter) provide a higher level of protection from infection but need to be fit tested (except for a PAPR) and the worker enrolled in a Respiratory Protection Program pursuant to the applicable OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.134 or equivalent). How will management accommodate workers wearing N95 respirators since work capacity diminishes when using respiratory protection for an extended period of time? Is there a plan for communicating with the public regarding the issuance of masks to transportation employees? Under what circumstances will hand sanitizer dispensers be installed at the entrance of each vehicle and drivers trained to either strongly encourage or mandate usage prior to boarding? Note: Alcohol based hand cleaners increase fire hazards and some diseases (e.g., C. diff) are resistant to alcohol.

50 A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Purpose: Provide a checklist of workforce-related actions transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. This checklist is designed to provide a starting point and is not exhaustive of all possible actions. Directions: Use the chart below to plot progress. ACTIONS N O T ST A RT ED % IN P R O G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A ESSENTIAL WORKERS Has the organization identified essential functions as part of their continuity of operations plan? Has the organization identified essential workers? AUXILIARY WORKFORCE Is an auxiliary workforce in place that can assume particular roles in helping to sustain essential functions and is it consistent with labor agreements (e.g., contractors, part-time employees)? STAFFING PATTERNS What is the changed nature of transit operations and what are the staffing needs to support those changes? LABOR RELATIONS How have the workforce representatives been engaged in the pandemic planning process so that worker rights, safety, and status are protected while meeting the organizational needs during extraordinary events? EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION Will employees be able to access workers' compensation if they become ill and believe they were exposed while working? Has payroll been deemed an essential function with backup personnel in place to ensure employee wage payments are made regularly to ensure that employees are able to maintain normal domestic financial arrangements? Has direct deposit been made available so that ill workers do not need to be physically present to receive payment? HEALTH INSURANCE Are the applicable insurance programs provided by the organization clearly understood and communicated in the context of a pandemic or public health emergency? How will the case of a worker who contracts a pandemic disease that exists in the community be addressed in terms of a “work related illness?” Will a worker who contracts a pandemic disease that exists in the community be presumed to have a work related illness? Does the organization pay for or encourage annual flu vaccination? LEAVE Is there a phased approach to the management of employee leave entitlements (e.g., employees use existing arrangements such as paid sick time, then are granted time without pay, etc.)? In the event of employees being directed not to attend work due to illness will they still receive their normal salary and wages? Workforce Checklist

Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication 51 ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A MENTAL HEALTH Will the organization be providing timely and accurate communication to employees, including those who are sick, during the pandemic to reduce stress? Will the organization provide opportunities for support, counseling, and mental health assessment and referral should these be necessary? Does the organization have an employee assistance program that can provide guidance and resources on mental health and resiliency? Does the organization have a system in place for monitoring worker and worker family social and psychological concerns? UNION RELATIONS Review and revisit labor agreements (for union environments); what can be required? Would there be wage/hourly pay considerations for hazardous conditions? WORKFORCE RE-ENTRY How/when will employees be allowed to return to work after absence due to infectious disease? Does the organization have a system to track those individuals who have had the disease and are now immune? What parameters will be set to define “wellness” (e.g., no current temperature, 24 hours without a temperature, incubation period, limited interaction with infected individuals, etc.)? How will employees deal with readjusting to the workplace after the possible loss of close family members, friends, and colleagues? Will there be a mandatory leave period for those who have lost a family member? FAMILY CARE REQUIREMENTS How many workers have school-age children or other dependents at home that could be impacted by school closures? How many workers have school-age children or other dependents at home that could be impacted by child and adult daycare closures? How many workers are dual-income, working parents or single, and head of household parents? PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION How many workers rely solely on public transportation to get to and from work? COMMUNICATION What are the best methods for sharing home protection measures with workers and their families? What systems are in place to communicate information to employees about status, changes in schedules, recommendations, etc.?

52 A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Purpose: Provide a checklist of public information actions transportation agencies should address during the planning phase for pandemics. This checklist is designed to provide a starting point and is not exhaustive of all possible actions. Directions: Use the chart below to plot progress. ACTIONS N O T ST AR TE D % IN P RO G RE SS CO M PL ET ED N /A PUBLIC INFORMATION OFFICERS Has the organization identified public information personnel [or point of contact (POC) or responsible agency]? Have members of the public information staff been trained and exercised in their expected job functions? Have those responsible for public information at the transit organization been in touch with local emergency management and public health? Have those responsible for public information at the transit organization reached out to other public information personnel? Have the public information personnel developed pre-scripted messages and identified places for media conferences, interview, and photo locations? Have public information personnel reached out to local media? Have public information personnel developed an internal information plan? Have alternate methods of communication dissemination been explored and developed, including social media? Is there a plan for public and media inquiries to be managed? Has a rapid response capability been developed? Have public information personnel participated in JIC training? Has the ability to expand public information staffing to meet anticipated need been addressed? Have pre-scripted messages and other templates been developed that can be adapted quickly during an emergency? AUDIENCES AND MESSAGES Identify demographics of riders that traditionally do not use transit services that may join ridership during an outbreak. Determine how regular passengers are most likely to receive updates regarding changes to transportation services during a disaster (e.g., text, television news, etc.). Craft and test messages and means of dissemination of public information. Have means to communicate with difficult-to-contact audiences (e.g., non-English speaking, functionally challenged, non-technical) been developed and field- tested? DELIVERY METHODS Adopt social media policies that provide guidance on who uses social media and how it is used, and distinguish which are used for an emergency and which are used for normal operations. Have organization accounts set up with sites, systems, and tools of choice (e.g., twitter, Facebook, blogs, podcasts, etc.)? Determine usage habits and accessibility of social media by regular and non- regular passengers and other stakeholders. Have multiple staff trained on how to use these systems (e.g., post updates, monitor feedback, etc.)? Determine what types of information will be updated through social media during a pandemic. Has a current contact list for local media been established and regularly updated? Has internal, or access to external, resources for social media? Public and Media Relations Checklist

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A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response Get This Book
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 769: A Guide for Public Transportation Pandemic Planning and Response is designed to assist transportation organizations as they prepare for pandemics and other infectious diseases such as seasonal flu.

Addressing decision-making challenges in pandemic response in the transportation context is a multi-dimensional task, involving not only transportation/transit organizations, but health organizations, emergency management agencies, and communications outlets as well.

The guide is designed to outline broad guidance on dealing with pandemic preparedness planning, not detailed procedures. It provides information, tools, tips, and guidance on where to find up-to-date recommendations from federal agencies and other resources, prior to and during a pandemic.

In addition to the guide, a methodology report and a PowerPoint presentation describing the entire project are available online.

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