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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22523.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22523.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22523.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22523.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22523.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22523.
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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E F R E I G H T R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCFRP REPORT 26 Subscriber Categories Data and Information Technology • Freight Transportation • Planning and Forecasting Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data Cambridge Systematics, Inc. Atlanta, GA with Ken Casavant Pullman, WA Anne Goodchild Seattle, WA Eric Jessup Freiburg, Germany Catherine T. Lawson Albany, NY TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM America’s freight transportation system makes critical contributions to the nation’s economy, security, and quality of life. The freight transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all modes of transportation—trucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical guidance based on research. The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing research programs. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCFRP REPORT 26 Project NCFRP-20 ISSN 1947-5659 ISBN 978-0-309-28353-3 Library of Congress Control Number 2013948813 © 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 26 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Ellen M. Chafee, Editor NCFRP PROJECT 20 PANEL Freight Research Projects John W. Fuller, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (Chair) Monica M.H. Blaney, Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON Kuo-Ann Chiao, New York Metropolitan Council, New York, NY Barbara A. Ivanov, Washington State DOT, Olympia, WA Diane Jacobs, California DOT, Los Angeles, CA Marygrace Parker, I-95 Corridor Coalition, Greenwich, NY Rakesh Shalia, FedEx Services, Memphis, TN Irwin Silberman, Roswell, GA Ronald J. Duych, RITA Liaison Michael Sprung, RITA Liaison Thomas Zabelsky, Other Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison

NCFRP Report 26: Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data (Guide- book) provides state DOTs and other subnational agencies with a comprehensive discussion of how to obtain and compile commodity flow data useful for their analysis. The Guidebook contains descriptions of existing public and private commodity flow data; standard proce- dures for compiling local, regional, state, and corridor databases from these commodity flow data sources; new and effective procedures and methodologies for conducting subna- tional commodity flow surveys and studies; and methods for using commodity flow data in local, regional, state, and corridor practice. Commodity flow data are critical to conducting transportation planning at state, regional, and local jurisdictional levels and in corridors (collectively called subnational levels). Com- modity flow data are used to understand which industries generate the most demand on the transportation system. These data also provide a key link between economic trade relation- ships and freight demand and are used in modal diversion studies. These data are also a key input to multimodal trade corridor studies and air quality assessments. Currently, there are a number of useful commodity flow data sources at the national level that are of limited application to subnational planning because they lack the appropriate geographic detail for flow origins and destinations. National level commodity flow data sources cannot easily be used to identify available data sets for subnational use. State DOTs and other subnational agencies need a variety of tools to help them tailor existing commodity flow data for their specific needs and to develop additional sources of data. Under NCFRP Project 20, Cambridge Systematics was asked to (1) describe and review examples of recent or current efforts at the subnational level to compile and use commodity flow information for transportation planning and analysis; (2) describe national data sets and their use and limitations for application at subnational levels; (3) develop procedures and methodologies for conducting commodity flow surveys at subnational levels; (4) dem- onstrate the application of the procedures and methodologies by applying them in a test case to address such issues as modal diversion, air quality, and/or public freight investment prioritization; and (5) prepare a guidebook that illustrates how the data should be collected and used in models of decision making as well as providing guidance for compiling com- modity flow data sets appropriate for subnational analysis. In addition to the Guidebook, two subtask reports from NCFRP Project 20 are avail- able at www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/169330.aspx: “Review of Subnational Commodity Flow Data Development Efforts and National Freight-Related Data Sets” and “Demonstration of Application of Establishment Survey.” F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

1 Chapter 1.0 Overview of the Guidebook and Key Issues 1 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Background on Commodity Flow Data 8 1.3 Geographic Issues Related to Subnational Commodity Flow Data 10 1.4 Commodity Issues Related to Subnational Commodity Flow Data 16 Chapter 2.0 Collecting Subnational Commodity Flow Data Using Establishment Surveys 16 2.1 Introduction 17 2.2 Step-by-Step Process for Conducting Establishment Surveys 58 2.3 Next Steps 59 Chapter 3.0 Collecting Subnational Commodity Flow Data Using Roadside Truck Intercept Surveys 59 3.1 Introduction 60 3.2 Step-by-Step Process for Conducting Roadside Truck Intercept Surveys 91 3.3 Next Steps 92 Chapter 4.0 Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data Using Supplemental Sources of Local Economic Activity 92 4.1 Introduction 93 4.2 Step-by-Step Process for Collecting Locally Available Data 102 4.3 Example of Developing a Diesel Fuel Local Commodity Flow Database 107 4.4 Detailed Example of Developing a Potato Commodity Flow Database 115 4.5 Next Steps 116 Chapter 5.0 Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data Using Disaggregation 116 5.1 Introduction 117 5.2 Step-by-Step Process for Disaggregating Commodity Flow Data 135 5.3 Next Steps 136 Chapter 6.0 Playbook 136 6.1 Introduction to the Playbook 136 6.2 Getting Started—What Should Be Known About Problems and Resources 138 6.3 Considerations in Answering Sample Freight Questions 141 6.4 Self-Diagnosis of Available Freight Resources 143 6.5 Examples of Preparing a Game Plan to Answer Freight Questions 151 6.6 Sample Game Plan Worksheet 152 6.7 Playbook Recap and Conclusions on Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data C O N T E N T S

153 References 154 List of Acronyms Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) Report 26: Guidebook for Developing Subnational Commodity Flow Data explores how state departments of transportation and other subnational agencies can obtain and compile commodity flow data.

The Guidebook contains descriptions of existing public and private commodity flow data; standard procedures for compiling local, regional, state, and corridor databases from these commodity flow data sources; procedures and methodologies for conducting subnational commodity flow surveys and studies; and methods for using commodity flow data in local, regional, state, and corridor practice.

In addition to the Guidebook, two subtask reports from NCFRP Project 20--Review of Subnational Commodity Flow Data Development Efforts and National Freight-Related Data Sets and Demonstration of Application of Establishment Survey--are available only in electronic format.

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