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APPENDIX A LIST OF PROGRAMS AND SOURCES REVIEWED In the process of reviewing programs for defining the carbon footprint of transportation a number of programs were excluded due to a lack of information regarding their methods. The following programs contained enough public information to effectively evaluate their defined breadth and depth. Program Breadth Depth Modes Emissions WTT TTW Other Road Rail Water Air Logistics CO2 N2O CH4 Other GHG Protocol Mobile x x x x x x x x SmartWay 2.0 x x x x x Diesel Emissions Quantifier X x x x x Total Energy & Emissions Analysis for Marine Systems (TEAMS) Model x x x x x x x AAR Carbon Calculator x x x x EPA Moves x x x x x National Mobile Inventory Model (NMIM) x x x x x NONROAD 2000a Model x x x x x x x Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model (GEM) x x x EMissions FACtor 2007 Software (EMFAC) x x x x Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model (CMEM) x x x x System for Assessing Aviationâs Global Emissions (SAGE) x x x x Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) x x x x Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) x x x x x x GREET Model x x x x x x x Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) Model x x x x x x x x x x x x NTM Calculator x x x x x x x x x EnviShipping x x x Ship Emission Calculator x x x x Decarbonization Model x x x Emisia x x x x x x A-1
Program Breadth Depth Modes Emissions WTT TTW Other Road Rail Water Air Logistics CO2 N2O CH4 Other SULTAN (SUstainabLe TrANsport) x x x x x x x TREMOD x x x x x x x x x x TREMOVE x x x x x x x x x x Local Authority Basic Carbon Tool x x x x? EcoTransIT World x x x x x x x Clean Cargo Working Group Environmental Performance Survey for Ocean Carriers x x x x IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories x x x x x x x x x Ecoinvent LCA Database x x x x x x x x x x x x Organization Environmental Footprint (OEF) x x x x x x x x x x x Consignment-Level Carbon Reporting x x x x x x x x ARTEMIS x x x x x x x DHL emission calculating tool ? x x x x Eco Optimizer x x x x x x x x Carbon Intelligence x x x x x x x Logistics Emissions Calculator (LogEC) x x x x x x x x x x x VERSIT+ x x x x Fleet carbon reduction tool x x x x Table 15: Scope of Reviewed Programs and Tools RESEARCH ARTICLES In addition to reviewing currently existing programs a review of scholarly literature was performed. The number of studies that include some calculation of emissions from transportation is quite large, and so the focus was on studies that introduced new methods or applications. The reviewed studies reflect a broad range of methods, from econometric studies to vehicle engine models, and applications, from estimates of global trade emissions to specific studies for individual companies. Studies reviewed, but not mentioned separately in this report include: Cadarso, M. A., L.-A. Lopez, et al. (2010). "CO2 emissions of international freight transport and offshoring: Measurement and allocation." Ecological Economics 69(8): 1682-1694. â¢ Estimates emission from international transportation in Spain. Employs aninput-output model to estimate imports by region, calculates average A-2
distance by region, and uses NTM methods to estimate emissions per tonne-km by mode. Cristea, A., D. Hummels, et al. (2012). "Trade and the greenhouse gas emissions from international freight transport." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. â¢ Uses an economic model to perform âbottom-upâ estimates of transportationflows between nations. Applies emissions factors per mode to calculateemissions from international trade and estimates future trends in emissionscompared to trade value.Eyring, V., H. Kohler, et al. (2005). "Emissions from international shipping: The last 50 years." Journal of Geophysical Research 110(D17): D17305. â¢ Uses a bottom-up methodology to model fuel consumption based on enginepower and duty cycles for 132 engine sub-groups. Combines fuelconsumption model with statistical data on fleet makeup to estimate totalemissions from shipping over a 50 year period.Facanha, C. and A. Horvath (2007). "Evaluation of life-cycle air emission factors of freight transportation." Environmental science & technology 41(20): 7138-7144. â¢ Uses a hybrid Life Cycle Assessment approach to estimate the CO2 emissionsof different freight modes in the US.Forkenbrock, D. J. (1999). "External costs of intercity truck freight transportation." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 33(7): 505-526. â¢ Estimates the external cost of GHG emissions from freight trucks. Usesaverage fuel consumption rates and load factors to estimate fuelconsumption per ton-mile shipped, then applies an estimate external cost ofGHG emissions per ton-mile.Howitt, O. J., M. A. Carruthers, et al. (2011). "Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight." Atmospheric Environment. â¢ Uses fuel uplift data to estimate emissions from airplanes departing NewZealand. This was combined with data on the total mass of air freightedimport and export goods between New Zealand and other locations to get anemissions factor per ton-mile, which was then applied to estimate totalemissions.Kim, N. S. and B. Van Wee (2009). "Assessment of CO2 emissions for truck-only and rail-based intermodal freight systems in Europe." Transportation planning and technology 32(4): 313-333. â¢ Uses LCA to estimate emissions from transportation, excluding infrastructureand vehicle manufacturing. Decomposes intermodal shipments to separatedrayage and rail segments by estimating average drayage distance, and thencompares the emissions from intermodal to a truck-only system. A-3
Leonardi, J. and M. Baumgartner (2004). "CO2 efficiency in road freight transportation: Status quo, measures and potential." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 9(6): 451-464. â¢ Surveys 50 German logistics companies to estimate CO2 efficiency.McKinnon, A. (2007). CO2 Emissions from Freight Transport: An Analysis of UK Data. Logistics Research Network-2007 Conference Global Supply Chains: Developing Skills, Capabilities and Networks. â¢ Assembled data from a variety of sources in the UK to estimate total freightemissions. Uses both input (top-down) and output (bottom-up) methods.McKinnon, A. and M. Piecyk (2009). "Measurement of CO2 emissions from road freight transport: A review of UK experience." Energy policy 37(10): 3733-3742. â¢ Reviews methods for estimating the CO2 emissions of road freight in the UK.Compares the results of different approaches and identifies lessons learnedfrom the UK experience.Ozsalih, H. (2009). A methodology for transport buying companies to estimate CO2 emissions in transport: Application in Unilever European Logistics. Masterâs Thesis. Department of Technology Management. Eindhoven, Eindhoven University of Technology. â¢ Created a methodology for use in measuring GHG emissions fromtransportation used by Unilever. Uses NTM data to generate emissionsfactors specific to the type of vehicles used by Unilever, including anadjustment for refrigerated cargo. Specifically excludes empty miles unlesspaid for by Unilever.Perez-Martinez, P. J. (2009). "The vehicle approach for freight road transport energy and environmental analysis in Spain." European Transport Research Review 1(2): 75-85. â¢ Uses survey data in Spain to estimate performance indicators for roadfreight, including CO2 emissions.Price, L., L. Michaelis, et al. (1998). "Sectoral trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions." Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 3(2): 263-319. â¢ Analyzes trends in global energy use and emissions using the Kayaframework.Psaraftis, H. N. and C. A. Kontovas (2008). Ship Emissions Study, National Technical University of Athens. â¢ Develop a model for estimating CO2 from specific ship types. Uses a top-downfuel-based approach to estimate emissions.Schers, R. (2009). Determining a method for calculating CO2 emissions in transport and the effect of emission regulations on supply chain design for a chemical A-4
company. Masterâs Thesis. Department of Technology Management. Eindhoven, Eindhoven University of Technology. â¢ Extends the NTM methodology to calculate CO2 emissions fromtransportation for a chemical company.Schipper, L., H. Fabian, et al. (2009). Transport and carbon dioxide emissions: Forecasts, options analysis, and evaluation. Asian Development Bank. â¢ Describes a bottom-up approach to estimating emissions using an ASIFmodel that incorporates travel activity (A), mode structure (S), fuel intensityby mode (I), and emission factor (F).Spielmann, M. and R. Scholz (2005). "Life Cycle Inventories of Transport Services: Background Data for Freight Transport." The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 10(1): 85-94. â¢ Reviews the methods for estimating environmental impact of transportservices in LCA using the Ecoinvent data set.Tarancon Moran, M. A. and P. del Rio Gonzalez (2007). "Structural factors affecting land-transport CO2 emissions: A European comparison." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 12(4): 239-253. â¢ Uses an input-output methodology to estimate transport between Europeancountries. Uses data on GHG emissions inventories from the UN to estimateCO2 combined with economic output to estimate CO2 efficiency.Yang, C., D. McCollum, et al. (2009). "Meeting an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from transportation by 2050: A case study in California." Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 14(3): 147-156. â¢ Uses the Kaya framework to decompose GHG emissions from thetransportation sector in the US. The model is then used to explore scenariosthat may reduce emissions in California 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. A-5