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ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). It was conducted through the National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, Transit Development Corporation, or AOC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. DISCLAIMER The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The information contained in this document was taken directly from the submission of the author(s). This material has not been edited by TRB.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCFRP Project 36(04) by the Center for Transportation and Logistics (CTL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). CTL was the Contractor and Fiscal Administrator for this study. Dr. Christopher G. Caplice, C T L Executive Director, was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Dr. Anthony J. Craig, CTL Postdoctoral Associate, and Dr. Edgar E. Blanco, CTL Research Director.
ABSTRACT This report presents the results of a study to define a standardized approach to measuring the carbon footprint of the transportation component of supply chains, evaluate existing methodologies, and prepare a work plan for a decision tool to measure the carbon footprint. Existing methodologies were reviewed and used to create a standard definition of the carbon footprint of the transportation component of the supply chain. The proposed definition focuses on direct transportation activities, considers the six primary greenhouse gases, and uses a well-to-wheel emissions scope. A list of criteria to evaluate current methodologies were developed based on concepts from accounting, supply chain management, and life cycle assessment. The criteria of breadth, depth, and precision define how relevant a measure is to decision-making, while the criteria of comparability and verifiability assess its suitability for external reporting. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, the criteria were used to evaluate existing programs and methodologies. Participants in a workshop identified the relative importance of each criterion, and these weightings were used to evaluate the methodologies. The results of this exercise were used to identify strengths and weaknesses of current approaches, and inform the design of the decision tool.