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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E F R E I G H T R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCFRP REPORT 23 Subscriber Categories Freight Transportation â¢ Planning and Forecasting â¢ Terminals and Facilities Synthesis of Freight Research in Urban Transportation Planning Genevieve Giuliano Thomas OâBrien Laetitia Dablanc Kevin Holliday METRANS TRANSpoRTATioN CENTER Sol pRiCE SChool of publiC poliCy uNivERSiTy of SouThERN CAlifoRNiA Los Angeles, CA TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM Americaâs freight transportation system makes critical contributions to the nationâs economy, security, and quality of life. The freight transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all modes of transportationâtrucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical guidance based on research. The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing research programs. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCFRP REPORT 23 Project NCFRP 36(05) ISSN 1947-5659 ISBN 978-0-309-25908-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2013936567 Â© 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCFRP REPORT 23 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Sheila Moore, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Senior Editor Ellen Chafee, Editor NCFRP PROJECT 36(05) PANEL Freight Research Projects Lillian C. Borrone, Avon by the Sea, NJ (Chair) Emil Frankel, Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, DC Catherine T. Lawson, State University of New YorkâAlbany, Albany, NY Eric G. Madden, American Council of Engineering Companies of PA, Harrisburg, PA Thomas H. Wakeman, III, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ Thomas Bolle, RITA Liaison Ronald J. Duych, RITA Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This research was supported in part by the METRANS Transportation Center, University of Southern California. Jennifer Lieu, master of planning student, collected data on truck travel patterns, congestion, and safety. Vicki Valentine, METRANS administrative staff, collected data and wrote the section on freight infrastructure projects. Any errors or omissions are the responsibility of the authors.
F O R E W O R D By Crawford F. Jencks Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Transportation Research Board This report synthesizes information about policies and practices for managing freight activity in metropolitan areas and is based on a comprehensive review of international literature. The primary focus is on âlast-mile/first-mileâ strategies, but the report also focuses on strategies affecting environmental issues and trading hubs or nodes. The research looked beyond the United Statesâmostly, but not exclusively, in Europe and the European BESTUFS (Best Urban Freight Solutions) programâfor potentially relevant policies and practices that could be used in the United States. The report will be of interest to transporta- tion planners and strategists, particularly those representing the larger urban areas. Commercial transport for the delivery of goods and services is crucial to the modern urban economy, which relies on frequent deliveries and collections (groceries, parcels, trash), express and urgent deliveries (hospitals, businesses), and a fast-growing home deliv- ery market. Trucks and vans provide the âlast mile/first-mileâ transport, as well as most medium haul freight transport. In metropolitan areas that serve as trade hubs, trucks are a major part of wholesaling, distribution, logistics, and intermodal operations. Truck traffic also generates significant impacts including congestion, emissions, noise, and traffic incidents. Metropolitan areas throughout the United States, Europe, and the rest of the world are seek- ing ways to better manage truck traffic. Of particular interest is the BESTUFS program that the European Union has funded to bring together experts, projects, research results, and stakeholders to analyze success factors for urban logistics in European cities. The objective of the research was to conduct a synthesis of recent urban freight studies in the United States, the European Union, and elsewhere to identify relevant strategies for managing urban freight transport. The results provide useful guidance and information to transportation planners and strategists interested in urban freight issues. The report pro- vides guidance on the types of research and studies that could be undertaken to contribute further to solutions of urban freight transport in terms of economic, environmental, and social/safety issues. Under NCFRP Project 36(05), âSynthesis of Freight Research on Urban Transportation Planning,â METRANS Transportation Center, University of Southern California examined strategies in three general categories: (1) last mile/first mile, (2) environmental, and (3) trade node. Last-mile/first-mile strategies focus on reducing congestion on city streets related to local deliveries and pickups. Environmental strategies focus on reducing emissions and noise from trucks and vans. Trade node strategies deal with the particular problems of metropolitan areas serving as hubs for national and international trade. The report concludes with general observations from the literature review and an assessment of the most promising strategies that could be used to better manage urban freight in the United States.
C O N T E N T S Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions. 1 Summary 10 Section 1 Current State of Knowledge of Urban Freight Flows and Their Impacts 10 1.1 Introduction 10 1.2 Land Use Trends 11 1.3 Urban Truck Traffic 14 1.4 Congestion, Parking, and Circulation 17 1.5 Environmental Impacts 21 1.6 Noise 21 1.7 European Focus 22 1.8 Conclusion 23 Section 2 Urban Freight Problems and Strategies 23 2.1 The Local Last-Mile Problem 35 2.2 Emissions and Other Environmental Problems and Strategies 49 2.3 Trade Nodes: Problems and Strategies 62 Section 3 The U.S. Policy Context 62 3.1 The Public Sector Role in Urban Freight 64 3.2 Policy Trends 66 3.3 Impacts on Solving Urban Freight Problems 67 3.4 New Directions 69 Section 4 Conclusions and Recommendations 69 4.1 Main Findings 70 4.2 Best Practices and Policy Initiatives 80 4.3 Recommendations 82 References