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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 80 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â Environment Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects Landrum & Brown, Inc. Chicago, IL EnvIronmEntaL consuLtIng group, Inc. Annapolis, MD prImEra EngInEErs, Ltd. Chicago, IL muLLEr & muLLEr, Ltd. Chicago, IL
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transÂ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interÂ national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responÂ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport CooperaÂ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative nearÂterm solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponÂ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National CooperaÂ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research ProÂ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainteÂ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operaÂ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100ÂCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council InternationalÂNorth America (ACIÂNA), the American AssociaÂ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orgaÂ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responÂ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by idenÂ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport proÂ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels preÂ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperÂ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended endÂusers of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workÂ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airportÂindustry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 80 Project 02Â22 ISSN 1935Â9802 ISBN 978Â0Â309Â25861Â6 Library of Congress Control Number 2012949613 Â© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and notÂforÂprofit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and notÂforÂprofit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.nationalÂacademies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 80 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Margaret B. Hagood, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-22 PANEL Field of Environment Joan C. Zatopek, Oakland International Airport, Oakland, CA (Chair) Ervin N. Dehn, Jr., Naples, FL Steve Eustis, Skanska USA Building Inc., Boston, MA Derek R. Gray, Greater Toronto Airport Authority, Toronto, ON Eugene R. Peters, Ricondo & Associates, Chicago, IL Melissa B. Smart, The Smart Associates - Environmental Consultants, Inc., Concord, NH Michel Hovan, FAA Liaison Steve Urlass, FAA Liaison Kent R. Hansen, National Asphalt Pavement Association Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects describes sustainability, its benefits, and identifies different applications in traditional airport construction and everyday maintenance projects. An accompanying CDÂROM provides an Airport Sustainability Assessment Tool (ASAT) that complements the guidebook and can be used to: assist the user in identifying sustainability initiatives that might be most applicable to an airport project, given certain criteria that the user sets; obtain more information about specific strategies; and learn about sustainability initiatives that have been implemented at other airports through case studies. The guidebook and the CDÂROM will be useful to environmental managers, planners, and consultants interested in adopting sustainability strategies and initiatives into their next airport project. Sustainable initiatives in design and construction are becoming more common in airport improvement projects, as well as everyday maintenance activities. There is a widespread belief that incorporating sustainable initiatives into projects may have higher initial costs without understanding the benefits and/or the potential for lower lifecycle costs. In some cases, the lack of understanding and perception of increased costs has inhibited the impleÂ mentation of these concepts and technologies into traditional (i.e., those projects not planned and designed with sustainability in mind) airport projects. Landrum & Brown, Inc., under ACRP 02Â22, developed guidance and an interactive tool to help airport decision makers and their staff identify and evaluate alternative sustainable design concepts and technologies in the planning and design phase. The guidance provides examples of different sustainability initiatives, average cost savings, and references for further information. The supplemental CDÂROM, in addition to providing the evaluation tool, also contains the case studies of airports and other facilities that have successfully implemented sustainability initiatives. F O R E W O R D ByâMarciâA.âGreenberger StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
â 1â Summary 2 Chapter 1â WhatâIsâSustainability? 2 1.1 Evolution of Airport Sustainability 3 1.2 Comparison to Conventional Design Concepts 12 Chapter 2â PurposeâandâStructureâofâtheâGuidebookâandâASAT 12 2.1 Research Approach 12 2.2 Who Should Use the Guidebook and ASAT 13 2.3 How to Use the Guidebook and ASAT 14 Chapter 3â ApproachingâSustainabilityâatâAirports 14 3.1 Vision and Innovation 15 3.2 Developing a Sustainability Plan 17 Chapter 4â ImplementationâProcess 17 4.1 Organizational Readiness 17 4.2 Criteria for Evaluating Sustainability Concepts and Technologies 21 Chapter 5â AirportâSustainabilityâAssessmentâTool 23 Chapter 6â CaseâStudyâSummaries 23 6.1 List of Facilities 23 6.2 List of Initiatives A-1 Appendix Aâ GlossaryâofâTermsâandâDefinitions B-1 Appendix Bâ âSustainableâInitiativesâforâIncorporationâ IntoâTraditionalâAirportâProjects C-1 Appendix Câ ResourcesâandâReferences C O N T E N T S Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.