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Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition (2012)

Chapter: Chapter 23 - References

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 23 - References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 23 - References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 23 - References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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C H A P T E R 23 References* AASHTO (2002). Roadside Design Guide. Washington, DC. AASHTO (2004). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC. AASHTO (2010). Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition. Washington, DC. AASHTO (2011). A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC. Abraham, J., Datta, T. K., and Datta, S. (1998). Driver behavior at rail-highway crossings. Transportation Research Record, 1648, 28–34. Adrian, W., and Bhanji, A. (1991). Fundamentals of disability glare: A formula to describe straylight in the eye as a function of glare angle and age. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Glare (pp. 185–193). New York: Lighting Research Institute. Adrian, W., and Topalova, R. (1991). Transient adaptation process. A model to predict its effects in vision. Pro­ ceedings of the CIE 22nd Session 2, 121–133. Adrian, W. K., and Topalova, R. V. (1991). Visibility under transient adaptation. Transportation Research Record, 1327, 14–20. AECOM Canada Ltd., CIMA+, and Lund University (2009). International Road Engineering Safety Counter­ measures and Their Applications in the Canadian Context. Ottawa, Ontario: Transport Canada. Aggarwal, G. C., and Mortensen, S. L. (1993). Do advance school flashers reduce speed? ITE Journal, 63(10), 24–30. Ahammed, A. M., Hassan, Y., and Sayed, T. A. (2006). Effect of geometry of entrance terminals on freeway merg­ ing behavior. Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers [CD-ROM]. Ahmed, S. A. (1991). Evaluation of Retroreflective Sheetings for Use on Traffic Control Devices at Construction Work Zones. Final Report. Stillwater: Oklahoma State University. Alexander, G. H., and Lunenfeld, H. (1990). A User’s Guide to Positive Guidance, Third Edition (FHWA/SA-90/017). Washington, DC: FHWA. Alexander, G. J., and Lunenfeld, H. (2001). Ontario Traffic Manual, Appendix C, Positive Guidance Tool Kit (Book 1C). Toronto, Canada: Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Al-Gadhi, S. A., Naqvi, S. A., and Abdul-Jabbar, A. S. (1994). Driver factors affecting traffic sign detection and recall. Transportation Research Record, 1464, 36–41. Anderson, I., Bauer, L., Harwood, D., and Fitzpatrick, K. (1999). Relationship to safety of geometric design consistency measures for rural two-lane highways. Transportation Research Record, 1658, 43–51. Anderson, K. A., Hoppe, W. J., Mccoy, P. T., and Price, R. E. (1984). Cost-effectiveness evaluation of rural inter­ section levels of illumination. Transportation Research Record, 996, 44–47. Andjus, V., and Maletin, M. (1998). Speeds of cars on horizontal curves. Transportation Research Record, 1612, 42–47. Appelt, V. (2000). New approaches to the assessment of the spatial alignment of rural roads—apparent radii and visual distortion. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design (pp. 620–631). Cologne, Germany: Verlag. Arizona Department of Transportation (2007). Roadway Design Guidelines. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from http://www.azdot.gov/Inside_ADOT/Misc/PDF/Publications.pdf. Arnett, J. J., Offer, D., and Fine, M. A. (1997). Reckless driving in adolescence: ‘State’ and ‘trait’ factors. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 29(1), 57–63. Arnold, E. D., Jr. (2004). Development of Guidelines for In-roadway Warning Lights. Final report (VTRC 05-R10). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council. Ashmead, D. H., Guth, D., Wall, R. S., Long, R. G., and Ponchillia, P. E. (2005). Street crossing by sighted and blind pedestrians at a modern roundabout. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 131(11), 812–821. *Covers all chapters. 23-1

HFG REFERENCES Version 2.0 Baerwald, J. E. (Ed.) (1965). Traffic Engineering Handbook (pp. 32–33). Washington, DC: ITE. Bahill, A. T., Adler, D., and Stark, L. (1975). Most naturally occurring human saccades have magnitudes of 15 degrees or less. Investigative Ophthalmology, 14(6), 468–469. Bald, S. (1987). Investigation of Determinants of Choice of Speed: Evaluation of Speed Profiles on Country Roads [Abstract]. Darmstadt, Germany: Technical University of Darmstadt. Ballard, A. J. (1983). Current state of truck escape-ramp technology. Transportation Research Record, 923, 35–42. Barlow, J. M. (2004). Orientation and alignment for street crossing: pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired. Curb Ramp and Intersection Wayfinding Workshop. Washington, DC: ITE. Barlow, J. M., Bentzen, B. L., and Tabor, L. S. (2003). Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Synthesis and Guide to Best Practices. Final Report, NCHRP Project 3-62. Berlin, MA: Accessible Design for the Blind. http://www. walkinginfo.org/aps Bella, F. (2006). Effect of driver perception of combined curves on speed and lateral placement. Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers [CD-ROM]. Bella, F., Garcia, A., Solves, F., and Romero, M. A. (2007). Driving simulator validation for deceleration lane design. Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers [CD-ROM]. Benson, B. G. (1996). Motorist attitudes about content of variable-message signs. Transportation Research Record, 1550, 48–57. Bentzen, B. L., and Barlow, J. M. (1995). Impact of curb ramps on the safety of persons who are blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 89(4), 319–328. Bentzen, B. L., Barlow, J. M., and Bond, T. (2004). Challenges of unfamiliar signalized intersections for pedestrians who are blind: Research on safety. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 51–57. Bentzen, B. L., Barlow, J. M., and Franck, L. (2000). Addressing barriers to blind pedestrians at signalized inter­ sections. ITE Journal, 70(9), 32–35. Bhise, V. D. (1973). Visual search by drivers in freeway merging: Implications for vehicle design. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society Annual Meeting, 17(1), 152–161. Bhise, V. D., Farber, E. I., Saunby, C. S., Troell, G. M., Walunas, J. B., and Bernstein, A. (1977). Modeling vision with headlights in a systems context. Society of Automotive Engineers International Automotive Engineering Congress and Exposition. Bidulka, S., Sayed, T., and Hassan, Y. (2002). Influence of vertical alignment on horizontal curve perception: Phase I: Examining the hypothesis. Transportation Research Record, 1796, 12–23. Bird, R. N., and Hashim, I. H. (2005). Operating speed and geometry relationships for rural single carriageways in the UK. Proceedings of the 3rd Symposium on Highway Geometric Design [CD-ROM]. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Birk, M., Khan, A., Moore, I., and Lerch, D. (2004). San Francisco’s Shared Lane Pavement Markings: Improving Bicycle Safety. (Prepared for San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic). Alta Planning + Design. Retrieved June 3, 2008 from http://www.sccrtc.org/bikes/SF-SharedLaneMarkingReport-Feb04-FINAL.pdf. Blaser, P. (1990). Counterbeam lighting, a proven alternative for the lighting of the entrance zones of road tun­ nels. Transportation Research Record, 1287, 244–251. Bloch, S. A. (1998). A comparative study of the speed reduction effects of photo-radar and speed display boards. Transportation Research Record, 1640, 27–36. Bonneson, J., and Zimmerman, K. (2004). Red-Light-Running Handbook: An Engineer’s Guide to Reducing Red­ Light-Related Crashes. College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Bonneson, J., Zimmerman, K., and Brewer, M. A. (2002). Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light- Running (FHWA/TX-03/4027-2). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Book, J. A., and Smigielski, A. (1999). The 85th percentile. Do you believe? Results of a City of Glendale arterial speed study. Transportation Frontiers for the Next Millennium: 69th Annual Meeting of the Institute of Trans­ portation Engineers [CD-ROM]. Box, P. C. (1989). Major road accident reduction by illumination. Transportation Research Record, 1247, 32–38. Brehmer, C. L., Kacir, K. C., Noyce, D. A., and Manser, M. P. (2003). NCHRP Report 493: Evaluation of Traffic Signal Displays for Protected/Permissive Left-Turn Control. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Brewer, M. A., and Fitzpatrick, K. (2004). Preliminary Evaluations of Safety Treatments on Rural Highways in Texas. College Station, Texas: Texas Transportation Institute. Brich, S. C. (2002). A Determination of the Appropriateness of Virginia’s Retroreflective Sign Sheeting Specification for Fluorescent Orange Construction and Maintenance Signs. Final Report (FHWA/VTRC 03-R5). Charlottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council. Brooks, J. O., Goodenough, R. R., Tyrrell, R. A., Guirl, C., Moore, K., Klein, N., et al. (2009). How well do drivers understand their own headlights? Proceedings of the Fifth International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, 384–390. Bullough, J. D., Zhang, X., Skinner, N. P., and Rea, M. S. (2009). Design and Evaluation of Effective Crosswalk Illumination. (FHWA-NJDOT-2009-003). Trenton: New Jersey Department of Transportation. 23-2

HFG REFERENCES Version 2.0 Bushman, R., and Lindsay, C. (2002). Improving safety with dynamic warning systems. In Z. G. Zacharia (Ed.). Proceedings: International Truck and Bus Safety Research and Policy Symposium (pp. 451–459). April 3–5, 2002, Knoxville, TN. Caird, J., and Hancock, P. (1994). The perception of arrival time for different oncoming vehicles arriving at an intersection. Ecological Psychology, 6, 83–109. California Department of Transportation (2004). MUTCD 2003 California Supplement, Part 4: Highway Traffic Signals, Section 4L.02 In-Roadway Warning Lights at Crosswalks, Sacramento. Retrieved from http://www. dot.ca.gov/hq/traffops/signtech/mutcdsupp/supplement.htm. Campbell, B. J., Zegeer, C. V., Huang, H. H., and Cynecki, M. J. (2004). A Review of Pedestrian Safety Research in the United States and Abroad. (FHWA-RD-03-042). McLean, VA: FHWA. Campbell, B. N., Smith, J. D., and Najm, W. G. (2004). Analysis of Fatal Crashes Due to Signal and Stop Sign Viola­ tions (DOT HS 809 779). Cambridge, MA: Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. Campbell, J. L., Carney, C., and Kantowitz, B. H. (1998). Human Factors Design Guidelines for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) and Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) (FHWA-RD-98-057). Washington, DC: FHWA. Campbell, J. L., Richard, C. M., Brown, J. L., Nakata, A., and Kludt, K. (2003). Technical Synthesis of IVI Human Factors Research: Compendium of IVI Human Factors Research. Seattle, WA: Battelle Human Factors Trans­ portation Center. Campbell, J. L., Richman, J. B., Carney, C., and Lee, J. D. (2004). In-Vehicle Display Icons and Other Information Elements. Volume I: Guidelines (FHWA-RD-03-065). McLean, VA: FHWA. (http://www.tfhrc.gov/safety/ pubs/03065/index.htm). Campbell, J. L., and Spiker, A. (1992). Task Analysis for the RAH-66 Comanche Helmet Integrated Display Sight System (HIDSS). Iteration 3: Sub-Task Analysis. Santa Barbara, CA: Anacapa Sciences, Inc. Carlson, P. J., and Hawkins, G. (2003). Legibility of overhead guide signs with encapsulated versus micro- prismatic retroreflective sheeting. Transportation Research Record, 1844, 59–66. Casey, S. M., and Lund, A. K. (1987). Three field studies of driver speed adaptation. Human Factors, 29(5), 541–550. Center for Education and Research in Safety (2002). Report on Human Factors Comparison on Perceived Mean­ ing of Three Alternative Shared Use Symbols (Submitted to The City of San Francisco). Retrieved from http://members.cox.net/ncutcdbtc/sls/cerssf02.pdf. Chambless, J., Ghadiali, A. M., Lindy, J. K., and McFadden, J. (2002). Multistate work-zone crash characteris­ tics. ITE Journal, 72(5), 46–50. Charlton, S. G. (2007). The role of attention in horizontal curves: A comparison of advance warning, delineator, and road marking treatments. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(5), 873–885. Charlton, S. G., and de Pont, J. J. (2007). Curve Speed Management (Research Report 323). Waterloo Quay, Wellington: Land Transport New Zealand. Chitturi, M. V., and Benekohal, R. F. (2005). Effect of lane width on speeds of cars and heavy vehicles in work zones. Transportation Research Record, 1920, 41–48. Choudhury, C. F., Ramanujam, V., and Ben-Akiva, M. E. (2009). Modeling acceleration decisions for freeway merges. Transportation Research Board 88th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers [CD-ROM]. Chovan, J., Tijerina, L., Everson, J., Pierowicz, J., and Hendricks, D. (1994). Examination of Intersection, Left Turn Across Path Crashes and Potential IVHS Countermeasures (DOT HS 808 154). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Chrysler, S., and Schrock, S. (2005). Field Evaluations and Driver Comprehension Studies of Horizontal Signing (FHWA/TX-05/0-4471-2). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Chrysler, S., Schrock, S., Williams, A. (2006). Research Recommendations for Pavement Marking Words and Sym­ bols. College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Chrysler, S. T., Carlson, P. J., and Hawkins, H. G. (2002). Nighttime legibility of ground-mounted traffic signs as a function of font, color, and retroreflective sheeting type. (FHWA/TX-03/1796-2). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Chrysler, S. T., Carlson, P. J., and Hawkins, H. G. (2003). Nighttime legibility of traffic signs as a function of font, color, and retroreflective sheeting. Transportation Research Board 82nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers [CD-ROM]. Chrysler, S. T., Carlson, P. J., and Williams, A. A. (2005). Simplifying delineator applications for horizontal curves. Transportation Research Record, 1918, 68–75. Chrysler, S. T., and Nelson, A. A. (2009). Driver Comprehension of Managed Lane Signing. (FHWA/TX-09/ 0-5446-3). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Chrysler, S. T., Williams, A. A., and Fitzpatrick, K. (2008). Driver Comprehension of Signing and Markings for Toll Facilities. (FHWA/TX-08/0-5446-2). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. 23-3

HFG REFERENCES Version 2.0 Chrysler, S. T., Williams, A. A., Funkhouser, D. S., Holick, A. J., and Brewer, M. A. (2007). Driver Comprehen­ sion of Diagrammatic Freeway Guide Signs. College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Chu, X. (2006). Pedestrian Safety at Midblock Locations. (CUTR BD544-16). Tallahassee: Florida Department of Transportation. Clark, K. L., Hummer, J. E., and Dutt, N. (1996). Field evaluation of fluorescent strong yellow-green pedestrian warning signs. Transportation Research Record, 1538, 39–46. Clément, R., and Jonah, B. A. (1984). Field dependence, sensation seeking and driving behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(1), 87–93. Cline, E. L. (1999). Adherence to design standards and guidelines: The human factor. 69th ITE Annual Meeting. CNS Vision Lab. (n.d.) Heading Perception: Where Am I Going? Retrieved November 24, 2009 from http://cns. bu.edu/visionlab/projects/buk/. Coleman, F., III, and Moon, Y. J. (1996). Design of gate delay and gate interval time for four-quadrant gate sys­ tem at railroad-highway grade crossings. Transportation Research Record, 1553, 124–131. Colomb, M., Hubert, R., Carta, V., and Bry, M. (1991). Variable-message signs: Legibility and recognition of symbols. VTI Rapport, 372A, 46–62. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (1999). COST 331: Requirements for Horizontal Road Marking. Luxem­ bourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/ pub/cost-transport/docs/331-en.pdf. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (2002). CIE equations for disability glare. CIE 146:2002. Vienna, Austria. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (2004). Guide for the lighting of road tunnels and underpasses. CIE 88:2004. Vienna, Austria. Cooner, S. A., and Ranft, S. E. (2008). Wrong-way driving on freeways: Problems, issues, and countermeasures. Transportation Research Board 87th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers [CD-ROM]. Cooner, S. A., Cothron, A. S., and Ranft, S. E. (2004). Countermeasures for Wrong-Way Movement on Freeways: Guidelines and Recommended Practices. (FHWA/TX-04/4128-2). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Cooper, P. J. (1997). The relationship between speeding behaviour (as measured by violation convictions) and crash involvement. Journal of Safety Research, 28(2), 83–95. Cornette, D. L. (1972). Operational Characteristics of Lane Drops. (KYHPR-70-63, HPR-1(18), Part II). Lexing­ ton: Kentucky Bureau of Highways. Council, F. M., Persaud B., Eccles K., Lyon, C., and Griffith M. S. (2005). Safety Evaluation of Red-Light Cameras. (FHWA-HRT-05-048). McLean, VA: FHWA. Council, F. M., Reinfurt, D. W., Campbell, B. J., Roediger, F. L., Carroll, C. L., Dutt, A. K., and Dunham, J. R. (1980). Accident Research Manual (FHWA-RD-80-016). Washington, DC: FHWA. Crisman, B., Marchionna, A., Perco, P., Robba, A., and Roberti, R. (2005). Operating speed prediction model for two-lane rural roads. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Highway Geometric Design [CD-ROM]. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Davis, G. A., and Swenson, T. (2004). Field study of gap acceptance by left-turning drivers. Transportation Research Record, 1899, 71–75. Davis, K. D., and Hallenbeck, M. E. (2008). Evaluation of Engineering Treatments and Pedestrian and Motorist Behavior on Major Arterials in Washington State (WA-RD 707.1). Olympia: Washington State Department of Transportation. DePelsmacker, P., and Janssens, W. (2007). The effect of norms, attitudes and habits on speeding behavior: Scale development and model building and estimation. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 39(1), 6–15. De Waard, D., Dijksterhuis, C., and Brookhuis, K. A. (2009). Merging into heavy motorway traffic by young and elderly drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 41(3), 588–597. Dewar, R. E., Kline, D. W., Schieber, F., and Swanson, H. A. (1994). Symbol Signing Design for Older Drivers (FHWA-RD-94-069). Washington, DC: FHWA. Dingus, T. A., Antin, J. F., Hulse, M. C., and Wierwille, W. W. (1989). Attentional demand requirements of an auto­ mobile moving-map navigation system. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 23A(4), 301–315. Doctor, M., Merritt, G., and Moler, S. (2009). Designing complex interchanges. Public Roads, 73(3), 3–11. Donges, E. (1978). Two-level model of driver steering behavior. Human Factors, 20(6), 691–707. Dougald, L. (2004). Development of Guidelines for Installation of Marked Crosswalks (VTRC 05-R18). Char­ lottesville: Virginia Transportation Research Council. Dudek, C. (2002). Guidelines for changeable message sign messages. Presentation at the TMC Pooled-Fund Study Annual Meeting, Arlington, VA. Retrieved on July 21, 2006, from http://tmcpfs.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/ meetings/mtg_detail.cfm?id=10 Dudek, C. L. (1991). Guidelines on the Use of Changeable Message Signs. (FHWA-TS-90-043). McLean, VA: FHWA. 23-4

HFG REFERENCES Version 2.0 Dudek, C. L. (1992). Guidelines on the Use and Operation of Changeable Message Signs. (FHWA-TX-92-1232-9). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Dudek, C. L. (1997). NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 237: Changeable Message Signs. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Dudek, C. L. (2004). Changeable Message Sign Operation and Messaging Handbook. (FHWA-OP-03-070). College Station: Texas Transportation Institute. Dudek, C. L., Schrock, S. D., and Ullman, G. L. (2005). Impacts of Using Dynamic Features to Display Messages on Changeable Message Signs. (FHWA-HOP-05-069). Washington, DC: FHWA. Dudek, C. L., and Ullman, G. L. (2002). Flashing messages, flashing lines, and alternating one line on change­ able message signs. Transportation Research Record, 1803, 94–101. Edwards, C. J., and Gibbons, R. B. (2008). Relationship of vertical illuminance to pedestrian visibility in cross­ walks. Transportation Research Record, 2056, 9–16. 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Transportation Research Record, 1093, 43–47. Evans, L. (1970). Speed estimation from a moving automobile. Ergonomics 13, 219–230. Fambro, D. B., Fitzpatrick, K., and Koppa, R. J. (1997). NCHRP Report 400: Determination of Stopping Sight Distances. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board. Farber, E., and Matle, C. (1989). PCDETECT: A revised version of the DETECT seeing distance model. Trans­ portation Research Record, 1213, 11–20. FHWA (1995). Improvements in symbol sign design to aid older drivers. Summary report. (FHWA-RD-95-129). McLean, VA. FHWA (1997). Synthesis of Human Factors Research on Older Drivers and Highway Safety Volume 2 (FHWA RD­ 97-095). Retrieved from http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/97095/index.html. FHWA (2000). Roundabouts: An Informational Guide (FHWA-RD-00-067). Washington, DC. FHWA (2006). Federal Highway Administration University Course on Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation. Lesson 12: Midblock Crossings. 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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition provides data and insights of the extent to which road users’ needs, capabilities, and limitations are influenced by the effects of age, visual demands, cognition, and influence of expectancies.

NCHRP Report 600 provides guidance for roadway location elements and traffic engineering elements. The report also provides tutorials on special design topics, an index, and a glossary of technical terms.

The second edition of NCHRP 600 completes and updates the first edition, which was published previously in three collections.

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