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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Opportunities to Improve Representation of Clouds and Aerosols in Climate Models with Classified Observing Systems: Proceedings of a Workshop: Abbreviated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23527.
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References


Boucher, O., D. Randall, P. Artaxo, C. Bretherton, G. Feingold, P. Forster, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Kondo, H. Liao, U. Lohmann, P. Rasch, S. K. Satheesh, S. Sherwood, B. Stevens, and X. Y. Zhang. 2013. Clouds and Aerosols. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, eds. Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Foster, P., V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Bernsten, R. Betts, D. W. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. C. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. Van Dorland. 2007. Changes in Atmospheric Constituents and in Radiative Forcing. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H. L. Miller, eds. Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Ghan, S., and M. Wang, Nanjing University. 2015. On constraining effective radiative forcing by cloud-aerosol interactions in climate models. Presentation to Classified Workshop on Opportunities to Improve the Representation of Clouds and Aerosols in Climate Models with National Collection Systems, Washington, DC, September 30, 2015.

Haywood, J., and O. Boucher. 2000. Estimates of the direct and indirect radiative forcing due to tropospheric aerosols: A review. Reviews of Geophysics 38(4):513-543.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2013. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, eds. Cambridge, UK, and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press.

Prather, M. 2015. Scientific context: What variables need to be measured and where? How do we now measure clouds and aerosols? Presentation to Classified Workshop on Opportunities to Improve the Representation of Clouds and Aerosols in Climate Models with National Collection Systems, Washington, DC, September 28, 2015.

Rosenfeld, D., S. Sherwood, R. Wood, and L. Donner. 2014. Climate effects of aerosol-cloud interactions. Science 343:379-380.

Seinfeld, J. H., C. Bretherton, K. S. Carslaw, H. Coee, P. J. DeMott, E. J. Dunlea, G. Feingold, S. Ghai, A. B. Guenther, R. Kahn, I. Kraucunas, S. M. Kreidenweis, M. J. Molina, A. Nenes, J. E. Penner, K. A. Prather, V. Ramanathan, V. Ramaswamys, P. J. Rasch, A. R. Ravishankara, D. Rosenfeld, G. Stephens, and R. Wood. Improving our fundamental understanding of the role of aerosol-cloud interactions in the climate system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113(21):5781-5790, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1514043113.

Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Opportunities to Improve Representation of Clouds and Aerosols in Climate Models with Classified Observing Systems: Proceedings of a Workshop: Abbreviated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23527.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Opportunities to Improve Representation of Clouds and Aerosols in Climate Models with Classified Observing Systems: Proceedings of a Workshop: Abbreviated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23527.
×
Page 15
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Opportunities to Improve Representation of Clouds and Aerosols in Climate Models with Classified Observing Systems: Proceedings of a Workshop: Abbreviated Version. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23527.
×
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Next: Appendix A: Statement of Task »
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One of the most significant and uncertain aspects of climate change projections is the impact of aerosols on the climate system. Aerosols influence the climate indirectly by interacting with nearby clouds leading to small changes in cloud cover, thickness, and altitude, which significantly affect Earth’s radiative balance. Advancements have been made in recent years on understanding the complex processes and atmospheric interactions involved when aerosols interact with surrounding clouds, but further progress has been hindered by limited observations.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine organized a workshop to discuss the usefulness of the classified observing systems in advancing understanding of cloud and aerosol interactions. Because these systems were not developed with weather and climate modeling as a primary mission objective, many participants said it is necessary for scientists to find creative ways to utilize the data. The data from these systems have the potential to be useful in advancing understanding of cloud and aerosol interactions. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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