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New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment (2016)

Chapter: Front Matter

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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NEW WORLDS,
NEW HORIZONS

A Midterm Assessment

Committee on the Review of Progress Toward the Decadal Survey Vision in
New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics

Space Studies Board

Board of Physics and Astronomy

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Report of

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This study is based on work supported by Contract No. NNH11CD57B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Grant No. AST-1533814 with the National Science Foundation, and Award No. DE-SC0014211 with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the U.S. government. Neither the U.S. government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the U.S. government or any agency thereof. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any agency or organization that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-44510-8
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Suggested Citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/23560.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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COMMITTEE ON THE REVIEW OF PROGRESS TOWARD THE DECADAL SURVEY VISION IN NEW WORLDS, NEW HORIZONS IN ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chair

ADAM S. BURROWS, Princeton University

NEIL J. CORNISH, Montana State University

ANDREW W. HOWARD, University of Hawaii, Manoa

BRUCE MACINTOSH, Stanford University

RICHARD F. MUSHOTZKY, University of Maryland

ANGELA V. OLINTO, University of Chicago

STEVEN M. RITZ, University of California, Santa Cruz

ALEXEY VIKHLININ, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

DAVID H. WEINBERG, Ohio State University

RAINER WEISS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

ERIC M. WILCOTS, University of Wisconsin

EDWARD L. WRIGHT, University of California, Los Angeles

A. THOMAS YOUNG, Lockheed Martin, retired

Staff

DAVID B. LANG, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Study Director

KATIE DAUD, Research Associate, Space Studies Board

DIONNA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Coordinator, Space Studies Board

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director, Board on Physics and Astronomy

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

DAVID N. SPERGEL, Princeton University, Chair

ROBERT D. BRAUN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Vice Chair

JAMES G. ANDERSON, Harvard University

JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant

JAY C. BUCKEY, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center

MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Dittmar Associates, Inc.

JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation

THOMAS R. GAVIN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

NEIL GEHRELS, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research

WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution of Washington

ANTHONY C. JANETOS, Boston University

CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, The George Washington University

DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, University of California, Los Angeles

BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto

ROSALY M. C. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory

DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

SAUL PERLMUTTER, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley

BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto

HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire

MARK H. THIEMENS, University of California, San Diego

MEENAKSHI WADHWA, Arizona State University

MICHAEL H. MOLONEY, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

BOARD ON PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY

BARBARA V. JACAK, Stony Brook University, Chair

CHARLES L. BENNETT, Johns Hopkins University, Vice Chair

RICCARDO BETTI, University of Rochester

TODD DITMIRE, University of Texas, Austin

NATHANIEL J. FISCH, Princeton University

DANIEL FISHER, Stanford University

PAUL FLEURY, Yale University

WENDY FREEMAN, University of Chicago

GERALD GABRIELSE, Harvard University

JACQUELINE N. HEWITT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

BARBARA JONES, IBM Almaden Research Center

HERBERT LEVINE, Rice University

ABRAHAM (AVI) LOEB, Harvard University

MONICA OLVERA DE LA CRUZ, Northwestern University

PAUL SCHECHTER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JAMES C. LANCASTER, Director

DAVID B. LANG, Senior Program Officer

NEERAJ GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

LINDA WALKER, Program Coordinator

HENRY KO, Research Assistant

BETH DOLAN, Financial Associate

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

Preface

The Committee on the Review of Progress Toward the Decadal Survey Vision in New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics was charged to review the responses of NASA’s Astrophysics program, the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Astronomy program, and the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Cosmic Frontiers program (hereafter the agencies’ programs) to previous National Research Council (NRC)1 advice, primarily the 2010 decadal survey, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics2 (hereafter referred to as NWNH). The complete statement of task is reprinted in Appendix A.

To address its task, the committee held four in-person meetings, including a science symposium, and many teleconferences during its work from October 2015 through May 2016. These meetings involved speaking with government policymakers, researchers in the community, authors of earlier advisory reports (including those of the NRC), leaders of ongoing activities recommended in NWNH, and foreign space agency representatives. In particular, the science symposium, held on December 12, 2015, at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering in Irvine, California, featured leading astronomers who provided assessments of the scientific progress in each

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1 Effective July 1, 2015, the institution is called the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. References in this report to the NRC are used in an historical context identifying programs prior to July 1.

2 National Research Council (NRC), 2010, New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

of the Science Frontier Panel areas of the 2010 astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey.3 The committee also organized a splinter meeting at the January 2016 meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Kissimmee, Florida, at which the committee provided a brief summary of its scope and activities and then engaged in discussion with the attendees. Lastly, the committee created a public email box for anyone who wished to provide input to the study process.

This report was written to convey the substantial and exciting progress that has been achieved in astronomy and astrophysics since the August 2010 release of NWNH, to describe the events and factors that have constrained further discovery, and to recommend actions that could give humankind an even deeper understanding of our universe.

The committee discussed its scope extensively. As stated in its task, the committee is not to “revisit or alter the scientific priorities or mission recommendations” from NWNH or other reports of the NRC, but could “provide guidance on implementation of the recommended science and activities portfolio and on other potential activities in preparation for the next decadal survey.” This guidance therefore prohibited the committee from changing the survey’s priorities but did provide the latitude to recommend course corrections, where needed, as long as the relative priorities of the survey were maintained.

A general priority of NWNH was restoring and then maintaining a balanced astronomy and astrophysics portfolio. Likewise, echoing NWNH’s perspective, the current committee similarly stressed the importance of executing a balanced research program. Thus, in the section “The Goal of a Balanced Program,” in Chapter 2 of this report, the committee lays out the guiding principles on balance taken from NWNH and used in its analysis of the present science program. The layout of this report mirrors the committee’s charge. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the most significant scientific discoveries, technical advances, and relevant programmatic changes in astronomy and astrophysics over the years since the publication of NWNH. Chapters 3 and 4 assess how well the agencies’ programs address the strategies, goals, and priorities outlined in NWNH and other relevant NRC reports; assess the progress toward realizing these strategies, goals, and priorities; and recommend actions that could be taken to maximize the science return of the agencies’ programs. Concluding the report, Chapter 5 responds to the element of the committee’s task to provide guidance on potential activities in preparation for the next decadal survey.

For consistency with NWNH and per its charge, the committee incorporated the scientific scope of NWNH into its own assessment. Per the survey, “[o]nly

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3 These panels’ scientific areas were Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, the Galactic Neighborhood, Galaxies across Cosmic Time, Planetary Systems and Star Formation, and Stars and Stellar Evolution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

physics topics with a strong overlap with astronomy and astrophysics were within the study charge. In addition, only ground- and not space-based solar astronomy was to be considered. Direct detection of dark matter was also excluded from prioritization.” NWNH also excluded ground-based observations of gravitational waves, so the committee did as well.

The committee was fortunate enough to be able to rely on recent work done by other committees, including Evaluation of the Implementation of WFIRST/AFTA in the Context of New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics,4Optimizing the U.S. Ground-Based Optical and Infrared Astronomy System,5The Space Science Decadal Surveys: Lessons Learned and Best Practices,6 and annual reports of the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee, among others. These reports provided the current committee with an indispensable source of background and analysis on many complex topics that it did not have the time nor depth of knowledge in which to be able to delve effectively.

On behalf of the committee, I would like to thank the many very busy people in the U.S. government and astronomy and astrophysics community, as well as those abroad, who helped the committee through presentations, written input, and discussions. A special thanks goes to the staff of the Board on Physics and Astronomy and the Space Studies Board: Katie Daud, James Lancaster, David Lang, Michael Moloney, Linda Walker, and Dionna Williams. Their guidance and support were critical to the success of this effort. This report, although ultimately written by the committee, was only possible thanks to the countless pieces of input contributed by many.

Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Chair
Committee on the Review of Progress Toward the Decadal Survey Vision in New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics

___________________

4 NRC, 2014, Evaluation of the Implementation of WFIRST/AFTA in the Context of New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

5 NRC, 2015, Optimizing the U.S. Ground-Based Optical and Infrared Astronomy System, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

6 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2015, The Space Science Decadal Surveys: Lessons Learned and Best Practices, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Eric G. Adelberger, University of Washington,

Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering,

Mitchell Begelman, University of Colorado, Boulder,

James Fienup, University of Rochester,

B. Scott Gaudi, The Ohio State University,

Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology,

Robert P. Kirshner, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation,

Rene Ong, University of California, Los Angeles,

George H. Rieke, University of Arizona,

Adam G. Riess, Johns Hopkins University, and

Anneila Sargent, California Institute of Technology.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommenda-

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
×

tions, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, New Jersey Institute of Technology, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23560.
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New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics (NWNH), the report of the 2010 decadal survey of astronomy and astrophysics, put forward a vision for a decade of transformative exploration at the frontiers of astrophysics. This vision included mapping the first stars and galaxies as they emerge from the collapse of dark matter and cold clumps of hydrogen, finding new worlds in a startlingly diverse population of extrasolar planets, and exploiting the vastness and extreme conditions of the universe to reveal new information about the fundamental laws of nature. NWNH outlined a compelling program for understanding the cosmic order and for opening new fields of inquiry through the discovery areas of gravitational waves, time-domain astronomy, and habitable planets. Many of these discoveries are likely to be enabled by cyber-discovery and the power of mathematics, physics, and imagination. To help realize this vision, NWNH recommended a suite of innovative and powerful facilities, along with balanced, strong support for the scientific community engaged in theory, data analysis, technology development, and measurements with existing and new instrumentation. Already in the first half of the decade, scientists and teams of scientists working with these cutting-edge instruments and with new capabilities in data collection and analysis have made spectacular discoveries that advance the NWNH vision.

New Worlds, New Horizons: A Midterm Assessment reviews the responses of NASA’s Astrophysics program, NSF’s Astronomy program, and DOE’s Cosmic Frontiers program to NWNH. This report describes the most significant scientific discoveries, technical advances, and relevant programmatic changes in astronomy and astrophysics over the years since the publication of the decadal survey, and assesses how well the Agencies’ programs address the strategies, goals, and priorities outlined in the 2010 decadal survey.

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