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Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration SubScriber categorieS Aviationâ â¢â Environment A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 77 Airport Sustainability Practices A Synthesis of Airport Practice conSultant Amy Malick Haley & Aldrich, Inc. Oakland, California 2016
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation sys- tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, mainte- nance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100âCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary par- ticipants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consul- tants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences for- mally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodi- cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research prob- lem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily with- out compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 77 Project A11-03, Topic S02-14 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-38976-1 Library of Congress Control Number 2016941222 Â© 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessari- ly those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
TOPIC PANEL S02-14 DAVID J. FULL, Reynolds, Smith, and Hills, Inc., San Francisco, CA KRISTIN M. LEMASTER, Changing Climates Consulting, San Francisco, CA I. RICHMOND NETTEY, Kent State University, Kent, OH ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY PHILIP A. RALSTON, Port of Portland, Portland, OR RYAN A. SPICER, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport Board, DFW Airport, TX TODD H. WELTY, RenoâTahoe Airport Authority, Tahoe, NV PATRICK W. MAGNOTTA, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) RHONDA SOLOMON, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) KATHERINE B. PRESTON, Airports Council InternationalâNorth America (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer JEFFREY OSER, Program Associate EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR JOSHUA D. ABRAMSON, Easterwood Airport, College Station, TX JULIE KENFIELD, Jacobsen/Daniels Associates, LLC, Garden Ridge, TX MEMBERS DEBBIE K. ALKE, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT GLORIA G. BENDER, TransSolutions, Fort Worth, TX DAVID A. BYERS, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL DAVID N. EDWARDS, JR., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC BRENDA L. ENOS, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA LINDA HOWARD, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, TX ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY FAA LIAISON PATRICK W. MAGNOTTA AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION LIAISON ADAM WILLIAMS AIRPORTS CONSULTANTS COUNCIL LIAISON MATTHEW J. GRIFFIN AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONALâNORTH AMERICA LIAISON LIYING GU TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER Cover figure: (upper left) Composting collection alongside waste and recycling in YVR food court (Source: Vancouver International Airport); (upper right) DFW employs an asset management team to manage its fleet assets (Source: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport; (lower left) obsolete marking signage at ORD is transformed into high-end travel bag (Source: United Airlines); (lower right) HMSHost collects surplus packaged food for local food banks (Source: HMSHost).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Principal Investigator wishes to acknowledge the airports, airport business partners, and other airport stakeholders that offered new insights into current airport sustainability practices through this project. Airport sustainability has advanced substantially in recent years largely as a result of the open and transparent sharing of experiences across the industry, and practitioners rely heavily on the airport community to provide guidance and lessons learned about the implementation of their sustainability programs. The Principal Investigator is grateful to the individuals that participated in this project by sharing their unique stories about their sustainability initiatives and by contributing to the ongoing enhancement of the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website. The contributors included: â¢â âPeterâAdamsâandâNateâKimball,âPortâAuthorityâofâNewâYorkâ&âNewâJersey â¢â TedâAnasis,âSanâDiegoâInternationalâAirport â¢â KimâGalvin-Fix,âAmericanâAirlines â¢â ShayeâFolk-Blagbrough,âVancouverâInternationalâAirport â¢â âBobâLucasâandâKevinâLynch,âCharlotteâDouglasâInternationalâAirport â¢â JimâSchmitz,âHMSHost â¢â RyanâSpicer,âDallasâFortâWorthâInternationalâAirport â¢â AaronâStash,âUnitedâAirlines â¢â ToddâWelty,âRenoâTahoeâInternationalâAirport â¢â BryanâWagoner,âWayneâCountyâAirportâAuthority These contributions are essential to maintaining a useful and relevant resource for airports and aviation in general.
FOREWORD Airport sustainability has evolved considerably, and airports large and small and of most every geographic area are pursuing sustainability initiatives that span environmental protec- tion, social responsibility, and contributions to local economies. In response to this evolu- tion, the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website was developed to assist airport operators in developing sustainability programs. The website contains entries on more than 900 sustainability practices that were developed by SAGAâs initial stakeholder group. However, a large percentage of these entries do not contain actual practice data. Stakeholders of SAGA seek continued enhancement of the website, not only in its structure but in its content. This synthesis compiles data on 10 new sustainability practices and adds them to SAGA. It also provides guidance to those who have new data to input. Case studies were generated by seven airport operators, two airlines, and one concession- aire from a range of geographic locations. The practice topics span issues relating to sustain- ability management, waste reduction, social responsibility, climate change, and water quality. Those who generated information entered the data into SAGA and provided usability infor- mation as to the ease of data entry and enhancements still needed for maximum ease of use. AmyâMalick,âHaleyâ&âAldrich,âInc.,âOakland,âCalifornia,âcollectedâandâsynthesizedâtheâ information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on page iv. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its prepara- tion. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Coop- erative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Scope of Study, 3 Methodology, 4 Sustainability Practice and Case Example Selection, 4 Data Collection, Input, and User Feedback, 4 5 CHAPTER TWO SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICE DESCRIPTIONS, DATA, AND CASE EXAMPLES Selected Practice Descriptions and Case Examples, 5 Economic Performance Practices, 5 Practice 1: Develop an Asset or Infrastructure Management Plan, 5 Practice 2: Develop and Implement an Environmental Management System to Track Progress in Improving Environmental Performance, 8 Practice 3: Integrate Climate Resilience Considerations in Airport Development Projects, 10 Energy and Climate Practices, 13 Practice 4: Tie Sustainability Goals and Objectives into the Operations and Maintenance and Capital Improvement Program Budget Process, 13 Engagement and Leadership Practices, 16 Practice 5: Donate Surplus Equipment and Other Goods to Charity, 16 Practice 6: Donate Surplus Food to Charity, 18 Water and Waste Practices, 19 Practice 7: Develop an Onsite Materials Recovery Facility, 19 Practice 8: Use Recovered Glycol as a âFeedstockâ for Reformulated Aircraft De-icing Fluid, Vehicle Anti-Freeze, Aircraft Lavatory Fluid, Coolants, Coatings, and Paints, 22 Practice 9: Establish an Airport Composting Program, 24 Practice 10: Upcycle Materials from Indoor Advertising, 26 29 CHAPTER THREE REPORTING SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES THROUGH THE SUSTAINABLE AVIATION GUIDANCE ALLIANCE (SAGA) WEBSITE Data Entry Process, 29 Findings on Usability of the SAGA Website, 29 Website Navigation, 29 Technical Issues, 30 Interpretation of SAGA Data Categories, 30 32 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Successful Airport Sustainability Practices, 32 Successful Reporting of Sustainability Practices through the SAGA Website, 33 Lessons Learned and Evolving Issues: Expanding the SAGA Audience, 33 Suggestions for Further Research, 33
35 ACRONYMS 36 REFERENCES 37 APPENDIX A NAVIGATION OF THE DATA ENTRY PROCESS 38 APPENDIX B USABILITY SURVEYS Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.