National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Sustainability Practices (2016)

Chapter: Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter Two - Sustainability Practice Descriptions, Data, and Case Examples ." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Airport Sustainability Practices. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23644.
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5 Ten (10) airports and airport business partners agreed to assemble and share case example data regard- ing their sustainability practices. Five of these practices were new entries in the SAGA website, and five were existing entries with no data. The case examples were generated by seven airport opera- tors, two airlines, and one concessionaire in a range of geographic locations. The topics span issues relating to sustainability management, waste reduction, social responsibility, climate change, and water quality, as summarized in Table 1. It should be noted that the practice data, case examples, and recommendations for improvements to the SAGA user experience cited in chapters two and three were provided by case example participants. As noted later in this report, participants provided data on their sustainability practices from the perspective of their own experiences. SELECTED PRACTICE DESCRIPTIONS AND CASE EXAMPLES For each sustainability practice, a narrative description of the practice and case example was devel- oped, and data assembled in accordance with the data fields in the SAGA website. These are presented accordingly here, organized by their respective primary practice categories as defined in SAGA. Case examples address three primary topics: the problem or challenge; the solution implemented; and the outcomes of the solution. ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE PRACTICES Practice 1: Develop an Asset or Infrastructure Management Plan According to the Institute of Asset Management, an asset management plan (AMP) incorporates a sys- tematic and coordinated set of activities and practices through which an organization optimally and sus- tainably manages its assets and asset systems, their associated performance, and risks and expenditures over their life cycles. Typically, an AMP will take a whole-system approach, covering more than a single asset. An AMP is a framework being widely adopted as a means to achieve sustainable infrastructure and minimize the total cost of owning and operating infrastructure while delivering desired service levels. AMPs can allow organizations to maintain asset data across departments and achieve better horizontal and vertical integration in asset management decision-making processes. Infrastructure asset manage- ment tends to focus specifically on the physical, rather than financial, assets. Generally, an AMP covers the following areas: (1) asset system description; (2) standard of service definition; (3) current asset performance; (4) planned actions; (5) costs; (6) benefits; and (7) potential improvements. The benefits of asset management may include: • Prolonging asset life and aiding in rehabilitation, repair, and replacement decisions through efficient and focused operations and maintenance; • Meeting consumer demands with a focus on system sustainability; • Budgeting focused on activities critical to sustained performance; • Meeting service expectations and regulatory requirements; • Improving responses to emergencies; • Improving the security and safety of assets; and • Reducing life-cycle costs for both operations and capital expenditures. Experience from other industries shows that an AMP can enable airports to do more with less; and to make better investment decisions, align managers, decision makers, and workers to a common chapter two SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICE DESCRIPTIONS, DATA, AND CASE EXAMPLES

6 Number Practice Case Example Primary SAGA Practice Category SAGA Status 1 Develop an Asset or Infrastructure Management Plan Dallas Fort–Worth International Airport (DFW) Economic Performance Existing entry with no data 2 Develop and implement an Environmental Management System to track progress in improving environmental performance Reno Tahoe International Airport (RNO) Economic Performance Existing entry with no data 3 Integrate climate resilience considerations in airport development projects Port Authority of New York & New Jersey (Multiple Airports) Economic Performance New entry 4 Tie sustainability goals and objectives into the operations and maintenance and capital improvement program budget process San Diego International Airport (SAN) Energy and Climate Existing entry with no data 5 Donate surplus equipment and other goods to charity American Airlines (AA) Engagement and Leadership Existing entry with no data 6 Donate surplus food to charity HMS Host Engagement and Leadership New entry 7 Develop an onsite materials recovery facility Charlotte–Douglas International Airport (CLT) Water and Waste Existing entry with no data 8 Use recovered glycol as a “feedstock” for reformulated aircraft deicing fluid, vehicle anti-freeze, aircraft lavatory fluid, coolants, coatings, and paints Wayne County Airport Authority or Denver International Airport (DTW) Water and Waste Existing entry with no data 9 Establish an Airport Composting Program Vancouver International Airport (YVR) Water and Waste New entry 10 Upcycle materials from indoor advertising United Airlines (UA) Water and Waste New entry TABLE 1 SUMMARY OF SELECTED SUSTAINABILITY PRACTICES AND CASE EXAMPLES purpose. This results in solutions and decisions that create effective economic, service level, and risk exposure outcomes; and improve flexibility to respond to changes in the regulatory and commercial environment. Faced with changing facility needs to better serve passengers over time, meet evolv- ing standards, and manage aging infrastructure, airport staff may benefit from an overarching asset management framework to promote long-term sustainability. Case Example: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) To better manage its growing list of assets in a manner that integrates sustainability into the capital decision processes, DFW implemented a robust, enterprise-level asset management system to track and monitor significant assets. Detailed data are created for each asset, allowing the organization to manage preventative and corrective maintenance schedules and evaluate performance-relative simi- lar assets. Expenses associated with parts and labor are tabulated to evaluate total life cycle costs of particular assets, allowing the organization to make informed decisions on repair and replacement schedules and optimize return on investment. An example of how DFW uses an enterprise asset management system can be observed in the tracking of fleet assets (Figure 1). Operating data such as miles driven or hours in use can be used to compare individual assets against the fleet average. Expenses associated with fuel, maintenance labor,

7 and replacement parts can be combined to determine the operational cost per mile or cost per hour for individual assets. Efficiency of maintenance activities can be measured in terms of preventative versus corrective maintenance, parts versus labor, and timeliness of maintenance tasks completed. Access to this combined data set enables the analysis required to make long-term operational and capital budget- ary decisions with regard to repair, redistribution, redeployment, and replacement of vehicle assets. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Very expensive (>$500,000 US) Operations and Maintenance Cost: High (>$100,000 US) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: High (>200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Quantitative metric with baseline for comparison practices is already tracked Maturity of Practice Proven at multiple airports Natural Resources Energy Reduction: Decreases energy consumption Environmental Benefits: Moderate environmental benefit Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Moderate social benefit Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service Categories Energy and Climate: Terminal building energy use Overall airport energy use Renewable energy use Terminal building greenhouse gas emission reductions FIGURE 1 DFW employs an asset management system to manage its fleet assets (Source: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport).

8 Overall airport greenhouse gas emission reductions Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Climate change adaption Ground Transportation: Fleet vehicle fuel economy Economic Performance: Airport financial viability Risk management Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Engagement & Leadership: Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Potable water conservation Water reduction Natural Resources: N/A Human Well-Being: N/A Related Links Institute of Asset Management, What is Asset Management? Practice 2: Develop and Implement an Environmental Management System to Track Progress in Improving Environmental Performance An Environmental Management System (EMS) helps organizations achieve environmental goals through a systematic approach toward regulatory compliance as well as sustainability issues such as energy and water management. An EMS allows organizations to clearly articulate regulatory require- ments and voluntary goals, track compliance and progress, and manage data through an electronic data- base. This systematic approach can help reduce the risk of non-compliance; improve health and safety practices for employees and the public; enhance transparency about environmental practices; and sup- port continuous improvement. An EMS can be tailored to meet the specific requirements and goals that apply to an organization, and does not imply that a particular level of achievement must be attained. According to the EPA, basic elements of an EMS include the following: • Reviewing the organization’s environmental goals; • Analyzing its environmental impacts and legal requirements; • Setting objectives and targets to reduce environmental impacts and comply with legal requirements; • Establishing programs to meet these objectives and targets; • Monitoring and measuring progress in achieving the objectives; • Ensuring employees’ environmental awareness and competence; and • Reviewing progress of the EMS and making improvements. The most commonly used framework for an EMS is the one developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the ISO 14001 standard. Established in 1996, this framework, based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act methodology, is the official international standard. Case Example: Reno–Tahoe International Airport (RNO) The Reno–Tahoe Airport Authority (RTAA) is the owner and operator of RNO and a general avia- tion reliever airport, Reno-Stead Airport (RTS). The RTAA believes that a healthy natural envi- ronment plays a crucial role in the strength of the local economy and the local community’s quality of life and is essential for the sustainability of the aviation industry. To meet the demands of sustainable aviation development and to protect the natural environment, the RTAA’s environ- mental programs endeavor to improve environmental practices, support pollution reduction and prevention, and foster environmental stewardship. This commitment goes beyond compliance with the law and encompasses the integration of sound environmental practices into daily deci- sions and activities.

9 Since 2008, RTAA has incorporated an EMS into its everyday practices to promote environmental awareness, resource conservation, waste reduction, reuse, and recycling. Aspects of the EMS include a terminal-wide recycling program at RNO which annually diverts approximately 60 to 80 tons of recyclables from the local landfill. Additionally, an asphalt/concrete deconstruction and re-use pro- gram for construction projects results in a 100% recycling of demolished pavement. An office supply reduction and green purchasing policy has helped reduce paper usage by approximately 10% and helps to ensure the purchase of products containing higher recycled content. Using the EMS approach, the RTAA has also implemented projects that have resulted in substantial energy savings (Figure 2). This includes energy-efficient lighting retrofits involving replacement of existing lighting fixtures to light-emitting diode, which have resulted in an annual energy cost savings of more than $250,000; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) upgrades that have resulted in considerable energy cost savings as well as operations and maintenance (O&M) cost reductions of approximately $200,000 annually; and installation of alternative energy generation. Installation of a 135 kilowatt (kW) solar photo voltaic system at RNO’s Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Facility reduces the annual purchased electricity usage by approximately 260,000 kW hours and reduces the annual electrical utility cost by approximately $30,000. Lastly, the most effective provision of the RTAA’s EMS reaffirms the responsibility of each person to conduct activities in a manner that will promote protection of employees, the local environment, and sustainable aviation. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Low cost ($5,000–$100,000 US) O&M Cost: Low ($5,000–$50,000 US) Payback Period: Immediate (0–2 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: Low (10–50 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Quantitative metric with baseline for comparisons practices and is already tracked Maturity of Practice Proven at multiple airports FIGURE 2 RTAA’s EMS Training Manual (Source: Reno–Tahoe Airport Authority).

10 Natural Resources Energy Reduction: Decreases energy consumption and generates renewable energy Environmental Benefits: Significant, multiple environmental benefits Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Moderate social benefit Characteristics Climate: Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service General aviation Cargo Military Categories Energy and Climate: Terminal building energy use Overall airport energy use Renewable energy use Ground Transportation: Fleet vehicle fuel economy Airside equipment fuel use Alternative vehicle fuels Economic Performance: Airport financial viability Risk management Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Material selection Construction waste diversion Construction impacts mitigation Recycled and bio-based content Low-toxicity material Environmentally preferable purchasing Engagement and Leadership: Airport-wide stakeholder engagement Public outreach Community stewardship Integrated sustainability management Airport user engagement and outreach Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Potable water conservation Water reduction Waste diversion Natural Resources: Landscape and grounds Airside stormwater quality Human Well-Being: Chemicals and hazardous materials Passenger experience Employee development Occupational health and safety Universal design Related Links U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Management Systems Website Practice 3: Integrate Climate Resilience Considerations in Airport Development Projects The risks associated with a changing climate are diverse and pose a number of both subtle and dramatic impacts on airports. In some locations, increased precipitation will shut down runways and overwhelm stormwater systems. In other places, increases in temperature may damage runway

11 pavements and aircraft equipment. Airports are coping with the “new normal” of increases in severe storms, prevalence of drought, and other extreme climate conditions. Given FAA’s statistic that 70% of airport delays are related to weather (Kulesa 2002), airports are particularly vulnerable to disruptions resulting from climate change, and are therefore increasingly considering resilience as it relates to airport projects and operations. Resilience includes effectively planning for, recovering from, and responding dynamically to hardship, change, or disasters while limiting impact on airport operations. Resilience is about planning to meet rapidly changing condi- tions to prevent issues before they arise, being able to meet challenges effectively during events, and being able to recover effectively to prevent future disruptions. Airports not only provide critical access to the regions they serve during extreme events, but also serve as a lifeline for supplies, aid, and other resources during disaster, furthering the importance of airport resilience. The integration of resilience considerations into new airport development projects can help ensure that climate change impacts are taken into account at the time that major investments are made. It is widely accepted that planning and designing for natural hazards is far more cost-effective than ret- rofitting existing facilities or recovering from extreme events. The integration of resilience in design guidance can effectively address climate change impacts during the design and development phase for new airport infrastructure, and can aid in the prevention of future weather-related disruptions at potentially minimal cost to the airport. Case Example: Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Airports (PANYNJ) Given the high likelihood and high consequence of climate impacts on PANYNJ assets, PANYNJ has developed resilience design guidelines to address anticipated climate impacts when designing infrastructure and buildings. The guidelines consider several potential impacts, including higher temperatures, increased precipitation, sea level rise, and severe storms. As a result of the increased incidence of flooding of PANYNJ assets, the guidelines focus on avoiding flood impacts on future infrastructure through a 10-step approach. The approach encourages a collaborative effort, led by the project engineer or architect, with information and support from various agency departments, includ- ing the resilience and sustainability group. The guidelines establish the following steps: 1. Identify flood risks to project scope. 2. Determine the influence of any area or system-wide strategy to determine if the project is sufficiently protected. 3. Determine whether the project is part of an emergency plan or an enterprise risk plan and, if so, incorporate these plans into the project if applicable. 4. Review current codes to determine the minimum flood projection or elevation level required. 5. Determine funding source requirements/guidelines as projects receiving federal, state or local funding may need to incorporate specific flood resilience criteria. 6. Identify critical infrastructure. 7. Determine project life expectancy, which may be directly tied to the risk of occurrence. 8. Determine flood protection level: PANYNJ has developed flood protection levels which adjust for anticipated sea level rise based on the design life and criticality of the asset. The project team should utilize these elevations unless the project is proven to be cost-prohibitive based on the cost benefit analysis. 9. Perform benefit/cost analysis to weight the capital investment, the benefits associated with the mitigation strategy and the costs of not performing the investment over time. 10. Establish flood resilience criteria that can then be incorporated into the basis of design. Although the guidelines were recently developed, PANYNJ has successfully incorporated resil- ient design elements into new projects as a result of the increased emphasis on managing flood risk. For instance, a substation at LaGuardia International Airport (LGA) was designed at a higher eleva- tion to protect against flooding (Figure 3).

12 Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Marginal cost (<$5,000 US) O&M Cost: Moderate (>$50,000–$100,000 US) Payback Period: Moderate (5–15 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: Moderate (50–200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Qualitative metric Maturity of Practice Trial tested Natural Resources Energy Reduction: No effect on energy consumption Environmental Benefits: Moderate environmental benefit Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Significant, multiple social benefits Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service General aviation Cargo Military Categories Energy and Climate: Climate change adaption Ground Transportation: N/A Economic Performance: Airport financial viability Risk management Regional economic contributions Design and Materials: Material selection Engagement & Leadership: Airport-wide stakeholder engagement Public outreach Airport user engagement and outreach FIGURE 3 A substation was designed to a higher design flood elevation at LGA to alleviate flood risk (Source: Port Authority of New York & New Jersey).

13 Water and Waste: N/A Natural Resources: Landscape and grounds Pervious surface Human Well-Being: Passenger experience Occupational health and safety Related Links 1. Kulesa, G., Weather and Aviation: How Does Weather Affect the Safety and Operations of Airports and Aviation, and How Does FAA Work to Manage Weather-related Effects? 2. Baglin, C., ACRP Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience 3. Dewberry, ACRP Report 147: Climate Change Adaptation Planning: Risk Assessment for Airports ENERGY AND CLIMATE PRACTICES Practice 4: Tie Sustainability Goals and Objectives into the Operations and Maintenance and Capital Improvement Program Budget Process Organizations often need to operate within the confines of aging infrastructure requiring repair, replace- ment, or expansion. According to the American Planning Association, a capital improvement program (CIP) is a road map for planning and funding public facilities and infrastructure. It typically addresses both the construction of new facilities and the rehabilitation or replacement of existing capital assets. The CIP is a statement of the organization’s policies and its financial abilities to manage the physical development of the plan. It enables organizations to direct limited resources to high priority assets and sustain the long-term mission delivery capability of their asset portfolio, while achieving sustainability mandates. Capital planning is therefore a strategic way of incorporating current and future sustainability goals. The development of a CIP provides a systematic plan for providing infrastructure improvements within a prioritized framework. High-performance capital improvement projects save energy; increase the comfort, health and safety of users; and help husband valuable environmental resources. At airports in particular, effective O&M and CIP plans need not only to sustain the airport but meet the future requirements of airlines, cargo operators, and the traveling public. Case Example: San Diego International Airport (SAN) Asked to develop its first 20-year CIP and budget, the San Diego County Regional Airport Authority (SDCRAA) needed a way to look across San Diego International Airport’s entire 661-acre campus sys- tem to collaborate and innovate, and to ensure that its outcomes were aligned with its sustainability goals. SDCRAA implemented a multi-step approach to developing a sustainable asset management strat- egy that linked investments associated with SDCRAA’s master plan, budgeting, capital investment, and day-to-day operations with sustainability efforts. The first step brought together department leaders, asset owners, and operations staff in a series of planning engagement sessions to identify the range of asset needs/wish lists for the airport campus and their associated costs. These stake- holders were specifically chosen because of their intimate knowledge of the airport’s buildings, systems, infrastructure, and needs. Additional cross-departmental workshops were held to bet- ter understand how the different asset needs fit into the wider airport system and whether there were redundancies. During these meetings, participants developed criteria to rate and prioritize the various asset needs, with a special emphasis on sustainability. The prioritized list of projects subsequently formed the basis of a concise, user-friendly 20-year CIP with clear asset project sequencing to optimize the investment schedule while taking into account sustainability commit- ments (Figure 4). By developing a more holistic asset management strategy and extending asset life cycles, SDCRAA is fostering multiple aspects of sustainability, and embracing the concept that the greenest, most eco- nomically viable buildings, infrastructure assets, and equipment are the ones that it does not have to build

14 or replace; and, when assets have reached the end of their life, there is a greater opportunity to find the most resource-efficient and resilient replacements. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Low cost ($5,000–$100,000 US) O&M Cost: Low ($5,000–$50,000 US) Payback Period: Short (2–5 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: Moderate (50–200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Qualitative metric Maturity of Practice Trial tested Natural Resources Energy Reduction: Decreases energy consumption and generated renewable energy Environmental Benefits: Significant multiple environmental benefits Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Significant multiple social benefits Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service General aviation FIGURE 4 SDCRAA’s depiction of the interrelationship of its CIP and Airport Development Plan (Source: San Diego County Regional Airport Authority).

15 Cargo Military Categories Energy and Climate: Terminal building energy use Overall airport energy use Renewable energy use Terminal building greenhouse gas emission reductions Overall airport greenhouse gas emission reductions Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Climate change adaption Ground Transportation: Fleet vehicle fuel economy Airside equipment fuel use Alternative vehicle fuels Alternative passengers transportation Alternative employee commute Economic Performance: Socially responsible financial investment Airport financial viability Risk management Regional economic contributions Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Material selection Construction waste diversion Construction impacts mitigation Sustainable site selection Local sourcing Recycled and bio-based content Low-toxicity materials Environmentally preferable purchasing Engagement and Leadership: Airport-wide stakeholder engagement Community stewardship Integrated sustainability management Airport user engagement and outreach Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Potable water conservation Water reduction Waste diversion Natural Resources: Landscape and grounds Wildlife and habitat protection Pervious surface Airside stormwater quality Wildlife hazard management Heat island reduction Human Well-Being: Airport noise compatibility Workplace air quality Chemicals and hazardous materials Passenger experience Employee development Occupational health and safety Universal design Related Links 1. American Planning Association, “Planning Fundamentals: Capital Improvement Planning” 2. ACRP Report 110: Evaluating Impacts of Sustainability Practices on Airport Operations and Maintenance—User’s Guide and Research Report

16 ENGAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES Practice 5: Donate Surplus Equipment and Other Goods to Charity The daily business of airport and airline operations generates large volumes of waste, much of which is sent to landfills because of the challenges, both perceived and real, in recycling many of the materials used. Whether rehabbing an airport concession space, replacing passenger seating areas, upgrading office equipment, or rebranding company materials, airports and airlines are often faced with difficulties in managing their complex waste streams. All too often, goods and equipment are deemed obsolete because of advancements in technol- ogy, stylistic changes, and marketing objectives. The reality is that many items that are replaced for these reasons are still in good working order and could be repurposed, or could be recycled through non-conventional channels. In particular, many charitable organizations accept surplus equipment and materials of many kinds, either for reuse or recycling, providing a socially responsible solution to landfill diversion. Airport operators, airlines, and other tenants can work with local partners to identify new uses for old goods and equipment, possibly providing opportunities for tax deductions for the donor organization and providing a triple benefit. Case Example: American Airlines American Airlines employs roughly 9,000 staff at Chicago O’Hare International Airport (ORD). Employees are provided new uniforms every five years, or any time changes to the American Air- lines brand are made; and old uniforms are typically stripped of their logos and sent to landfill so as to avoid security concerns (Figure 5). In Chicago, where harsh winters prevail, the Chicago Coalition for the Homeless estimates that the population of the homeless in 2014 was approximately 125,000. American Airlines recognized the opportunity to provide assistance to Chicago’s homeless by donat- ing heavy winter coats and jumpsuits to the Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, which provides care for more than a thousand homeless veterans in Chicago. American’s uniform shop applies a patch over old logos before sending uniforms out for donation. In three years, American has donated more than 2,500 winter coats to homeless veterans in Chicago. American Airlines also partners with Avenues to Independence, a work center for adults with disabilities in the Chicago region. One of Avenues to Independence’s programs is Recycling Ave- nue, which provides employment for disabled adults while keeping toxic electronic waste out of the FIGURE 5 American Airlines collects e-waste for donation to Recycling Avenues (Source: American Airlines).

17 waste stream by collecting e-waste directly from commercial and other users. American Airlines donated a significant amount of obsolete electronic waste from its hangar at ORD to Recycling Avenue, which deconstructed and commoditized waste streams such as scrap metal and copper. The proceeds from the sale of a single e-waste collection event allowed Recycling Avenues to cover its payroll for six months. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Marginal cost (<$5,000 US) O&M Cost: Marginal or cost savings (<$5,000 US) Payback Period: Immediate (0–2 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: Low (10–50 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Qualitative metric Maturity of Practice Proven at one or two airports Natural Resources Energy Reduction: No effect on energy consumption Environmental Benefits: Significant multiple environmental benefits Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Significant multiple social benefits Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service General aviation Cargo Military Categories Energy and Climate: Overall airport greenhouse gas emission reductions Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Ground Transportation: N/A Economic Performance: Socially responsible financial investment Airport financial viability Risk management Regional economic contributions Design and Materials: Recycled and bio-based content Engagement and Leadership: Public outreach Community stewardship Integrated sustainability management Airport user engagement and outreach Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Waste reduction Waste diversion Natural Resources: N/A Human Well-Being: Employee development Labor relations Diversity and equal opportunity

18 Practice 6: Donate Surplus Food to Charity In the United States, 133 billion pounds—31%, nearly one-third—of the 430 billion pounds of the available food supply at the retail and consumer levels in 2010 went uneaten. The estimated retail value of this food loss was $161.6 billion (U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Ser- vice 2014). In 2014, one in seven Americans were relying on food banks and/or meal services to feed themselves and their families, according to Feeding America’s Hunger in America study series, the nation’s largest and most comprehensive study on charitable food distribution in the United States. Within the airport context, food and organic waste constitute extraordinary volumes of waste— according to Vancouver International Airport, 68% of its waste stream is organic—and managing organic waste presents challenges for airports. Donation of unopened prepared foods is environmen- tally preferable to composting, and also addresses a major social need. Airport concessionaires are essential to recovering surplus food, whether through compost- ing programs or for donation to charitable causes. Many concessionaires have been leery of food donation because of liability concerns related to the consumption of expiring products and other food safety issues. However, the Federal Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act protects food donors against liability except in cases of gross negligence and/or intentional mis- conduct. With this protection, it has become easier for concessionaires to participate in donation programs. Airports can encourage surplus food donation programs by adopting green concessions policies or other initiatives that promote such practices. They can also enable streamlined food collection processes by providing centralized collection locations, facilitating security badging processes for outside food donation organization staff, and removing other potential barriers to food donation. Case Example: HMSHost Recognizing the significant volumes of waste generated by unsold food items, HMS began a food donation program that supports the three pillars of its startsomewhere® sustainability initiative, which are the environment, nutrition and wellness, and community partnerships. HMSHost donates excess product to local food banks from its operations in 55 U.S. airports through organizations such as Feeding America and the Food Donation Connection (Figure 6). HMSHost trains management staff at its airports in the United States to participate in food dona- tion efforts. Each of HMSHost’s locations works with local food donation organization to provide unused meals and prepackaged foods. The specific organizations collect the food from HMSHost at the facility and transport it or HMSHost may deliver the food to the organization. HMSHost has been donating food to local food banks since 1992, and in 2014 it contributed more than 1.8 million food items across the country. FIGURE 6 HMSHost collects surplus packaged food for transport to local food banks (Source: HMSHost).

19 Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Low cost ($5,000–$100,000 US) O&M Cost: Low ($5,000–$50,000 US) Payback Period: Immediate (0–2 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: Low (10–50 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Quantitative metric with baseline for comparison practices and is already tracked Maturity of Practice Proven at multiple airports Natural Resources Energy Reduction: No effect on energy consumption Environmental Benefits: Significant multiple environmental benefits Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Significant multiple social benefits Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service Categories Energy and Climate: Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Ground Transportation: N/A Economic Performance: Socially responsible financial investment Design and Materials: N/A Engagement and Leadership: Public outreach Community stewardship Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Water reduction Waste diversion Natural Resources: N/A Human Well Being: Employee development Labor relations Related Links 1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, The Estimated Amount, Value, and Calories of Postharvest Food Losses at the Retail and Consumer Levels in the United States (2014) 2. Feeding America, Hunger in America (2014) 3. U.S. Government Publishing Office, Public Law 104–210 Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act (1996) WATER AND WASTE PRACTICES Practice 7: Develop an Onsite Materials Recovery Facility Practice Description Airport, airline, and tenant operations generate enormous quantities of solid waste; however, with proper systems in place, the vast majority is recoverable through recycling, composting, and other

20 means. Airports generally recognize the need to substantially improve the environmental performance of their waste handling programs, and often view recycling programs as an entry-point into broader sustainability issues. Recycling and waste management is one of the more visible and passenger-facing environmental initiatives that airports can undertake, and can deliver co-benefits including reduced greenhouse gas emissions, cost savings, and operational efficiencies. Most airports rely on waste haulers to manage recyclable and compostable materials. However, some airports and airlines man- age these waste streams through specialized onsite materials recovery facilities (MRFs) that receive, separate and prepare recyclable materials for sale within the recycling market. A “clean MRF” accepts recyclable commingled materials that have already been separated at the source, while a “dirty MRF” accepts a mixed solid waste stream and then proceeds to separate out designated recyclable materials through a combination of manual and mechanical sorting. Because of the sensitivity of bird attraction and overarching public health concerns at airports, FAA maintains strict requirements about the processing of waste on airport property (AC 150/5200-33B— Hazardous Wildlife Attractants on or Near Airports). MRFs are often viewed as incompatible at air- ports; however, with proper containment and other design considerations, they can successfully exist at airports, while reducing emissions produced by waste hauling and achieving increased waste diversion rates. Case Example: Charlotte–Douglas International Airport (CLT) CLT’s waste was initially transported to the city’s landfill near the Charlotte Motor Speedway for an annual fee of approximately $450,000. In 2012, recognizing the opportunity to achieve higher waste diversion rates while reducing emissions from waste transport, CLT developed a 27,000-square-foot recycling center (Figure 7), a “dirty MRF” designed to process up to 10,000 tons of the airport build- ings’ waste stream and capture all recyclable items, reducing environmental impacts and creating a more sustainable waste disposal program. CLT waste is transported to the MRF and processed through a conveyor operation. Organic waste, including food, plant matter and trash such as paper towels, was composted on- site in a vermicompost system with 1.9 million worms inside five 50-foot-long composting bins. Organic waste was first heated inside a giant rotating drum for three days at temperatures between 130°F to 160°F in order to kill microbes and start the composting process. The worms then excrete nitrogen-rich castings, which can be used for fertilizer on selected areas of airport property. FIGURE 7 Workers at CLT’s Recycling Center sort waste through a conveyor operation (Source: Charlotte–Douglas International Airport).

21 At the height of its operation, CLT estimated that approximately 6,500 of its 10,000 tons of waste could be recycled and put back into the marketplace, generating approximately $200,000 annually, and employing up to 15 people to operate the MRF. Although prices for certain materials sold to recyclers fluctuate month-to-month (e.g., aluminum cans might sell for $2,000 per ton one month and $1,100 per ton a few months later), CLT initially anticipated that the payback for the capital invested ($1,090,000) would be less than six years. CLT also offered quarterly recycling center tours to educate the public. In late 2015, the recycling center was taken off line because of contractual challenges, but continues to serve as a model for on-airport recycling. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Very expensive (>$500,000 US) O&M Cost: High (>$100,000 US) Payback Period: Moderate (5–15 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: High (>200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Data not entered Maturity of Practice Trial tested Natural Resources Energy Reduction No effect on energy consumption Environmental Benefits Moderate environmental benefit Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Low social benefit Characteristics Climate: Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service General aviation Cargo Military Categories Energy and Climate: Overall airport greenhouse gas emission reductions Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Ground Transportation: N/A Economic Performance: Socially responsible financial investment Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Sustainable site selection Local sourcing Engagement and Leadership: Public outreach Community stewardship Integrated sustainability management Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Waste diversion Natural Resources: N/A Human Well Being: Employee development Labor relations Related Links FAA, AC 150/5200-33B—Hazardous Wildlife Attractants on or Near Airports

22 Practice 8: Use Recovered Glycol as a “Feedstock” for Reformulated Aircraft De-icing Fluid, Vehicle Anti-Freeze, Aircraft Lavatory Fluid, Coolants, Coatings, and Paints Recovered glycol may be reformulated as aircraft de-icing fluid after meeting all Society of Auto- motive Engineers AMS 1424 specifications. Glycol has many applications, including antifreeze in cooling and heating systems, in hydraulic brake fluids, and to de-ice airport runways and aircraft. Four different types of aviation de-icing fluids are identified in applicable standards; for example, SAE AMS 1424 and AMS 1428: 1. Type I fluids have a low viscosity, and provide only short-term protection because they quickly flow off surfaces after use. They are typically sprayed on hot (130°F–180°F/55°C–80°C) surfaces at high pressure to remove snow, ice, and frost. Usually they are dyed orange to aid in identifica- tion and application. 2. Type II fluids are pseudoplastic, to prevent their immediate flow off aircraft surfaces. Typically the fluid film will remain in place until the aircraft attains approximately 100 knots. The high speeds required for viscosity breakdown means that this type of fluid is useful only for larger aircraft. The use of Type II fluids is diminishing in favor of Type IV. 3. Type III fluids’ viscosity, which lies between that of Type I and Type II fluids, are intended for use on slower aircraft. 4. Type IV fluids meet the same AMS standards as Type II fluids, but they provide a longer hold- over time. They are typically dyed green to aid in the application of a consistent layer of fluid. The de-icing of aircraft and airfield surfaces is necessary to ensure the safety of passengers; how- ever, when performed without discharge controls in place, airport de-icing can result in environmental impacts. The toxicity of de-icing chemicals is known to pose potential aquatic life and human health impacts. For example, the biodegradation of glycol in surface waters can greatly impact water quality, including significant reduction in dissolved oxygen levels, leading to fish kills. Although disposal of de-icing fluid through discharge to sewers is possible, this is not viewed as a sustainable solution. De-icing fluids may instead be recycled where suitable facilities exist. Special pads may be installed with a recovery system that channels de-icing fluid into large subterranean tanks. Airports and airlines also contract glycol recovery providers to employ recovery vehicles at the location where de-icing occurs. The collected mixture is then trucked to a recycling facility where it undergoes a series of mechanical and chemical refinement operations and is then distilled additives are introduced to produce regenerated de-icing fluid. Case Example: Detroit Metropolitan Airport–Wayne County Airport Authority (DTW) Facing unpredictable winter weather, tightened safety requirements for aircraft de-icing, and insuf- ficient capacity at its local water treatment facility, DTW realized the need to manage spent aircraft de-icing fluid runoff (SADR) to protect nearby waterways. DTW’s de-icing recycling program allows SADR to be collected at four dedicated remote de-icing pads. The pads contain a total of 28 slots in which approximately 90% of all aircraft de-icing at DTW occurs. Airlines are permitted to conduct event de-icing at gates under certain circumstances, and are permitted to conduct all “defrost” de-icing at gates, as little collectable SADR is generated during this type of de-icing. All SADR containing more than 2% propylene glycol (PG) is collected by a vendor under con- tract to the Wayne County Airport Authority. This SADR is hauled to an off-site recovery facility where it undergoes evaporation and distillation, yielding a higher than 99.5% pure industrial-grade PG that is suitable for use in all non-food, non-pharmaceutical products. Most PG recovered at DTW is used in the manufacture of paints and plastics. Between 250,000 and 500,000 gallons of pure PG is recovered from SADR each winter at DTW. The cost of the SADR program to the Wayne County Airport Authority is approximately $250,000 per year, which includes all labor, transportation, and processing costs. DTW estimates that conven- tional treatment methods would cost more than $2 million per year (Figure 8).

23 Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Very expensive (>$500,000 US) O&M Cost: High (>$100,000 US) Payback Period: Short (2–5 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: High (>200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Quantitative metric with baseline for comparison practices and is already tracked Maturity of Practice Proven at multiple airports Natural Resources Energy Reduction: Decreases energy consumption Environmental Benefits: Significant multiple environmental benefits Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Moderate social benefit Characteristics Climate: Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service Cargo Categories Energy and Climate: Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Economic Performance: Airport financial viability Risk management Regional economic contributions Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Recycled and bio-based content Engagement and Leadership: Integrated sustainability management Airport user engagement and outreach Water and Waste: Water reduction Natural Resources: Airside stormwater quality FIGURE 8 Aircraft are de-iced at a remote deicing pad during inclement weather at DTW (Source: Wayne County Airport Authority).

24 Related Links 1. Society for Automotive Engineers, Standard Test Method for Aerodynamic Acceptance of SAE AMS 1424 and SAE AMS 1428 Aircraft De-icing/Anti-icing Fluids 2. CH2M Hill, et al., ACRP Report 14: De-icing Planning Administration Guidelines and Prac- tices for Stormwater Management Systems 3. Gresham, Smith and Partners, ACRP Report 99: Guidance for Treatment of Airport Stormwater Containing Deicers Practice 9: Establish an Airport Composting Program In 2015, food and organic waste amounted for nearly 32% of the overall terminal waste stream and 58% of the overall restaurant waste stream at Portland International Airport (Source: Port of Portland). Airports are increasingly seeking solutions to managing organic waste through composting pro- grams, which typically are managed offsite by waste haulers or other providers. Given that a large percentage of airport organic waste is generated by concessionaires, compost- ing programs require substantial coordination and likely involve policy measures that encourage or mandate participation in collection of organic waste by concessionaires. Composting programs typically involve either or both “back-of-house” and “front-of-house” waste streams. Back-of-house programs are focused on collecting pre-consumer food waste generated in the food preparation pro- cess (or in the case of sit-down food services, may also involve post-consumer food waste that is collected by a server). Front-of-house programs are passenger-facing and require customers to sort their waste upon disposal. In both cases, infrastructure, signage, and training are essential to reduc- ing contamination of non-organic materials in the organic waste stream. Programs that eliminate the degree to which non-organic food packaging may be sold at airports can reduce contamination, but typically must meet standards set by the composting facility. Spent food oil recycling programs also provide a form of organics waste management. Recycled food oils can be converted to biofuels for use in vehicles and equipment, and can provide a source of revenue for airports and concessionaires. Case Example: Vancouver International Airport (YVR) Metro Vancouver has adopted aggressive regional waste diversion targets and plans to achieve an 80% diversion rate by 2020. The diversion includes the regulatory measure of banning organics from landfills. In January 2015, as a response to this regulatory requirement, YVR commenced a terminal- wide organics waste diversion program to complement its existing recycling program. The first days of the program focused on concessionaires’ back-of-house organic material. This is the “low-hanging fruit” and the least complex component of an organics diversion program because concessionaire staff, rather than passengers, are trained to recognize and separate organics from other waste streams. YVR has six food courts, and each food court’s back-of-house waste program was introduced one at a time approximately every two weeks. This systematic approach allowed support staff and waste haulers to manage the unknown increase in organics over a period of weeks as opposed to days. To get concessionaires diverting organics immediately, YVR staff provided composting kits, which included wheeled green toters for capturing back-of-house compostables, sorting signage, and infor- mation on the organics program—the where, why, and how of the program. Providing green bins to concessionaires was critical as it provided tools for capture and served as a reminder to divert organ- ics. Once green bins were delivered, concessionaires began composting and results were immediate. The more complex component has been front-of-house waste diversion at food courts. Food court waste receptacles were redesigned to accommodate the organics waste stream. Food patrons deposit their remaining food waste, along with their recyclables (containers and paper), into labelled open- ings. This element required the most planning and support from food court staff because patrons are

25 often not local and are not acquainted with the requirement to divert their waste. A waste audit and survey indicated that patrons do have difficulty sorting their waste, and so additional support staffs were brought in at peak times to help with sorting at the food court waste receptacles. Because the airport has a substantial number of non-English speaking patrons, YVR opted for the use of picto- grams, as opposed to language, to explain diversion at the waste receptacles (Figure 9). As a result of the positive and quick uptake by the concessionaires, and hands-on support from YVR, the program has been remarkably successful. Within the first eight months, YVR diverted more than 223 tonnes of organic waste—not including the diversion of paper and containers streams. This figure will continue to grow as staff and patrons adjust. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Moderately expensive (> $100,000–$500,000 US) O&M Cost: High (>$100,000 US) Payback: Data not entered Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: High (>200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Quantitative metric with baseline for comparison practices and is already tracked Maturity of Practice Proven at one or two airports Energy and Climate Energy Reduction: No effect on energy consumption Natural Resources Environmental Benefits: Significant multiple environmental benefits Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Significant multiple social benefits Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold FIGURE 9 Composting collection alongside waste and recycling in a food court at YVR (Source: Vancouver Inter- national Airport).

26 Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service Military Categories Energy and Climate: Other indirect greenhouse gas emission reductions Ground Transportation: N/A Economic Performance: N/A Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Recycled and bio-based content Environmentally preferable purchasing Engagement and Leadership: Airport-wide stakeholder engagement Public outreach Community stewardship Integrated sustainability management Airport user engagement and outreach Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Waste reduction Water reduction Natural Resources: N/A Human Well-Being: N/A Practice 10: Upcycle Materials from Indoor Advertising Practice Description Indoor advertising is big business for airports. Although many advertisers are moving toward electronic formats, the high turnover of marketing campaigns, coupled with the large physical scale of indoor advertising installations, can generate large volumes of waste, much of which may not be easily recycled because of the mixed materials used. With an increased focus on achieving high diversion rates for air- port waste, airports and airlines are looking for creative ways to manage their complex waste streams. “Upcycling” is the process of transforming by-products, waste materials, and useless and/or unwanted products into new materials or products of better quality or greater environmental value. A common example of upcycling is the use of plastic milk bottles as composite material for park benches and playground equipment. Similarly, wood reclaimed from demolition projects of all kinds is used in the creation of high-end furniture, and metal from retired aircraft is transformed into artwork. Upcycling of materials from indoor advertising and many other activities is a practical and cost-effective way to achieve improved waste diversion rates and educate consumers about sustainability. Airports can facili- tate and promote upcycling through programs and policies that apply to tenants and concessionaires. Case Example: United Airlines In 2013, United Airlines introduced a new “Fly the friendly skies” advertising campaign. More than 20 fabric banner advertisements, 14 feet high by 7 feet wide, printed on double-sided fabric with spe- cially commissioned aerial photographs of United’s hub airports, were placed at Chicago O’Hare in support of this campaign. In early 2015, the Chicago Department of Aviation modified the allowable size of advertising units, which rendered these hanging banners obsolete. The United Eco-Skies team used this opportunity to upcycle the banner material into a line of up- cycled travel bags created through a three-day course and contest conducted by Columbia College Chicago’s Fashion Studies program (Figure 10). The guidelines for the contest were as follows: 1. The travel bag should be designed for a day/overnight trip based on one of the following themes. a. Theme 1—Technically speaking: The bag should carry all of the essential gadgets and gear needed to survive in the urban jungle—tablet, phone, chargers, adapters, camera, and a change of clothes for the flight home.

27 b. Theme 2—Off the beaten path: The bag should carry all of the essentials needed for a hike or trail run just outside of town—water bottle, phone/GPS, camera, sunglasses, running shoes, and the next day’s clothing. 2. The bag must fit under an airplane seat and the dimensions must not exceed 9 inches by 10 inches by 17 inches (22 cm × 25 cm × 43 cm). 3. It should be economical to make, be attractive, with a retail cost between $100 and $200. 4. It should be durable and wearable. 5. It must include upcycled fabrics from United’s “Fly the friendly skies” advertising campaign. Two of the winning designs were fabricated by Re:new, a Chicago-area non-profit that employs women refugees living in the United States. Since 2011, more than 120 refugee women have received training or employment at Re:new. Local refugee artisans are trained to create and sew handmade products in an encouraging environment that allows the women an opportunity to flourish in a safe, nurturing, and empowering community. The result was a line of approximately 100 high-end, upcycled travel bags (Figure 10), which sold out almost immediately on the Internet; and Re:new was compensated for the labor its trainees pro- vided. The proceeds above the manufacturing cost were donated to United’s Eco-Skies CarbonChoice carbon offset program. In this case, all of the proceeds went to the Alto Mayo project in Brazil. Practice Data Economic Viability Capital Cost: Marginal Cost (<$5,000 US) O&M Cost: Marginal or Cost Savings (>$5,000) Payback Period: Immediate (0–2 years) Operational Efficiency Staffing Requirements: Moderate (50–200 hours per month) Reportability of Metrics: Qualitative metric Maturity of Practice Trial tested Natural Resources Energy Reduction: No effect on energy consumption Environmental Benefits: Low environmental benefit Socioeconomic Responsibility Social Benefits: Moderate social benefit Characteristics Climate: Primarily hot Primarily cold Mixed hot and cold FIGURE 10 Obsolete marketing signage at ORD is transformed into high-end travel bags (Source: United Airlines).

28 Airport Type(s): Scheduled passenger service General aviation Categories Energy and Climate: N/A Ground Transportation: N/A Economic Performance: Socially responsible financial investment Regional economic contributions Design and Materials: Sustainable design and operation Material selection Local sourcing Recycled and bio-based content Engagement and Leadership: Public outreach Community stewardship Airport user engagement and outreach Tenant and vendor sustainability Water and Waste: Water reduction Waste diversion Natural Resources: N/A Human Well-Being: N/A

Next: Chapter Three - Reporting Sustainability Practices Through the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) Website »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 77: Airport Sustainability Practices compiles information about airport sustainability practices and adds them to the Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance (SAGA) website. The SAGA website was developed to assist airport operators in developing sustainability programs and provide guidance to those who have new data to input. The website contains entries on more than 900 sustainability practices that were developed by SAGA’s initial stakeholder group. However, a large percentage of these entries do not contain actual practice data.

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