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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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The Role of Science, Technology,
Innovation, and Partnerships
in the Future of USAID

Committee on the Review of Science, Technology,
Innovation, and Partnership (STIP) for Development and
Implications for the Future of USAID

Development, Security, and Cooperation

Policy and Global Affairs

A Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by Contract No. AID-A-11-00012 with the U.S. Agency for International Development. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-45244-1
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-45244-9
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/24617

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Copyright 2017 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnership (STIP) For Development and Implications for the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×
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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×
Image

Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

Proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other convening event. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and have not been endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×

COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, INNOVATION, AND PARTNERSHIP (STIP) FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE OF USAID

Michael T. Clegg (Chair), Professor Emeritus, University of California, Irvine

DeAndra Beck, Associate Dean for Research, International Studies and Programs, Michigan State University

Thomas J. Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health, Economics, and Development, Council on Foreign Relations

Gargee Ghosh, Director of Development Policy and Finance, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Julie A. Howard, Senior Advisor to the Associate Provost and Dean, International Studies and Programs, Michigan State University

Christine L. Moe, Eugene J. Gangarosa Professor of Safe Water and Sanitation, Emory University

Francis J. Ricciardone, Former U.S. Ambassador; President, American University in Cairo

Rebecca Richards-Kortum, Malcolm Gillis University Professor, Rice University

Melanie Walker, Senior Advisor to the President, World Bank Group

Amos Winter, Assistant Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

PROJECT STAFF

POLICY AND GLOBAL AFFAIRS

Richard E. Bissell, Executive Director and Study Director

Ashley Bear, Program Officer

Michael Dorsey, Senior Program Officer

Ali Douraghy, Senior Program Officer

Gwynne Evans-Lomayesva, Senior Program Assistant

Cynthia Getner, Financial Officer

Paula Whitacre, Writing Consultant

HEALTH AND MEDICINE DIVISION

Rachel Pittluck, Research Associate

Megan Snair, Program Officer

Rachel M. Taylor, Senior Program Officer

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Preface

The creation of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in 1961 under the Kennedy administration consolidated several prior U.S. assistance programs. The success of the Marshall Plan in rebuilding Europe, together with earlier efforts at international disaster relief, provided the impetus for an ambitious global program aimed at poverty reduction and economic development. A second trend, also growing out of World War II, was the belief that science held the key to a prosperous future. Science and technology were widely seen as essential elements in winning the war and in transforming living standards in the United States. So it was natural that science and technology would come to be seen as powerful tools that the new agency could deploy in addressing poverty and development challenges. Early successes reinforced this view, most notably the Green Revolution, partially supported through USAID, that quickly moved many countries from the specter of starvation to one of food security. Finally, science was seen as a liberalizing and democratic force, based as it is on a respect for evidence and the empirical testing of alternative ideas to arrive at rational conclusions. This made a focus on science a natural direction for the new agency and its programs.

More than 50 years have passed since the launching of USAID. The global landscape has greatly altered, but science (and its progeny, technology and innovation) remain key elements in the USAID tool kit to foster diverse approaches to development aid. Recognizing USAID has limited capacity to address global challenges when acting alone, the agency has also come to focus on partnerships that leverage its impact and programmatic effectiveness, especially in science, technology, and innovation. This report evaluates the role of science, technology, innovation, and partnerships as implemented by USAID to actively seek out new ideas and approaches that facilitate and accelerate sustainable global development. The complexity of the USAID

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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organization, with its network of overseas missions complemented by an array of bureaus and central units, does not make it easier to arrive at solutions to strengthening science, technology, innovation, and partnerships (STI+P) in the development mission; this complex structure is partially conveyed by the organizational chart in Appendix A of this report.

Despite the demonstrable value of STI+P in reducing extreme poverty, promoting resilient, democratic societies, and advancing the security and prosperity of the United States, STI+Pintensive programs at USAID have waxed and waned over the years. USAID has taken a number of steps in the last decade to reinvigorate science and technology across its many operations, and to introduce approaches to innovation learned from the impact of innovation on the 21st century American economy. As one institutional change, USAID created the Global Development Lab in 2014 to identify and implement STI+P development solutions. The Lab aims to discover solutions with faster scaling and implementation, greater impact and sustainability, and a weighing of risk versus returns. Moreover, STIP is widely used throughout the agency in addressing major challenges ranging from the HIV epidemic and malaria, to agricultural development and food security, to economic and gender empowerment. When properly deployed, these tools can interact and evolve with each other at different stages of project discovery, implementation, and sustainability to strengthen an overall product or solution.

Responding to a request by USAID, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine appointed an expert committee to advise the agency on the current development potential for science, technology, innovation, and partnerships in its assistance programs. The committee examined the development context for STI+P, in particular by analyzing some leading international and philanthropic entities that also apply these approaches to major development challenges. Using existing evaluations, data, and evidence of effectiveness, the committee then analyzed USAID’s approach to STI+P programs’

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×

design and implementation. We identified three comparative advantages of USAID relative to other players in the complex international aid landscape and recommend that USAID focus its STI+P activities to leverage these strengths. We also identified both short- and long-term actions USAID could take to increase development momentum by building stronger partnerships in the United States and developing countries for the mobilization of science, technology, and innovation as fundamental tools to reduce poverty and to advance economic and social development.

On behalf of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the committee, I would like to express our appreciation for the expertise, perspectives, and experiences shared by presenters at the committee meetings and subsequent conference calls. Committee members and staff benefitted from open communication with USAID, and the candid discussions with implementers and partners. The willingness of different stakeholders to speak to the committee regarding successes and challenges remains greatly appreciated. They are listed in Appendix D at the conclusion of the report.

Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Anthony Clayton, University of the West Indies; Rita Colwell, University of Maryland; KunMo Chung, Korea Electric Power Corporation; Haile Debas, University of California, San Francisco; Gebisa Ejeta, Purdue University; Charles Gay, Greenstar Foundation; Michael E. Goldberg, Columbia University; Brenda Killen, OECD; Hiram Larew, United States Department of Agriculture (retired); Raghunath Mashelkar, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research; Richard Seifman, IntraHealth International; Peter Singer, Grand Challenges, Canada; Alfred Watkins, P80 Group Foundation; Jeremy Weinstein, Stanford University; and Wendy Woods, Boston Consulting Group.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Enriqueta Bond, Burroughs Wellcome Fund and Olufunmilayo Olopade, University of Chicago. Appointed by the Academies, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

M.T. Clegg

Chair, Committee to Review Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnership for Development: Implications for the Future of USAID

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24617.
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The United States has long recognized that the nation’s prosperity and security depend on how we address challenges of disasters, poverty, famine, and disease around the world. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) has played a vital role in promoting U.S. national and international interests by advancing strategies for employing science, technology, and innovation to respond to global challenges. The focus by USAID on science, technology, and innovation is critical to improve development outcomes. At the core of this progress is the engagement of science institutions and other innovative enterprises and their commitment to work in partnership with USAID to research, test, and scale solutions.

The Role of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Partnerships in the Future of USAID provides an assessment and advice on the current and future role for science, technology, and innovation in assistance programs at USAID and on the role of partnerships in the public and private sectors to expand impact. This report examines challenges and opportunities for USAID in expanding the utilization of science, technology, and innovation in development assistance; assesses how USAID has deployed science, technology, and innovation; and recommends priority areas for improvement going forward in partnership with others.

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