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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Additional Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (CUAS) Capability for Battalion-and-Below Operations: Abbreviated Version of a Restricted Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24747.
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C

Additional Definitions

Deep magazine versus stowed kills. A magazine for a weapon system stores physical munitions or energy (e.g., for directed energy weapons). A deep magazine refers to the ability of a system to be fired numerous times before being resupplied. The “deepness” of a magazine will be limited by the number of munitions physically carried by a system or, for directed energy or electronic warfare systems, by the amount of stored energy (e.g., battery power). Stowed kills are the product of the number of firings in the magazine, the probability of hit for each firing, and the probability of kill given that the target is hit. For example, a system with a deep magazine (e.g., a high-capacity battery for a radio frequency jamming system) would have zero stowed kills against targets outside of its maximum effective range, because the probability of hit would be zero.

Multi-track. This is the ability to follow the flight path of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (sUASs) as part of a group or swarm.

Neutralization. This is the action taken to prevent a sUAS(s) from accomplishing its mission(s). Neutralization may include the following:

  • Actively destroying the entire sUAS(s) or critical physical components of a sUAS(s);
  • Actively interrupting control of the sUAS(s) (e.g., jamming its communications links to controllers or other sUASs);
  • Actively taking control of the sUAS(s), including the following:
    • Manipulating its control mechanism (e.g., a cyber-attack against its control software);
    • Using decoys or other means to spoof a sUAS(s) into performing a different mission; and
    • Capturing a sUAS with a net; and
  • Passively neutralizing its sensing capability through the use of camouflage, concealment, and deception.

Target acquisition sequence. The committee describes the target acquisition sequence as consisting of the following steps: detect, classify, recognize, identify, and identification of friend or foe (RDECOM, 2005). More fully, these are as follows:

  • Detect. Determine that an object(s) in the field of view may be of military interest such that the observer takes an action to look closer.
  • Classify. The object(s) is distinguished or discriminated by class-for example, an individual, group, or swarm of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUASs).
  • Recognize. The individual, group, or swarm of sUAS(s) can be distinguished by type, such as fixed wing, rotary wing, or hybrid.
  • Identify. The sUAS(s) can be distinguished by make and model-for example, Raven or DJI
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Additional Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (CUAS) Capability for Battalion-and-Below Operations: Abbreviated Version of a Restricted Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24747.
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  • Phantom.

  • Identification of friend or foe. In none of the above target acquisition levels is the force allegiance of the object confirmed-that is, it cannot be confirmed whether it is a friendly, threat, or a neutral sUAS. However, associating the above target acquisition information with available intelligence information and knowledge of friendly force sUAS operations, the operator or appropriate leader may make an identification-friend-or-foe assessment.

Track. This is the ability to follow the flight path of a sUAS.

Weapons control order. Weapons control orders are the rules of engagement in air defense operations (DoA, 2015). Specifically pertaining to counter-sUAS actions, they include the following:

  • Weapons hold. Counter-sUAS systems may only be fired in self-defense or when ordered by an appropriate higher authority.
  • Weapons tight. Counter-sUAS systems may be fired only at sUASs recognized as hostile, in accordance with current rules of engagement.
  • Weapons free. Counter-sUAS systems may be fired at any sUAS not positively recognized as friendly.

REFERENCES

DoA (Department of the Army). 2015. Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for an Integrated Air Defense System. FM 3-01.15/MCRP 3-25E/NTTP 3-01.8/AFTTP 3-2.31. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, Department of the Army.

RDECOM (U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Command). 2005. Acquisition Level Definitions and Observables for Human Targets, Urban Operations, and the Global War on Terrorism. AMSRD-CER-NV-TR-235. Fort Belvoir, Va.: Communication-Electronics Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Additional Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (CUAS) Capability for Battalion-and-Below Operations: Abbreviated Version of a Restricted Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24747.
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Page 31
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C Additional Definitions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (CUAS) Capability for Battalion-and-Below Operations: Abbreviated Version of a Restricted Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24747.
×
Page 32
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The development of inexpensive small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) technologies and the growing desire of hobbyists to have more and more capability have created a sustained sUAS industry, however these capabilities are directly enabling the ability of adversaries to threaten U.S. interests. In response to these threats, the U.S. Army and other Department of Defense (DoD) organizations have invested significantly in counter-sUAS technologies, often focusing on detecting radio frequency transmissions by sUASs and/or their operators, and jamming the radio frequency command and control links and Global Positioning System signals of individual sUASs. However, today’s consumer and customized sUASs can increasingly operate without radio frequency command and control links by using automated target recognition and tracking, obstacle avoidance, and other software-enabled capabilities.

The U.S. Army tasked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to conduct a study to address the above concerns. In particular, the committee was asked to assess the sUAS threat, particularly when massed and collaborating; assess current capabilities of battalion-and- below infantry units to counter sUASs; identify counter-sUAS technologies appropriate for near- term, mid-term, and far-term science and technology investment; consider human factors and logistics; and determine if the Department of Homeland Security could benefit from DoD efforts. This abbreviated report provides background information on the full report and the committee that prepared it.

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