This report highlights some of the many contributions of the social, behavioral, and economic (SBE) sciences to the advancement of knowledge and to meeting national needs. However, it is important to reiterate that the committee could not conduct an exhaustive review and analysis of all SBE research funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), and, as a result, this report should not be interpreted as implying that all NSF research serves national priorities, furthers the mission of other federal agencies, or advances business and industry. It also should not be interpreted as implying that all SBE research projects are a success, because science, by its very nature, advances through both successes and failures. Moreover, in offering guidance for the future, the committee focused primarily on how the research enterprise can be strengthened, not on offering detailed directions for research. We encourage NSF to engage in a longer, in-depth strategic planning process covering all the relevant content areas to help identify the most productive priorities for research in these fields.