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ACRP REPORT 150 Airport Planning and Development Volume 5 NextGEN for Airports AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM
ACRP OVERSIGHT COMMITTEE* CHAIR Kitty Freidheim Freidheim Consulting VICE CHAIR Kelly Johnson Northwest Arkansas Regional Airport Authority MEMBERS Gloria G. Bender TransSolutions Thella F. Bowens San Diego County Regional Airport Authority Benito de Leon Federal Aviation Administration Deborah Flint Los Angeles World Airports Rhonda Hamm-Niebruegge Lambert-St. Louis International Airport Margaret McKeough Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Scott McMahon Morristown Municipal Airport Frank Miller Hollywood Burbank Airport Bob Montgomery Southwest Airlines Eric Potts Freese and Nichols, Inc. Megan S. Ryerson University of Pennsylvania EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Sabrina Johnson U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mark Kimberling National Association of State Aviation Officials Laura McKee Airlines for America Christopher Oswald Airports Council InternationalâNorth America Neil J. Pedersen Transportation Research Board Melissa Sabatine American Association of Airport Executives T.J. Schulz Airport Consultants Council SECRETARY Christopher J. Hedges Transportation Research Board TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2017 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE* OFFICERS CHAIR: Malcolm Dougherty, Director, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento VICE CHAIR: Katherine F. Turnbull, Executive Associate Director and Research Scientist, Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: Neil J. Pedersen, Transportation Research Board MEMBERS Victoria A. Arroyo, Executive Director, Georgetown Climate Center; Assistant Dean, Centers and Institutes; and Professor and Director, Environmental Law Program, Georgetown University Law Center, Washington, DC Scott E. Bennett, Director, Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department, Little Rock Jennifer Cohan, Secretary, Delaware DOT, Dover James M. Crites, Executive Vice President of Operations, DallasâFort Worth International Airport, TX Nathaniel P. Ford, Sr., Executive DirectorâCEO, Jacksonville Transportation Authority, Jacksonville, FL A. Stewart Fotheringham, Professor, School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe John S. Halikowski, Director, Arizona DOT, Phoenix Susan Hanson, Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, Worcester, MA Steve Heminger, Executive Director, Metropolitan Transportation Commission, Oakland, CA Chris T. Hendrickson, Hamerschlag Professor of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Jeffrey D. Holt, Managing Director, Power, Energy, and Infrastructure Group, BMO Capital Markets Corporation, New York S. Jack Hu, Vice President for Research and J. Reid and Polly Anderson Professor of Manufacturing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Roger B. Huff, President, HGLC, LLC, Farmington Hills, MI Geraldine Knatz, Professor, Sol Price School of Public Policy, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles Melinda McGrath, Executive Director, Mississippi DOT, Jackson James P. Redeker, Commissioner, Connecticut DOT, Newington Mark L. Rosenberg, Executive Director, The Task Force for Global Health, Inc., Decatur, GA Daniel Sperling, Professor of Civil Engineering and Environmental Science and Policy; Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis Gary C. Thomas, President and Executive Director, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, Dallas, TX Pat Thomas, Senior Vice President of State Government Affairs, United Parcel Service, Washington, DC Dean H. Wise, Vice President of Network Strategy, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway, Fort Worth, TX Charles A. Zelle, Commissioner, Minnesota DOT, Saint Paul EX OFFICIO MEMBERS Alberto Ayala, Deputy Executive Officer, California Air Resources Board, Sacramento Mary R. Brooks, Professor Emerita, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and Chair, TRB Marine Board Jack Danielson, Executive Director, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Audrey Farley, Executive Director, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, U.S. DOT LeRoy Gishi, Chief, Division of Transportation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC John T. Gray II, Senior Vice President, Policy and Economics, Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC Michael P. Huerta, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. DOT Daphne Y. Jefferson, Deputy Administrator, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Bevan B. Kirley, Research Associate, University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, and Chair, TRB Young Members Council Howard McMillan, Acting Administrator, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. DOT Wayne Nastri, Acting Executive Officer, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Diamond Bar, CA Craig A. Rutland, U.S. Air Force Pavement Engineer, U.S. Air Force Civil Engineer Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, FL Reuben Sarkar, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation, U.S. Department of Energy Todd T. Semonite (Lieutenant General, U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC Karl Simon, Director, Transportation and Climate Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Joel Szabat, Executive Director, Maritime Administration, U.S. DOT Walter C. Waidelich, Jr., Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. DOT Patrick T. Warren, Executive Director, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. DOT Matthew Welbes, Executive Director, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. DOT Richard A. White, Acting President and CEO, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC Frederick G. (Bud) Wright, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC Paul F. Zukunft (Admiral, U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Department of Homeland Security * Membership as of March 2017.* Membership as of November 2016.
ACRP REPORT 150 Airport Planning and Development William J. Dunlay Thomas M. Schnetzer LEIGHFISHER INC. Burlingame, California in association with Robert M. Varani David E. Ramacorti RICONDO & ASSOCIATES, INC. Chicago, Illinois Richard F. Marchi RFMARCHI AVIATION CONSULTING, INC. Washington, D.C. Melissa L. Lott GSS CREATIVE INC. Chicago, Illinois AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Volume 5NextGEN for Airports T R A N S P O R T A T I O N R E S E A R C H B O A R D WASHINGTON, D.C. 2017 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation, Environment, Planning and Forecasting
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transporta- tion of people and goods and in regional, national, and international com- merce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is nec- essary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Re- search Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as pro- gram sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the Na- tional Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport profes- sionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equip- ment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel ap- pointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport profession- als, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and pro- vide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative re- search programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the in- tended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 150, Volume 5 Project 03-33 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44631-0 Library of Congress Control Number 2016941099 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to pro- cedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the pro- gram sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medi- cine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 150, Volume 5 Christopher Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Scott E. Hitchcock, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-33 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning David A. Byers, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL (Chair) Paul J. H. Amen, American Airlines, Phoenix, AZ Traci Clark, Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, Cleveland, OH Tom Cornell, Landrum & Brown, San Francisco, CA Denise J. Garcia, Massachusetts DOT, East Boston, MA Brian L. Sprenger, Gallatin Airport Authority, Belgrade, MT Kent Duffy, FAA Liaison Bruce McGray, FAA Liaison Katherine B. Preston, Airports Council International - North America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research discussed in this report was performed under ACRP Project 03-33, âNextGenâAirport Planning and Development,â by a research team of recognized experts in NextGen, airport planning, air traffic control and airfield/airspace operations, and flight procedures. LeighFisher was the Prime Consultant for the research. William J. Dunlay, Director at LeighFisher, was the Principal Investigator. Robert M. Varani, Director at Ricondo & Associates, was the Deputy Principal Investigator. The other authors were Thomas M. Schnetzer, Director at LeighFisher; Suzanne Akkoush and Annie Cheng, Principal Consultants at LeighFisher; David E. Ramacorti, Director at Ricondo & Associates; Richard F. Marchi, President at RFMarchi Aviation Consulting; and Melissa L. Lott, President at GSS Creative. The research team would also like to thank (1) members of the ACRP 03-33 Project Panel for their helpful comments during the research and on the draft final guidebook and (2) the fol- lowing members of the Advisory Committee, who provided valuable comments on the guidebook contents and layout: â¢ Mike Ball, University of Maryland â¢ Rick Busch, formerly of Denver International Airport (now with Jviation) â¢ Don Guffee, Federal Aviation Administration â¢ Keith Wilschetz, San Diego County Regional Airport Authority â¢ Mike McKee, Denver International Airport â¢ Glenn Morse, United Airlines
v The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) refers to the federal programs (predomi- nately airspace, air traffic, or avionics related) that are designed to modernize the National Airspace System (NAS). ACRPâs NextGen initiative aims to inform airport operators about some of these pro- grams and how the enabling practices, data, and technologies resulting from them will affect airports and change how they operate. This project is part of an ACRP NextGen initiative that comprises five distinct projects, which have been conducted simultaneously. The scope, ideas, and preliminary results have been shared among all five projects. The titles of the ACRP projects included in the ACRP NextGen Initiative are as follows: â¢ ACRP 01-27, âNextGenâA Primerâ; â¢ ACRP 01-28, âNextGenâGuidance for Engaging Airport Stakeholdersâ; â¢ ACRP 03-33, âNextGenâAirport Planning and Developmentâ; â¢ ACRP 03-34, âNextGenâUnderstanding the Airportâs Role in Performance-Based Navigation (PBN)â; and â¢ ACRP 09-12, âNextGenâLeveraging NextGen Spatial Data to Benefit Airports.â ACRP Report 150: NextGen for Airports, Volume 5: Airport Planning and Development provides informa- tion and guidance to help airport industry practitioners understand and incorporate NextGen capabili- ties into their planning efforts for all categories of airports. The report will be a particularly valuable resource to airport planning practitioners wishing to ensure that airport facilities are designed in a manner that not only can accommodate NextGen but also take full advantage of its potential benefits. Airports rely on planning to ensure that safety, efficiency, and capacity needs are met in a responsible and cost-effective manner. The FAA is in the process of developing and implementing various NextGen capabilities, many of which have direct implications for airport facilities and operations. While many airports could benefit from incorporating NextGen capabilities, there has been limited information and guidance on how to incorporate them into their planning process. In addition, NextGen capabili- ties are complex and continue to mature, and there is uncertainty regarding industry priorities and the timing of potential initiatives. Research was needed to provide guidance for airport industry practitio- ners to incorporate NextGen capabilities into their planning and development process. By Joseph D. Navarrete Staff Officer Transportation Research Board Foreword
The research, led by LeighFisher, Inc., featured extensive collaboration with the other research teams involved with ACRPâs NextGen initiative. A key element of their research approach was an examination of case studies of airports and regions where various NextGen initiatives have been implemented. The team then developed a preliminary draft of the guidebook based on their findings and expertise. To ensure the guidebook would be practical and easy to use, the team vetted the preliminary draft with airport industry practitioners and produced the final version based on their feedback. The Airport Planning and Development guidebook will help airport planning practitioners: â¢ Determine which NextGen capabilities are applicable for their particular planning project; â¢ Identify the steps and roles of stakeholders needed for accommodating and implementing Next- Gen-related initiatives; â¢ Determine the likelihood and timing of NextGen capabilities; â¢ Provide planning flexibility to account for the risk and uncertainty associated with NextGen capabilities; â¢ Identify opportunities for airport participation in NextGen implementation; â¢ Identify strategies for engaging with FAA and other stakeholders, including the community, in- volved in various NextGen capabilities; and â¢ Integrate airport layout plans, GIS, online mapping, FAA data resources, and other âbig dataâ tools into the planning process. The guidebook provides specific guidance for large, medium, and small airports. The guidebook also contains appendices that provide lessons learned from case studies as well as a summary of NextGen resources. vi | UNDERSTANDING THE AIRPORTâS ROLE IN PERFORMANCE-BASED NAVIGATION
vii Contents 1 Chapter 1 Introduction and Background 1 Objectives 2 Relationship to Other ACRP NextGen Initiative Projects 4 NextGen Background and Why This Guidebook Is Needed 6 Who Should Use This Guidebook 6 What Existing Guidance on NextGen at Airports Is Available? 6 Organization of This Guidebook 6 Chapter 2âNextGen Technologies and Operational Improvements 7 Chapter 3âIncorporating NextGen into Airport Planning and Development 7 Chapter 4âApplicability of NextGen to Medium and Large Airport Planning and Development 7 Chapter 5âApplicability of NextGen to Small Airport Planning and Development 7 Chapter 6âRole of Airports in NextGen Implementation and Community Outreach 7 Appendices 8 Chapter 2 NextGen Technologies and Operational Improvements 8 Near-Term Capabilities That Are Enablers of the NextGen Capabilities 8 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) 9 Data Communications (Data Comm) 9 System Wide Information Management (SWIM) 10 NextGen Weather: The 4D Weather Cube 10 En Route Automation Modernization (ERAM) 10 Existing and Emerging NextGen Technologies 13 Near- and Mid-Term NextGen Capabilities with Benefits for Airports 13 Wake Turbulence Recategorization 14 Closely Spaced Parallel Runways 18 PBN 21 Surface Operations and Data Sharing/Collaborative Decision Making/SWIM 24 Improved NextGen Landing Systems 26 Separation Management 27 Multilateration 29 Longer-Term NextGen Programs 29 Multiple Runway Operations/Closely Spaced Parallel OperationsâPaired Approaches 31 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast In 32 Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI)
viii | UNDERSTANDING THE AIRPORTâS ROLE IN PERFORMANCE-BASED NAVIGATION 33 Non-NextGen Technologies and Capabilities for Airports 34 Surface Operations and Data Sharing 40 Improved Landing Systems 45 Chapter 3 Incorporating NextGen into Airport Planning and Development 45 Effects of NextGen on Airport Planning Criteria and Guidelines 45 Airport Master Planning 47 Airport Environmental Planning 50 State and Regional/Metropolitan Airport System Planning 52 Airspace Redesign Studies (e.g., OAPM or Metroplex) 59 Airport Financial and Strategic Planning Issues 61 Chapter 4 Applicability of NextGen to Medium and Large Airport Planning and Development 61 Definition of Medium and Large Airports 63 FAA NextGen Technologies and Initiatives Applicable to Medium and Large Airports 63 PBN and Improved Landing Systems 65 Surface Operations and Data Sharing 67 Wake Turbulence Recategorization 68 Closely Spaced Parallel Runway Operations 70 Multilateration 71 ADS-B In and Cockpit Display of Traffic Information 73 Chapter 5 Applicability of NextGen to Small Airport Planning and Development 73 Definition of Small Airports 75 FAA NextGen Technologies and Initiatives Applicable to Small Airports 76 Improved Landing Systems 78 Airspace Routing with Performance-Based Navigation 80 Multilateration 81 Surface Operations and Data Sharing 83 Wake Turbulence RecategorizationâSingle Runway Operations 85 Dependent Runway Operations 86 ADS-B In 88 Chapter 6 Role of Airports in NextGen Development, Implementation, and Community Outreach 88 NAS-Wide vs. Local NextGen Programs 88 NAS-Wide NextGen Programs 88 Terminal Airspace/Airport NextGen Programs 89 Airports, Stakeholders, and Their Roles in NextGen/PBN Implementation 89 Airports 90 Community/Public 91 Community Groups and NGOs 91 Local, State, and Federal Governments, and Elected Officials