National Academies Press: OpenBook

Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops (2017)

Chapter: Front Matter

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24806.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24806.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24806.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24806.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24806.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24806.
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T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP SYNTHESIS 129 Subject AreAS Maintenance and Preservation • Passenger Transportation • Public Transportation • Safety and Human Factors Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops A Synthesis of Transit Practice conSultAnt Barbara Thomson Thomson Consulting Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania Research Sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in Cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation 2017 Marking 25 Years of Service through Research

TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nation’s growth and the need to meet mobility, environmen- tal, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Current systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating problems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213—Research for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administration—now the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit service providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Pro- posed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was autho- rized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organizations: FTA; the National Academies of Sci- ences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization estab- lished by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the respon- sibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on dissemi- nating TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agencies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other support- ing material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. TCRP SYNTHESIS 129 Project J-7, Topic SA-39 ISSN 1073-4880 ISBN 978-0-309-39000-2 Library of Congress Control Number 2017936210 © 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessari- ly those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

TOPIC PANEL SA-39 FABIAN CEVALLOS, Florida International University, Miami JOHN FILIPPONE, Roaring Fork Transportation Authority, Aspen, CO TRACY HARRINGTON, Milwaukee County (WI) Transit System DAVID A. LEE, Connecticut Transit, Hartford JOANNE TELEGEN WEINSTOCK, Federal Transit Administration (Liaison) KEN THOMPSON, Easter Seals Transportation Group (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies MARIELA GARCIA-COLBERG, Senior Program Officer JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer THOMAS HELMS, Consultant GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER J. HEDGES, Director, Cooperative Research Programs LORI L. SUNDSTROM, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs GWEN CHISHOLM SMITH, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications TCRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT J-7 CHAIR BRAD J. MILLER, Pinellas Suncoast Transit Authority, St. Petersburg, FL MEMBERS DONNA DeMARTINO, San Joaquin Regional Transit District, Stockton, CA MICHAEL FORD, The Regional Transit Authority of Southeast Michigan, Detroit, MI BOBBY J. GRIFFIN, Griffin and Associates, Flower Mound, TX ROBERT H. IRWIN, Consultant, Sooke, BC, Canada JEANNE KRIEG, Eastern Contra Costa Transit Authority, Antioch, CA PAUL J. LARROUSSE, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick DAVID A. LEE, Connecticut Transit, Hartford ELIZABETH PRESUTTI, Des Moines Area Regional Transit Authority–DART ROBERT H. PRINCE, JR., AECOM Consulting Transportation Group, Inc., Boston, MA JARRETT W. STOLTZFUS, Foothill Transit, West Covina, CA FTA LIAISON FAITH HALL, Federal Transit Administration APTA LIAISON PAMELA BOSWELL, American Public Transportation Association TRB LIAISON STEPHEN J. ANDRLE, Transportation Research Board Cover figure: The road is clear, but getting to it from here might be a journey. Source: BBC.

Transit administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the transit industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire transit community, the Transit Cooperative Research Program Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, TCRP Project J-7, “Synthesis of Information Related to Transit Problems,” searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute a TCRP report series, Synthesis of Transit Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. FOREWORD During extreme weather events, transit systems have to make sure that their transit stops and associated transit infrastructure are functional and safe for passengers. This synthesis documents current practices of transit systems most likely to be affected by extreme weather to determine what methods and procedures are used for maintaining transit stops and associ- ated transit infrastructure during and following these events. A literature review and detailed survey responses from 32 of 40 transit systems (an 80% response rate) are provided as well as an analysis on the state of the practice, emphasizing lessons learned, successes, challenges, and gaps in information. Case examples of ten transit systems and the various practices they utilize are interwoven in the report. This report will assist transit agencies to assess their current policies and identify actions that are implemented elsewhere. Barbara Thomson, Thomson Consulting, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, collected and syn- thesized the information and wrote the report, under the guidance of a panel of experts in the subject area. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. PREFACE By Mariela Garcia-Colberg Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board

CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background, 5 Audience, 5 Study Methodology, 5 Literature Review, 6 Survey, 6 Case Examples, 6 Content Organization, 6 7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 12 CHAPTER THREE SURVEY RESULTS AND EXTREME WEATHER Survey, 12 Extreme Weather, 14 Case Example: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority: Students Wait for Buses in Street, 15 Case Example: St. Louis Tracks Extreme Weather for Ridership Patterns, 16 19 CHAPTER FOUR SURVEY RESULTS: EXTREME WEATHER PLANNING Case Examples: Severe Weather Planning Varies by City, 19 Case Example: Metrobus (WMATA)—Focus Is on the Roadways, 19 21 CHAPTER FIVE SURVEY RESULTS: GOVERNANCE Responsibility, 21 Case Example: Metropolitan Transportation Authority New York City Transit Depends on the Multiple City Departments, 21 Case Example: NJ Transit Corporation Depends on State Department of Transportation, 22 Case Example: Toronto Transit Commission Depends on City of Toronto Monitoring, 23 Case Example: Metropolitan Transportation Authority New York City Transit Uses Team Effort to Monitor, 26 Case Example: Intercity Transit Has Cooperative Arrangement, 26 Standards and Specifications, 26 28 CHAPTER SIX SURVEY RESULTS: LEGAL CLAIMS AND COMMUNICATIONS Legal Claims Resulting from Uncleared Bus Stops, 28 Public Service Announcements, 28 Case Example: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Winter Weather Customer Service Bulletin, 28 Case Example: Cherriots Winter Bus Travel Service Advisories, 29

31 CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH Conclusions, 31 Future Research, 33 34 REFERENCES 36 APPENDIX A SURVEY RESPONSES 64 APPENDIX B LIST OF PARTICIPATING TRANSIT AGENCIES 65 APPENDIX C ICE AND SNOW REMOVAL POLICIES—SAMPLES

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 129: Managing Extreme Weather at Bus Stops documents current practices of transit systems to determine methods and procedures used for maintaining transit stops and associated infrastructure during and following such weather events. This synthesis provides a state-of-the-practice report on transit systems' management of extreme weather events; associated planning; management responsibilities; efforts to respond; standards and specifications; associated legal claims; and communication with customers.

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