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2017 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 857 Performance-Related Specifications for Pavement Preservation Treatments Karim Chatti Syed Waqar Haider Ronell J. Eisma Gopikrishna Musunuru Michigan State UniverSity East Lansing, MI Y. Richard Kim Cassie Castorena Javon Adams north carolina State UniverSity Raleigh, NC Subscriber Categories Maintenance and Preservation â¢ Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transporta- tion departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCORâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administra- tion and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 857 Project 10-82A ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-44661-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2017954-549 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research report herein was performed under NCHRP Project 10-82A by researchers in the Depart- ment of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Michigan State University (MSU). The researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) contributed to the development of the example for chip seal performance-related specifications. The authors would like to thank Dr. Julie Vandenbossche from the University of Pittsburgh for her review and valuable comments on the work related to rigid pavement preservation treatments. The authors also acknowledge the valuable assistance provided by MSU graduate and undergraduate students during the period of this research. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 857 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor NCHRP PROJECT 10-82A PANEL Field of Materials and ConstructionâArea of Specifications, Procedures, and Practices LaDonna R. Rowden, Illinois DOT, Springfield, IL (Chair) Nicholas I. Burmas, California DOT, Sacramento, CA James Howard Greene, Florida DOT, Gainesville, FL Richard P. Izzo, Texas DOT, Austin, TX Thomas A. Kane, New York State DOT, Albany, NY Amy L. Simpson, AMEC Foster Wheeler Environment & Infrastructure, Inc., Roanoke, TX Jerry E. Stephens, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT Katherine A. Petros, FHWA Liaison James W. Bryant, Jr., TRB Liaison
This report (1) presents guidelines for use in preparing performance-related specifications (PRS) for pavement preservation treatments and, if desired, determining pay adjustment fac- tors and (2) illustrates the applicability of these guidelines for selected preservation treatments for flexible and rigid pavements. The guidelines follow a systematic process that considers acceptance quality characteristics and performance measures for preservation treatments. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state materials and main- tenance engineers and others involved with the specification and quality aspects of pavement preservation treatments. Quality assurance specifications that specify end-product quality have often been used by transportation agencies as a means for ensuring construction quality of highway pavements. However, agencies are increasingly incorporating PRS in construction contracts to specify quality in terms of parameters related to desired long-term performance and to provide a means to account for the value lost or gained by the variances of these parameters from the specified target values. Although such PRS have been used for the construction of pave- ments, their use for pavement preservation treatments has been limited. There are no widely accepted guidelines for PRS for pavement preservation treatments that correlate key engineering properties to treatment quality and long-term performance. There- fore, research was needed to address the issues associated with PRS and to develop guidelines for use in preparing rational PRS for pavement preservation treatments. These guidelines will help highway agencies develop and incorporate PRS in preservation treatment contracts, specify an optimum level of quality that represents a balance of costs and performance, and, if desired, establish quality-related pay adjustment factors. Under NCHRP Project 10-82A, âPerformance-Related Specifications for Pavement Pres- ervation Treatments,â Michigan State University worked with the objective of developing guidelines for use in preparing PRS for preservation treatments of the different pavement types. To accomplish this objective, the researchers reviewed current pavement preservation practices, acceptance quality characteristics, and performance measures for preservation treatments, and used this information as a basis for developing the guidelines. In developing the guidelines, three approaches were considered for establishing the relationships between quality characteristics and performance measures: empirical, mechanistic-empirical, and performance-based laboratory and field test properties. Encompassed within the guidelines is a procedure for developing pay adjustment curves that can be used to establish acceptable and rejectable quality levels based on the quality measures. The guidelines are supplemented with examples illustrating applicability of the guidelines for selected preservation treatments for flexible and rigid pavements. F O R E W O R D By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Objective 2 1.2 Research Approach 3 1.3 Report Organization 4 Chapter 2 Process for Developing PRS Guidelines 4 2.1 Background 4 2.2 Characteristics of Performance Specifications 4 Method Specifications 4 Performance Specifications 5 2.3 Performance-Related Strategy 6 Step 1: Identify User Needs and Goals 6 Step 2: Relate Needs and Goals to Performance Parameters 6 Step 3: Consider the Project Delivery Approach 6 Step 4: Determine the Appropriate Measurement Strategy 8 Step 5: Establish Incentive Strategies and Payment Mechanisms 8 Step 6: Identify Deficiencies in Strategy 8 Step 7: Identify and Evaluate Risks 9 Step 8: Develop the Specification 9 2.4 Guidelines for PRS Development 11 Selection of Preservation Treatment 11 Identifying AQCs and Performance Measures 12 Establishing AQC-Performance Relationships and Thresholds 13 Specify Test Methods 13 Establish a Sampling and Measurement Plan 13 Select Quality Measurement Methods 14 Develop Pay Adjustment Factors 14 2.5 Summary 17 Chapter 3 Current Practice 17 3.1 Relevant Issues in Pavement Preservation 18 3.2 Commonly Used Preservation Treatments 18 3.3 Identification of AQCs and Performance Measures 18 3.4 Service Life Extensions 23 3.5 Identification of Preservation Treatments 24 Chapter 4 Guidelines for Statistical Sampling 24 4.1 Types of Acceptance Sampling Plans 25 Attribute Sampling Plan 27 Variable Sampling Plan C O N T E N T S
29 4.2 Estimating Sample Sizes 29 Standard Error of the Mean 29 Estimation of the Lot Mean 31 Hypothesis Test on Lot Mean 32 4.3 Types of Sampling Methods 33 Random Sampling with Replacement 33 Stratified Sampling 34 Random Sampling without Replacement 34 4.4 Effects of Sampling Methods and Sizes on PWL 36 Construction Quality below RQL 37 Construction Quality between RQL and AQL 38 Construction Quality above AQL 38 4.5 Quantifying Risks 40 4.6 Effects of Lot and Sublot Size on PWL 44 4.7 Summary 47 Chapter 5 Guidelines for Implementing PRS 47 5.1 Treatment Identification and Selection 48 5.2 PRS Guidelines for Preservation Treatments 48 Microsurfacing 50 Thin Overlay 53 Chip Seal 54 Joint Resealing 56 Diamond Grinding 57 Dowel-Bar Retrofit 60 Chapter 6 Examples 60 6.1 Introduction 60 6.2 Characterization of Pre-Existing Conditions 60 6.3 Chip Seal 74 6.4 Diamond Grinding 94 Chapter 7 Summary, Findings, and Recommendations for Future Research 94 7.1 Summary 94 Process for Developing PRS Guidelines 95 State of the Practice in Pavement Preservation 95 Sampling Plans and Methods 96 PRS Guidelines and Examples 97 7.2 Findings 98 7.3 Recommendations for Future Research 99 References 102 Abbreviations, Acronyms, Initialisms, and Symbols 104 Appendix A Examples Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.