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58 As final deliverables for this project, this guide and a tool were developed. These are meant to be used by agencies to develop clean truck freight strategies and programs. 7.1 Guide The guide is designed to help planning agenciesâincluding state DOTs, MPOs, state envi- ronmental and energy agencies, local governments, port authorities, and other regional and local agenciesâthat are seeking to implement policies, programs, and strategies that will reduce emissions from freight trucks. More specifically, this guide focuses on strategies to reduce truck emissions through alternative fuels and technologies, operational changes, and infrastructure investments. Although the target audience for this guide is practitioners, it endeavors to provide useful information and serve as a reference for other stakeholders as well. Chapter 1 of the guide provides an industry overview that includes a description of different types of trucking companies and the types of trucks used to transport freight. This chapter gives users an introduction to the complexity of the freight movement industry and trucks, while avoiding potentially overwhelming details. Furthermore, the industry overview can help policymakers understand how stakeholders might respond to certain strategies and give insight into how different strategies might fit within their purview. Chapter 2 introduces the reader to clean truck freight strategies that can be implemented to reduce GHG and criteria pollutant emissions. (Criteria pollutants are PM, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, NOx, and lead. NOx and PM are the most significant criteria pol- lutants produced by heavy-duty vehicles.) To help users navigate the breadth of strategies, these strategies have been grouped as follows: accelerated retirement, exhaust retrofits, fuel efficiency equipment, alternative fuels, operational strategies, and clean truck infrastructure. Chapter 3 provides the reader with an overview of known funding opportunities and incen- tives that can be used to implement clean truck programs. These funding and incentive pro- grams can change rapidly, so users are encouraged to review the information and check other information sources. Chapter 4 provides information on existing programs and the lessons that have been learned in efforts to deploy clean truck strategies in multiple places. These programs have multiple vari- ables such as, but not limited to, the strategy or strategies deployed, the types of trucks targeted, the stakeholders involved, and the amount of dedicated funding. This chapter can help stake- holders learn from other programs and navigate potential pitfalls when planning strategies to deploy clean freight trucks. C H A P T E R 7 Guide and Tool
Guide and Tool 59 In addition to this guidebook, an Excel-based tool and an accompanying Tool User Manual are available. The tool enables users to quickly evaluate different approaches for reducing freight truck emissions by estimating emission reductions, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various strategies. 7.2 Tool The purpose of the tool is to enable users to quickly evaluate various strategies to reduce freight truck emissions by presenting cost, emissions reduction, and cost-effectiveness. The tool is designed to be useful to a diverse set of public agencies with varied objectives and resources. For example, some agencies might be concerned primarily with reducing GHG emissions, while others are more focused on reducing NOx or PM; also, some agencies might have sufficient funding to support a major incentive program for clean trucks, while others might have little or no discretionary funding. In addition, the tool can support agencies at different geographic scales: state, metropolitan, county/municipal, and facility. Each strategy analysis requires different inputs and provides different outputs. The tool is necessarily generalized, relying on averages and default values but allowing users to input infor- mation to override default values. For example, the default values in the tool for the annual VMT by truck type reflect national averages, but users can replace these default values with local data. The tool allows the three types of analyses, as described in Table 33. The initial tool screen, which allows the user to select the type of analysis, is shown in Figure 3. If the user chooses the Truck Deployment Analysis, the choices in Figure 4 are presented. The user will work through various input screens, and then the tool will output results in a tabular format. The outputted results show the reduction in emissions in short tons, reduction (or increase) in fuel use, costs, and cost-effectiveness for NOx, PM2.5, and CO2. When multiple Truck Deployment Analysis Allows an agency to see the emissions beneï¬ts, costs, and cost-eï¬ectiveness of replacing trucks or retroï¬tting trucks with certain advanced technologies or alternative fuels. Funding Impact Analysis Estimates the number of replaced or retroï¬tted trucks, and corresponding emissions beneï¬ts, if an agency were to invest a given amount of money into clean truck strategies. The agency can then see which approaches/strategies yield the greatest emissions beneï¬t or are the most cost- eï¬ective. Incentive Analysis Estimates the payback period to truck owners when the public agency covers only a portion of a strategyâs incremental cost. The user selects a truck type and strategy that result in fuel savings, and the tool calculates the emissions beneï¬ts, cost-eï¬ectiveness, and payback period for the truck owner (how many years it would take for the fuel savings to cover the non-incentivized incremental cost). The tool calculates these for 25%, 50%, and 75% incentivizing of the full strategy cost. Many strategies result in fuel savings for truck owners, so public agencies often provide only a portion of the strategy cost on the assumption that the owner will be willing to pay for the balance. To maximize the beneï¬ts of the public funds, the agency will typically seek to set the incentive at the lowest level that will still generate interest among truck owners. Table 33. Analysis types used in the tool.
60 Guide to Deploying Clean Truck Freight Strategies Figure 3. Tool analysis screen. Figure 4. Tool truck deployment analysis screen.
Guide and Tool 61 strategies are listed, the user can find the most cost-effective option or the one giving the largest emissions reductions. The user can also get a detailed output by clicking the Go to Formatted Results button. By clicking the Excel button, a copy of both outputs will be saved to another spreadsheet along with a sortable table of emissions reductions and cost-effectiveness. If the user chooses the Funding Impact Analysis, the choices in Figure 5 are presented. The user will work through various input screens, and then the tool will output results in a tabular format. The Tabular Output shows the number of trucks that can be modified/replaced based on the investment amount, the emissions reduced in short tons, and the cost-effectiveness of the emissions reduced based on the investment amount. If the user chooses the Incentive Analysis, the choices in Figure 6 are presented. Figure 5. Tool funding impact analysis screen. Figure 6. Tool incentive analysis screen.
62 Guide to Deploying Clean Truck Freight Strategies The user will work through various input screens, and then the tool will output results in a tabular format. The output will examine the modification selected and calculate agency costs for a 25%, 50%, and 75% incentive plus the number of years it will take for the user to pay off the non-incentive incremental capital costs with fuel cost savings. Only those modifications that provide fuel savings are allowed for this type of analysis. 7.3 Tool User Manual In addition, a user manual was developed for the tool that explains how to use the tool and the methodology behind the calculations and defaults. It contains a description of what settings to use so that the tool opens and functions properly, summary descriptions of the scope of the tool and the outputs it produces, the default inputs to the tool, a more complete description of each analysis option in the tool (Truck Deployment Analysis, Investment Analysis, and Incentive Analysis) as well as a brief description of how the tool works, and additional information on the modeling and other data sources used to develop the emissions factors, fuel-use data, and cost increments used in the tool.
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation
TRA N SPO RTATIO N RESEA RCH BO A RD 500 Fifth Street, N W W ashington, D C 20001 A D D RESS SERV ICE REQ U ESTED N O N -PR O FIT O R G . U .S. PO STA G E PA ID C O LU M B IA , M D PER M IT N O . 88 ISBN 978-0-309-44666-2 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 4 4 6 6 6 2 9 0 0 0 0