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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24984.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24984.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24984.
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Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs TRANSFORMING THE FINANCING OF EARLY CARE AND EDUCATION Committee on Financing Early Care and Education with a Highly Qualified Workforce Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Health and Medicine Division La Rue Allen and Emily P. Backes, Editors A Consensus Study Report of

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the Alliance for Early Success (G-1605-01115); the Buffett Early Childhood Fund; the Foundation for Child Development (NAS-02-2016); the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1153016); the Heising- Simons Foundation (2016-210); the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (P3034414); the Kresge Foundation (R-1604-259389), the U.S. Department of Education (ED-ESE-16-C-0018); the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families (HHSP233201400020B, Order No. HHSP23337046); and the Caplan Foundation for Early Childhood (10002673), with additional support from the National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Presidents’ Fund. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/24984 Library of Congress Control Number OR Cataloging-in-Publication: Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/24984.

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs COMMITTEE ON FINANCING EARLY CARE AND EDUCATION WITH A HIGHLY QUALIFIED WORKFORCE LA RUE ALLEN, (Chair), Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University CELIA C. AYALA, Los Angeles Universal Preschool/Child 360 DAPHNA BASSOK, Curry School of Education and EdPolicy Works, University of Virginia RICHARD N. BRANDON, Human Services Policy Center, University of Washington (retired) GERALD M. CUTTS, First Children’s Finance KIM DANCY, Education Policy Program, New America ELIZABETH E. DAVIS, Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota HARRIET DICHTER, Early Education Services, ICF and Early Childhood Policy and Strategy Consultant KATHY GLAZER, Virginia Early Childhood Foundation LYNN A. KAROLY, RAND Corporation HELEN F. LADD, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University (emeritus) SHAYNE SPAULDING, Income and Benefits Policy Center, Urban Institute MARCY WHITEBOOK, Center for the Study of Child Care Employment, University of California, Berkeley EMILY P. BACKES, Co-Study Director SHEILA MOATS, Co-Study Director MARY GHITELMAN, Senior Program Assistant EMILY BYERS, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (January through May 2017) v

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs BOARD ON CHILDREN YOUTH AND FAMILIES ANGELA DIAZ, (Chair), Departments of Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai HAROLYN BELCHER, Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine W. THOMAS BOYCE, University of California, San Francisco, Division of Developmental Medicine DAVID V.B. BRITT, Sesame Workshop (Retired CEO) RICHARD F. CATALANO, University of Washington School of Social Work DEBBIE I. CHANG, Nemours, Policy and Prevention DIMITRI CHRISTAKIS, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, University of Washington PATRICK H. DELEON, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Nursing Uniformed Services, University of the Health Sciences ELENA FUENTES-AFFLICK, University of California, San Francisco and San Francisco General Hospital EUGENE E. GARCÍA, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers’ College, Arizona State University (emeritus) JEFFREY W. HUTCHINSON, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences JACQUELINE JONES, Foundation for Child Development JAMES M. PERRIN, Harvard Medical School and MassGeneral Hospital for Children MARTIN J. SEPÚLVEDA, Research Division, IBM Corporation (retired) MARTIN H. TEICHER, Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital JONATHAN TODRES, Georgia State University College of Law NATACHA BLAIN, Director PAMELLA ATAYI, Program Coordinator vi

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Administration for Children and Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Education, the Alliance for Early Success, the Buffett Early Childhood Fund, the Caplan Foundation for Early Childhood, the Foundation for Child Development, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Heising-Simons Foundation, the Kresge Foundation, and the W. K. Kellogg Foundation asked the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (National Academies) to outline a framework for a funding strategy that would provide reliable, accessible high-quality early care and education for young children from birth to kindergarten entry, including a highly qualified and adequately compensated workforce consistent with the vision outlined in the 2015 Institute of Medicine and National Research Council report, Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation. The National Academies appointed the Committee on Financing Early Care and Education with a Highly Qualified Workforce. In addition to the sponsors listed above, the committee also acknowledges the Bruce Alberts Fund and the Cecil and Ida Green Fund for funding our work. Many individuals volunteered significant time and effort to address and educate the committee during our public information meetings. Their willingness to share their perspectives and experiences was essential to the committee’s work. We thank Linda K. Smith, formerly Administration for Children and Families; Libby Doggett, U.S. Department of Education; Helene Stebbins, Alliance for Early Success; Jacqueline Jones, Foundation for Child Development; Patricia Lozano, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; Neesha Modi, Kresge Foundation; Rebecca Gomez, Heising-Simons Foundation; W. Clayton Burch, West Virginia Department of Education; Ellen Frede, Building Effective Early Learning Systems; Barbara Thompson, formerly U.S. Department of Defense; Valora Washington, Council for Economic Recognition; Bill Ermatinger, Huntington Ingalls Industries; Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute and Society for Human Resource Management; Tom Lamb, PNC; Amy K. Matsui, National Women’s Law Center; Sandy Baum, Urban Institute; Carole Roan Gresenz, RAND Corporation; Alanna McCargo, Urban Institute; Nancy Hylden, Hylden Advocacy & Law; Katherine Klem, Institute for Child Success; Nasha Patel, Louisiana Department of Education; Simon Workman, Center for American Progress; and Anne W. Mitchell, Early Childhood Policy Research and Alliance for Early Childhood Finance. We also thank the many other stakeholders who shared information with the committee over the course of the study. This report would not have been possible without the contributions of many people. Special thanks go to the members of the committee, who dedicated extensive time, thought, and energy to the drafting of the report. Several members of the staff of the National Academies made significant contributions to the report. Mary Ghitelman provided key administrative and logistical support and made sure that committee meetings ran smoothly. Thanks are also due to Emily Byers, who contributed important research assistance to the committee’s work. The committee is also grateful to Lisa Alston and Pamella Atayi for their administrative and financial assistance on this project. From the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Office of Reports and Communication, Eugenia Grohman, Viola Horek, Patricia L. Morison, Kirsten Sampson-Snyder, Douglas Sprunger, and Yvonne Wise shepherded the report through the review and production process and assisted with its communication and dissemination. vii

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs Finally, throughout the project, Natacha Blain, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, provided helpful oversight. We are also indebted to Bridget Kelly for her guidance, wisdom, and thoughtful substantive work as a consultant for this study, as well as consulting writer Erin Hammers Forstag, who provided invaluable writing assistance and played an important substantive role in drafting the report. In addition, we thank Scott Latham and Helen Penn for their valuable commissioned papers, which informed our deliberations. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Kimberly Boller, Senior Research Psychologist, Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.; W. Clayton Burch, Office of the State Superintendent, West Virginia Department of Education; Miriam Calderon, Early Learning Systems, State of Oregon; Rachel Connelly, Department of Economics, Bowdoin College; Martha A. Darling, Education Policy Consultant, Ann Arbor, MI; Kenneth A. Dodge, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University; Jana Fleming, Early Childhood Policy, Salama bint Hamdan Al Nahyan Foundation, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Robert French, NorthStar Learning Centers, New Bedford, MA; James J. Heckman, Department of Economics, The University of Chicago; Geoffrey Nagle, President and CEO, Erickson Institute; Adele Robinson, School of Public Policy/School of Public Health, University of Maryland; Louise Stoney, Alliance for Early Childhood and Finance and Opportunities Exchange, West Palm Beach, FL. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Rosemary Chalk, Independent Consultant, Bethesda, MD, and Sherry Glied, Dean’s Office, Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. La Rue Allen, Chair Emily P. Backes, Co-Study Director Sheila Moats, Co-Study Director Committee on Financing Early Care and Education with a Highly Qualified Workforce viii

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs CONTENTS Summary S-1 1 Introduction 1-1 Charge to the Committee Defining Early Care and Education Transforming the ECE Workforce Financing High-Quality Early Care and Education Study Methods Organization of the Report 2 Landscape of Early Care and Education Financing 2-1 History and Evolution of ECE Policy in the United States Current ECE Financing Landscape Conclusion 3 Current Financing for Early Care and Education: 3-1 Financing a Highly Qualified Workforce (Principle 1) Improved Compensation Ongoing Professional Learning and Higher Education Conclusion 4 Current Financing for Early Care and Education: 4-1 Affordability and Equitable Access (Principle 2) Current ECE Usage and Affordability for Families Financing Mechanisms’ Support of Equitable Access Conclusion 5 Current Financing for Early Care and Education: 5-1 Ensuring High Quality across Settings Principle 3: Easy-to-Administer Financing with Incentives for Quality Principle 4: Variety of High-Quality Service Options Principle 5: High-Quality Facilities Principle 6: Quality Assurance and Improvement Conclusion on Current Financing for Early Care and Education 6 Estimating the Cost of High-Quality Early Care and Education 6-1 Cost Elements of High-Quality Early Care and Education Example Part I: Illustration of a Total Cost Estimate Example Part II: Family Payments in a High-Quality ECE System Example Part III: Sharing the Cost, Filling the Gap Conclusion 7 A Vision for Financing Early Care and Education 7-1 An Effective Financing Structure Sharing the Cost for High-Quality Early Care and Education Planning for the Transition to High Quality Financing Workforce Transformation Business Supports ix

Prepublication Copy Uncorrected Proofs Assessing Progress Toward Quality Conclusion References Ref-1 APPENDICES A. Methodology and Policy Choices and Assumptions for Cost Estimator A-1 B. Cost Estimation Models B-1 C. Determining a Reasonable Share of Costs for Families to Pay C-1 D. Biosketches of Committee Members and Staff D-1 x

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High-quality early care and education for children from birth to kindergarten entry is critical to positive child development and has the potential to generate economic returns, which benefit not only children and their families but society at large. Despite the great promise of early care and education, it has been financed in such a way that high-quality early care and education have only been available to a fraction of the families needing and desiring it and does little to further develop the early-care-and-education (ECE) workforce. It is neither sustainable nor adequate to provide the quality of care and learning that children and families need—a shortfall that further perpetuates and drives inequality.

Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education outlines a framework for a funding strategy that will provide reliable, accessible high-quality early care and education for young children from birth to kindergarten entry, including a highly qualified and adequately compensated workforce that is consistent with the vision outlined in the 2015 report, Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8: A Unifying Foundation. The recommendations of this report are based on essential features of child development and early learning, and on principles for high-quality professional practice at the levels of individual practitioners, practice environments, leadership, systems, policies, and resource allocation.

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