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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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THE NEXT GENERATION OF
BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL
SCIENCES RESEARCHERS

Breaking Through

Ronald Daniels and Lida Beninson, Editors

Committee on the Next Generation Initiative

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Policy and Global Affairs

A Consensus Study Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and The National Institutes of Health (#HHSN263201200074I, Order No. HHSN26300107) and the Bloomberg Philanthropies. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-47137-4
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-47137-0
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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25008.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.

The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.

The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.

Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
×

COMMITTEE ON THE NEXT GENERATION INITIATIVE

Members

RONALD J. DANIELS (Chair), President, Johns Hopkins University

NANCY C. ANDREWS (NAS/NAM), Dean and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs (Emerita), Duke University School of Medicine

W. TRAVIS BERGGREN, Founding Director for the Stem Cell Research Core Facility, Salk Institute

SUE BIGGINS (NAS), Associate Director in the Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

JOHN BOOTHROYD (NAS), Burt and Marion Avery Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Associate Vice Provost for Graduate Education, Stanford University

DAVID R. BURGESS, Professor of Biology, Boston College

KAFUI DZIRASA, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University

GIOVANNA GUERRERO-MEDINA, Executive Director, Ciencia Puerto Rico; Director, Yale Ciencia Initiative, Yale University

JUDITH KIMBLE (NAS), Vilas Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

STORY LANDIS (NAM), Former Director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health

KENNETH MAYNARD, Head, Global Patient Safety Evaluation (GPSE) Compliance, Standards and Training and GPSE Business Partners Relations, Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co.

GARY S. MCDOWELL, Executive Director, The Future of Research, Inc.

JESSICA POLKA, Visiting Scholar, Whitehead Institute

JOAN Y. REEDE (NAM), Dean for Diversity and Community Partnership and Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

LANA R. SKIRBOLL, Vice President of Science Policy, Sanofi

PAULA STEPHAN, Professor of Economics, Georgia State University

MARIA ELENA ZAVALA, Professor of Biology, California State University, Northridge

Study Staff

LIDA BENINSON, Study Director and Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Program Officer

YASMEEN HUSSAIN, Associate Program Officer (Until July 2017)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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ELIZABETH GARBEE, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (Until April 2018)

AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant

LAYNE SCHERER, Program Officer

JAY LABOV, Senior Advisor for Education and Communication

IRENE NGUN, Research Associate

ADRIANA COUREMBIS, Finance Officer

ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant

FREDRICK LESTINA, Senior Program Assistant

JAIME COLMAN, Senior Program Assistant (Until December 2017)

THOMAS RUDIN, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Consultants

JOE ALPER, Writer

JEREMY BERG, Consultant

PHILLIP SPECTOR, Consultant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
×

BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE

Members

RICHARD K. MILLER (Chair) (NAE), President, Olin College of Engineering

LAWRENCE D. BOBO (NAS), W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of the Social Sciences, Department of Sociology, Harvard University

ANGELA BYARS-WINSTON, Professor of Medicine, University of Wisconsin–Madison

JAIME CURTIS-FISK, Scientist and STEM Education Program Leader, The Dow Chemical Company

APRILLE ERICSSON, Capture–Mission Manager, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

RICHARD FREEMAN, Herbert Ascherman Professor of Economics, Harvard University

PAUL J. LEBLANC, President, Southern New Hampshire University

SALLY F. MASON, President Emerita, University of Iowa

FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ, Chancellor, Los Angeles Community College District

SUBHASH SINGHAL (NAE), Battelle Fellow Emeritus, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY, Chancellor, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

SHELLEY WESTMAN, Principal/Partner, Ernst & Young, LLP

MARY WOOLLEY (NAM), President and CEO, Research! America

Staff

AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Senior Program Assistant

ASHLEY BEAR, Program Officer

LIDA BENINSON, Program Officer

ALLISON BERGER, Senior Program Assistant

JAIME COLMAN, Senior Program Assistant (Until December, 2017)

MARIA LUND DAHLBERG, Program Officer

YASMEEN HUSSAIN, Associate Program Officer (Until July 2017)

LEIGH JACKSON, Senior Program Officer

FREDRICK LESTINA, Senior Program Assistant

BARBARA NATALIZIO, Program Officer

IRENE NGUN, Research Associate

LAYNE SCHERER, Program Officer

THOMAS RUDIN, Director

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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Preface

The U.S. biomedical research ecosystem is one of the great engines of innovation in modern history. It is a wellspring of discovery and cures that has expanded the domain of human knowledge, improved and saved countless lives, and catalyzed job growth and economic prosperity in communities across the nation. The United States’ model for training and funding the biomedical workforce is widely credited with making it a global leader in scientific research, one that is emulated around the world. But there is nothing inevitable about the success of this enterprise. It requires constant vigilance and stewardship, to ensure that we are setting the optimal conditions and incentives for our scientists and the science they imagine, now and into the future.

There have been warning signs for years that the enterprise may be calcifying—in ways that create barriers, in particular for the incoming generation of researchers. Multiple national reports have been penned about these warning signs, and they have proposed countless recommendations for reform. But many of the recommendations have gone unaddressed. And the problems have endured.

Of late, the vulnerabilities in the biomedical enterprise have grown more evident, leading to renewed concern on the part of science policy leaders, professional organizations, funding agencies, and, above all, the U.S. Congress, which called on the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a comprehensive study of the policies affecting the next generation of researchers in the United States. This report is the outcome of that study. In developing it, we saw our task as two-fold: First, to identify reforms that are tailored to the evolving barriers facing the next generation of researchers. But, second, to do so in a manner that responds to the failure of many of the earlier recommendations to gain traction.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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The pages that follow chronicle a biomedical research landscape of remarkable promise, yet characterized by fissures and areas of stress. This report offers a set of recommendations that seek to engage those vulnerabilities and to build an ecosystem that is dynamic and fair, while setting in place the structures and conditions for sustained change, so that episodic reports start to fall away and policy change across the enterprise is ongoing and enduring, to benefit the next generation of researchers, as well as the generations of researchers yet to come.

Ronald Daniels, Chair

Committee on the Next Generation Initiative

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
×

Acknowledgments

The committee would like to acknowledge the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Bloomberg Philanthropies for their generous support of this study. In particular, the committee would like to acknowledge Phillip Spector, Yasmeen Hussain, and Amanda Field for their support to this project. The committee also acknowledges the contributions from Walter Schaffer, Jennifer Sutton, Silda Nikaj, Katrina Pearson, Deepshikha Roychowdhury, and Robert Moore of NIH for their support and responses to data requests. The committee would also like to acknowledge the University of California, San Francisco, The Johns Hopkins University, and Sanofi in Cambridge, Massachusetts, for hosting the committee’s meetings. We are also grateful for the contributions of James Burke, Gilbert S. Omenn Fellow at the National Academy of Medicine; Rona Briere, for her careful editing of the report; and Rebecca Morgan of the National Academies Research Center, for her assistance with fact-checking.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF PRESENTERS

The committee gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:

DAVID ASAI, Senior Director for Science Education, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

ELIZABETH BACA, Senior Health Advisor, California Governor’s Office of Planning and Research

SUSAN BASERGA, Professor of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
×

MARC BONNEFOI, Head, R&D France, Sanofi

GWYNETH CARD, Group Leader, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Research Center

DENNIS DEAN, II, R&D Scientist, Seven Bridges Genomics

DEBORAH DUNSIRE, CEO, XTuit Pharmaceuticals

KENNETH GIBBS, Program Director, Division of Training, Workforce Development, and Diversity, National Institute of General Medicine, National Institutes of Health

RORY GOODWIN, Neurosurgery Resident, The Johns Hopkins University Hospital

EVA GUINAN, Director of Translational Research, Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

STEPHEN HAGGARTY, Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Director, Chemical Neurobiology Laboratory, Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

MISTY HEGGENESS, Chief of Longitudinal Research, Evaluation, and Outreach, U.S. Census Bureau

SAMANTHA HINDLE, Assistant Professional Researcher, University of California, San Francisco

STEVEN HYMAN, Distinguished Service Professor, Harvard University, Director, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Core Member, Broad Institute

BAHIJA JALLAL, Executive Vice President, MedImmune

MARC KIRSCHNER, John Franklin Enders University Professor, Chair, Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School

MICHAEL LAUER, Director, Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health

ALAN LESHNER, CEO Emeritus, American Association for the Advancement of Science

KAY LUND, Director of the Division of Biomedical Research Workforce, Office of Extramural Research, National Institutes of Health

TERRY MAGNUSON, Vice Chancellor for Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

SEAN MCCONNELL, Postdoctoral Scholar, University of Chicago

PAUL MCGONIGLE, Director, Interdisciplinary & Career-Oriented Programs, Co-Director, Drug Discovery & Development Program, Drexel University

JIM MULLEN, CEO, Patheon

MARINA RAMON, Board of Directors, National Postdoctoral Association

MICHAEL RICHEY, Associate Technical Fellow, Learning Sciences and Engineering Education Research, The Boeing Company

LAWRENCE ROTHBLUM, Chair of the Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma, President, Association of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Neurobiology Chairpersons

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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NANCY SCHWARTZ, Professor, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chicago

SHIRLEY TILGHMAN, President of the University, Emeritus, Professor of Molecular Biology and Public Affairs, Princeton University

DANIEL WILSON, Research Advisor, Economic Research Department, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Bruce Alberts, University of California, San Francisco; Georges Benjamin, American Public Health Association; Sherilynn Black, Duke University; Gregory Burke, Wake Forest University; John Burris, Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Deborah Dunsire, Xtuit Pharmaceuticals; Samantha Hindle, University of California, San Francisco; Timothy Ley, Washington University, St. Louis; Ross McKinney, Association of American Medical Colleges; Christopher Pickett, Rescuing Biomedical Research; Therese Richmond, University of Pennsylvania; Sally Rockey, Foundation for Food and Agriculture Research; Lawrence Rothblum, University of Oklahoma; Henry Sauermann, European School of Management and Technology, Berlin; Geoffrey Smith, Digitalis Ventures; and Wayne Yokoyama, Washington University, St. Louis.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Olufunmilayo (Funmi) Olopade, University of Chicago and Charles Phelps, University of Rochester. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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Acronyms and Abbreviations

AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science
AAMC Association of American Medical Colleges
AAU Association of American Universities
ACD Advisory Committee to the NIH Director
AMGDB Association of Medical and Graduate Departments of Biochemistry
ARRA American Recovery Reinvestment Act
ASBMB American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
ASCB American Society for Cell Biology
B.A. Bachelor of Arts
BEST Broadening Experiences in Scientific Training
BHEW Board on Higher Education and Workforce
BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
BRAINS Biobehavioral Research Awards for Innovative New Scientists
BRAINS Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies
BRAINS Broadening the Representation of Academic Investigators in Neuroscience
BREC Biomedical Research Enterprise Council
B.S. Bachelor of Science
BUILD Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity
CEC Coordination and Evaluation Center
CFR Code of Federal Regulations
CGS Council of Graduate Schools
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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COMPASS Committee for Postdocs and Students
COSEMPUP Committee for Science, Engineering, Medicine, and Public Policy
COSWD Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity
CPI Consumer Price Index
CSR Center for Scientific Review
CTSA Clinical Translational Science Awards
DICP Harvard Medical School’s Office for Diversity Inclusion and Community Partnership
DLR Division of Loan Repayment at NIH
DPC NIH Diversity Program Consortium
EEI Early Established Investigator
ESI Early-Stage Investigator
FASEB Federation of Societies for Experimental Biology
FLSA Fair Labor Standards Act
FRLC Future Research Leaders Conference
FY Fiscal Year
HHMI Howard Hughes Medical Institute
HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
HMS Harvard Medical School
ICs Institutes and Centers
IDP Individual Development Plan
IPUMS Integrated Public Use Microdata Series
IRACDA Institutional Research and Academic Career Development Award
IRIS Institute for Research on Innovation and Science
LPR Loan Repayment Program
LRP Loan Repayment Award
MARC/RISE Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC) and Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement
M.B.A. Master’s of Business Administration
M.D. Medical Doctorate
MERIT Method to Extend Research in Time
MIRA Maximizing Investigators’ Research Award
MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology
M.S. Master of Science
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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NAS National Academy of Sciences
NCI National Cancer Institute
NEI National Eye Institute
NGRI Next Generation Researchers Initiative
NGRI-DS Next Generation Researchers Initiative Diversity Supplements
NHLBI National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
NIBIB National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Engineering
NIDCR National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research
NIDDK National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
NIGMS National Institute of General Medical Sciences
NIH National Institutes of Health
NIMH National Institute of Mental Health
NINDS National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NPA National Postdoctoral Association
NRC National Research Council
NRMN National Research Mentoring Network
NRSA Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award
NSCG National Survey of College Graduates
NSERC National Science and Engineering Research Council
NSF National Science Foundation
NSF ADVANCE National Science Foundation Increasing the Participation and Advancement of Women in Academic Science and Engineering Careers
NSF GRP National Science Foundation Graduate Research Program
NSRCG National Survey of Recent College Graduates
ORCID Open Researcher and Contributor Identification
PD/PI Program Director/Principal Investigator
Ph.D. Doctorate of Philosophy
PI Principle Investigator
R&D Research and Development
RBR Rescuing Biomedical Research
RPG Research Project Grant
RPPR Research Performance Progress Report
S&E Science and Engineering
SACNAS Society for the Advancement of Chicanos/Hispanics and Native Americans in Science
SBIR Small Business Innovation Research
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25008.
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SDR Survey on Doctoral Recipients
STEM Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
STTR Small Business Technology Transfer
SWD Scientific Workforce Diversity
UCSF University of California, San Francisco
UIDP University Industry Demonstration Partnership
UMBC University of Maryland Baltimore County
URM Underrepresented Minority
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Since the end of the Second World War, the United States has developed the world’s preeminent system for biomedical research, one that has given rise to revolutionary medical advances as well as a dynamic and innovative business sector generating high-quality jobs and powering economic output and exports for the U.S. economy. However, there is a growing concern that the biomedical research enterprise is beset by several core challenges that undercut its vitality, promise, and productivity and that could diminish its critical role in the nation’s health and innovation in the biomedical industry.

Among the most salient of these challenges is the gulf between the burgeoning number of scientists qualified to participate in this system as academic researchers and the elusive opportunities to establish long-term research careers in academia. The patchwork of measures to address the challenges facing young scientists that has emerged over the years has allowed the U.S. biomedical enterprise to continue to make significant scientific and medical advances. These measures, however, have not resolved the structural vulnerabilities in the system, and in some cases come at a great opportunity cost for young scientists. These unresolved issues could diminish the nation’s ability to recruit the best minds from all sectors of the U.S. population to careers in biomedical research and raise concerns about a system that may favor increasingly conservative research proposals over high-risk, innovative ideas.

The Next Generation of Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Researchers: Breaking Through evaluates the factors that influence transitions into independent research careers in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and offers recommendations to improve those transitions. These recommendations chart a path to a biomedical research enterprise that is competitive, rigorous, fair, dynamic, and can attract the best minds from across the country.

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