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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Opportunities for Improving Programs and Services for Children with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25028.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Opportunities for Improving Programs and Services for Children with Disabilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25028.
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Appendix B Glossary Activity limitations: Difficulties an individual may have in executing activities (IOM, 2007; WHO, 2001). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) identifies three different presentations of ADHD: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive; and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined. Symptoms may vary from motor restlessness and aggressive, disruptive behavior, which are common in preschool-aged children, to disorganized, distractible, and inattentive symptoms, which are more typical in older adolescents and adults (APA, 2013). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD): DSM-5 criteria require that a child have persistent impairment in social communications and interactions across multiple contexts, as well as restricted or repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities; that symptoms present in early childhood and cause significant functional impairments; and that the impairments not be better explained by intellectual disability (APA, 2013). Childhood disability: An environmentally contextualized health-related limitation in a child’s existing or emerging capacity to perform developmentally appropriate activities and participate, as desired, in society. Functional limitation: Loss or restriction of an individual’s ability to perform a specific physical or mental function or activity, such as walking, speaking, or memory (SSA, 2012, n.d.). Habilitative services: Health care services that help in keeping, learning, or improving skills and functioning for daily living. Examples include therapy for a child who is not walking or talking at the expected age. Health outcomes: Physical and mental health outcomes directly related to health conditions, defined as disorders or illnesses of body systems that are conventionally measured in health care settings. Impairment: A problem with body function or structure, such as a significant deviation or loss (IOM, 2007; WHO, 2001). B-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

B-2 OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING PROGRAMS AND SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Intellectual disability: DSM-5 defines intellectual disabilities as neurodevelopmental disorders that begin in childhood and are characterized by intellectual difficulties, as well as difficulties in conceptual, social, and practical areas of living (APA, 2013). Learning disability: According to DSM-5, the diagnosis of a specific learning disorder includes the following symptoms: (1) Persistent difficulties in reading, writing, arithmetic, or mathematical reasoning skills during formal years of schooling. Symptoms may include inaccurate or slow and effortful reading, poor written expression that lacks clarity, difficulties remembering number facts, or inaccurate mathematical reasoning. (2) Current academic skills must be well below the average range of scores in culturally and linguistically appropriate tests of reading, writing, or mathematics. Accordingly, a person who is dyslexic must read with great effort and not in the same manner as those who are typical readers. (3) Learning difficulties begin during the school-age years. (4) The individual’s difficulties must not be better explained by developmental, neurological, sensory (vision or hearing), or motor disorders and must interfere significantly with academic achievement, occupational performance, or activities of daily living (APA, 2013). Medicaid churning: The continual exit and reentry of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) beneficiaries as their eligibility changes. Medically determinable impairment: “An impairment that results from anatomical, physiological, or psychological abnormalities which can be shown by medically acceptable clinical and laboratory diagnostic techniques” (SSA, n.d.). Mood disorder: DSM-5 identifies the mood disorders that may have a childhood onset as (1) major depression, (2) persistent depressive disorder, and (3) disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (APA, 2013). Recipient: A person who is receiving SSI payments based on an evaluation of his or her countable income and resources, age, and disability status (SSA, 2014). REFERENCES APA (American Psychiatric Association). 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5®). Arlington, VA: APA. IOM (Institute of Medicine). 2007. The future of disability in America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. SSA (Social Security Administration). 2012. POMS DI 00115.015: Definitions of disability. (accessed December 18, 2017). SSA. 2014. Program Operations Manual System: Medicaid and the Supplemental Security Income program. (accessed December 18, 2017). SSA. n.d. State(s)/location(s) involved. Washington, DC: SSA. WHO (World Health Organization). 2001. International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Although the general public in the United States assumes children to be generally healthy and thriving, a substantial and growing number of children have at least one chronic health condition. Many of these conditions are associated with disabilities and interfere regularly with children’s usual activities, such as play or leisure activities, attending school, and engaging in family or community activities. In their most severe forms, such disorders are serious lifelong threats to children’s social, emotional well-being and quality of life, and anticipated adult outcomes such as for employment or independent living. However, pinpointing the prevalence of disability among children in the U.S. is difficult, as conceptual frameworks and definitions of disability vary among federal programs that provide services to this population and national surveys, the two primary sources for prevalence data.

Opportunities for Improving Programs and Services for Children with Disabilities provides a comprehensive analysis of health outcomes for school-aged children with disabilities. This report reviews and assesses programs, services, and supports available to these children and their families. It also describes overarching program, service, and treatment goals; examines outreach efforts and utilization rates; identifies what outcomes are measured and how they are reported; and describes what is known about the effectiveness of these programs and services.

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