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2018 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 198 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation The Relationship Between Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality Spy Pond Partners, LLC Arlington, MA AECOM Los Angeles, CA McCollom Management Consulting, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD Harry Cohen Tampa, FL Steven Silkunas Fernandina Beach, FL
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 198 Project E-11 ISSN 2572-3782 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-39042-2 Â© 2018 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 198 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Gwen Chisholm Smith, Manager, Transit Cooperative Research Program Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor TCRP PROJECT E-11 PANEL Field of Maintenance Stephen A. Berrang, New York MTA, New York, NY (Chair) Bruce A. Buck, Hendersonville, TN Lauren Kay Cochran, Proterra, Burlingame, CA Roderick B. Diaz, Southern California Regional Rail Authority, Los Angeles, CA Jeffrey D. Gonneville, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA Jordan Holt, Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Washington, DC Sharon Montez, Corpus Christi Regional Transportation Authority, Corpus Christi, TX Samuel Rumala, New York City Transit, Jackson Heights, NY Jerry Rutledge, Casa Grande, AZ Richard P. Voith, Econsult Solutions, Inc., Philadelphia, PA Maggie Schilling, FTA Liaison Mshadoni Smith, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Stephen J. Andrle, TRB Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison
TCRP Research Report 198 provides guidance to transit decisionmakers on how asset condition and transit service quality relate in terms of investment prioritization. Three Excel spreadsheetsâ(1) a Simplified Effective Journey Time (EJT) Calculator, (2) a Comprehen- sive EJT Calculator, and (3) a worked example demonstrating the use of the Comprehensive EJT Calculatorâprovide quantitative methods and can be found online by searching the TRB website for âTCRP Research Report 198.â Transit agencies can use this report and these tools to better manage existing transit capital assets and make more efficient and effective investment decisions. This research yielded two valuable outcomes for transit agencies: (1) guidance on how to relate asset condition to service quality (a result that is of immediate use in supporting capital investment decisions) and (2) identification of (a) gaps and issues in the available data and (b) state-of-the-practice methods that should be addressed moving forward. The objective of the research was to develop empirical methods; consequently, the research team focused on (1) developing a quantitative method for characterizing service quality and (2) showing how this quantitative measure varies with changes in asset condi- tion. As a result, this report describes the proposed measure of service quality, Effective Journey Time (EJT), and describes how to use the spreadsheet tools to predict changes in EJT as assets deteriorate or improve in condition. This report documents the results of the research, summarizes the results of the litera- ture review performed at the outset of the research, details the framework for relating asset condition to transit quality of service, and documents a set of case studies performed to test the framework. This report also provides guidance on relating asset condition to service quality, describes the accompanying spreadsheet tools, and identifies gaps in the data avail- able to a transit agency. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 Background 3 Research Scope 3 Report Organization 5 Chapter 2 Literature Review Summary 5 Review Approach 6 Review Findings 14 Chapter 3 Framework for Relating Transit Asset Condition and Service Quality 14 Service Quality Framework 17 Asset Condition and Service Quality Relationships 20 Example Applications 22 Chapter 4 Case Studies 22 Case Study Overview 22 Case Study 1: New England Transit Agency Heavy Rail Line 23 Case Study 2: Western Transit Agency Bus Route 24 Case Study 3: Mid-Atlantic Transit Agency Heavy Rail Line 25 Case Study 4: New Zealand Bus Systems 25 Summary Findings 26 Chapter 5 Guidance for Calculating Effects of Changes in Asset Condition on Transit Service Quality 26 Overview 27 Key Concepts and Assumptions 28 Analysis Steps 35 Chapter 6 Using the EJT Calculation Tools 35 Tool Overview 35 Using the Simplified EJT Calculator 42 Using the Comprehensive EJT Calculator 62 Worked Examples 71 Chapter 7 Gap Assessment 73 Chapter 8 Conclusions 73 Research Highlights 74 Opportunities for Further Research 76 References C O N T E N T S
A-1 Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations B-1 Appendix B EJT Formulation C-1 Appendix C Case Studies D-1 Appendix D Project Workshop Summary