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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25138.
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Page R10

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PREPUBLICATION COPY The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling Proceedings of a Workshop Lauren Everett, Rapporteur Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies This prepublication version of The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling has been provided to the public to facilitate timely access to the proceedings. Although the substance of the proceedings is final, editorial changes may be made throughout the text and citations will be checked prior to publication. The final proceedings will be available through the National Academies Press in Spring 2018.

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This project was supported by the Department of Commerce under award number NA14OAR4310301; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under award number NNX16AQ59G; and the National Science Foundation under award number AGS-1507493. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25138 Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. The Future of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Observing, Understanding, and Modeling: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25138. Prepublication Copy

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication Copy

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication Copy

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON THE FUTURE OF BOUNDARY LAYER OBSERVING: A WORKSHOP SHUYI S. CHEN (Chair), University of Washington, Seattle THOMAS M. BAER, Stanford University, CA JOHN J. CASSANO, University of Colorado Boulder JEANNINE CAVENDER-BARES, University of Minnesota, St. Paul RUBEN DELGADO, University of Maryland Baltimore County JAMES B. EDSON, University of Connecticut, Groton PATRICK HEIMBACH, The University of Texas at Austin PETRA KLEIN, University of Oklahoma, Norman JIELUN SUN, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO JOAO TEIXEIRA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff LAUREN EVERETT, Program Officer RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator Prepublication Copy v

BOARD ON ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES AND CLIMATE A.R. RAVISHANKARA (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins SHUYI S. CHEN (Vice Chair), University of Washington, Seattle CECILIA BITZ, University of Washington, Seattle MARK A. CANE, Columbia University, Palisades, NY HEIDI CULLEN, Climate Central, Princeton, NJ ROBERT DUNBAR, Stanford University, Stanford, CA PAMELA EMCH, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA ARLENE FIORE, Columbia University, Palisades, NY PETER FRUMHOFF, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge, MA WILLIAM B. GAIL, Global Weather Corporation, Boulder, CO MARY GLACKIN, The Weather Company, Washington, DC TERRI S. HOGUE, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO EVERETTE JOSEPH, SUNY University at Albany, NY RONALD “NICK” KEENER, JR., Duke Energy Corporation, Charlotte, NC ROBERT KOPP, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ L. RUBY LEUNG, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA JONATHAN MARTIN, University of Wisconsin–Madison JONATHAN OVERPECK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ALLISON STEINER, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DAVID W. TITLEY, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park DUANE WALISER, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena Ocean Studies Board Liaison DAVID HALPERN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine Staff AMANDA STAUDT, Director DAVID ALLEN, Senior Program Officer LAURIE GELLER, Senior Program Officer KATHERINE THOMAS, Senior Program Officer LAUREN EVERETT, Program Officer APRIL MELVIN, Program Officer AMANDA PURCELL, Program Officer YASMIN ROMITTI, Research Associate RITA GASKINS, Administrative Coordinator SHELLY FREELAND, Financial Associate ROB GREENWAY, Program Associate MICHAEL HUDSON, Senior Program Assistant ERIN MARKOVICH, Senior Program Assistant/Research Assistant Prepublication Copy vi

Acknowledgments This Proceedings of a Workshop was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published proceedings as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this proceedings: GIJS DE BOER, University of Colorado Boulder, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory KENNETH DAVIS, The Pennsylvania State University JAMES EDSON, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution SHERRI HUNT, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RUBY LEUNG, U. S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory LARRY O’NEILL, Oregon State University Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the proceedings nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this proceedings was overseen by Otis B. Brown, North Carolina State University. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this proceedings was carried out in accordance with standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rapporteur and the National Academies. Prepublication Copy vii

Contents Overview ......................................................................................................................................... 1 Background ................................................................................................................................. 1 Opening Remarks and Keynote Talks ........................................................................................ 3 Science and Applications Drivers for Boundary Layer Observations ............................................ 9 Panel 1.1—Weather, Subseasonal to Seasonal (S2S), and Climate Modeling ........................... 9 Panel 1.2—Exchanges and Interactions Between the Biosphere and Atmosphere .................. 10 Panel 1.3—Terrestrial Boundary Layer Science Questions ..................................................... 11 Panel 1.4—Marine Boundary Layer Science Questions........................................................... 13 Panel 1.5—Boundary Layer Modeling and Parameterization .................................................. 14 Panel 1.6—Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Air Quality, and Human Health ......... 14 Emerging Technology for Observations ....................................................................................... 17 Panel 2.1—Optics, Photonics, and Sensors .............................................................................. 17 Panel 2.2—In Situ Measurements (e.g., UAS, Balloons) ......................................................... 18 Panel 2.3—Leveraging Existing Networks and Mobile Devices ............................................. 20 Panel 2.4—Surface-Based and Airborne Remote Sensing ....................................................... 21 Panel 2.5—Space-Based Remote Sensing ................................................................................ 22 Strategies for Future Observation ................................................................................................. 25 Designing Field Programs to Improve Model Physics ............................................................. 25 Better Integrating Observations Across Platforms ................................................................... 26 Utilizing Partnerships to Expand Observations ........................................................................ 27 Targeting Regions for Intense Observation and Study ............................................................. 27 Prioritizing Observations to Improve Prediction ...................................................................... 30 Final Thoughts .............................................................................................................................. 31 Appendix A Statement of Task ..................................................................................................... 33 Appendix B Planning Committee Biographical Sketches ............................................................ 35 Appendix C Workshop Agenda .................................................................................................... 41 Appendix D Workshop Participants ............................................................................................. 47 Appendix E: Speaker Abstracts .................................................................................................... 49 Prepublication Copy ix

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Improved observations of the atmospheric boundary layer (BL) and its interactions with the ocean, land, and ice surfaces have great potential to advance science on a number of fronts, from improving forecasts of severe storms and air quality to constraining estimates of trace gas emissions and transport. Understanding the BL is a crucial component of model advancements, and increased societal demands for extended weather impact forecasts (from hours to months and beyond) highlight the need to advance Earth system modeling and prediction. New observing technologies and approaches (including in situ and ground-based, airborne, and satellite remote sensing) have the potential to radically increase the density of observations and allow new types of variables to be measured within the BL, which will have broad scientific and societal benefits.

In October 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop to explore the future of BL observations and their role in improving modeling and forecasting capabilities. Workshop participants discussed the science and applications drivers for BL observation, emerging technology to improve observation capabilities, and strategies for the future. This publication summarizes presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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