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Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop (2018)

Chapter: Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
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Appendix F

Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies

This appendix provides examples of regional and international forums, organizations, or bodies assembled as background to inform the workshop discussions and augmented by input from participants. The material provides a snapshot as of October 2018; it does not provide a comprehensive accounting of all such groups that could potentially become involved in governance of dual use life sciences research.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
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Forum, Organization, or Body Category
1 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) Disarmament conventions and forums
2 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) Disarmament conventions and forums
3 UN Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (1540 Committee) Disarmament conventions and forums
4 Interpol Intergovernmental security organizations
5 UN International Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) Intergovernmental security organizations
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Summary
BWC provides a forum to discuss biosecurity, oversight of dual use research, codes of conduct, and other governance measures. Information about activities is provided during meetings by states parties and civil society. In addition, current EU funding supports education activities. The website includes additional information.

https://www.unog.ch/bwc
CWC provides a forum to discuss chemical weapons nonproliferation, including national implementation of the convention and cooperation on capacity building. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) that implements the CWC provisions includes an Advisory Board on Education and Outreach and a Scientific Advisory Board that advises the Director-General on implications of relevant developments in science and technology.

https://www.opcw.org/chemical-weapons-convention
Resolution 1540 “obliges States, inter alia, to refrain from supporting by any means non-State actors from developing, acquiring, manufacturing, possessing, transporting, transferring or using nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and their means of delivery.” The Committee conducts national and regional outreach activities and national reports provide substantial information about relevant laws, regulations, and policies. UNSCR 2325, adopted in 2016, “Encourages States, as appropriate, to control access to intangible transfers of technology and to information that could be used for weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery.”

http://www.un.org/en/sc/1540
Interpol facilitates international law enforcement cooperation. It includes a Bioterrorism Prevention Unit that undertakes activities such as Project Biosecure on “risk assessment of current biological threats related to global terrorism, technological vulnerabilities including dual-use research and the threats emanating from the dark net. The overarching objectives of Biosecure are to increase bioterrorism awareness, enhance coordination and cooperation on issues relating to communication and information sharing, media relations, threat/risk assessment, cybercrime, and interaction with Health.”

https://www.interpol.int; https://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/CBRNE/Bioterrorism/Project-Biosecure
UNICRI’s mission is to advance crime prevention and control, including mitigating biological risks. Under its CBRN Risk Mitigation and Security Governance Programme, it administers EU grants for activities including education and capacity building and a Centers of Excellence program. It has also established a Knowledge Management System to share tools, exercises, and best practices and an International Network on Biotechnology to share educational resources on biosafety, biosecurity, and bioethics.

http://www.unicri.it/topics/cbrn; http://www.unicri.it/news/article/2017-07-13_International_Network_on_Biotechnology
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Forum, Organization, or Body Category
6 World Health Organization (WHO) Additional intergovernmental conventions and organizations
7 World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Additional intergovernmental conventions and organizations
8 UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Additional intergovernmental conventions and organizations
9 UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Additional intergovernmental conventions and organizations
10 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Additional intergovernmental conventions and organizations
11 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Additional intergovernmental organization
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Summary
WHO’s “primary role is to direct and coordinate international health within the United Nations system.” In 2006 it published “Biorisk Management: Laboratory Biosecurity Guidance” and conducts training in this area; it is also a partner organization of the GHSA (see below). It has most recently become involved with dual use issues through the influenza gain-of-function controversy.

http://www.who.int
OIE is “responsible for improving animal health worldwide.” Its current Strategic Plan (2016–2020) includes risk management and “Reduction of biological risks, whether they are of natural, accidental, or intentional origins.” It is also a partner organization of the GHSA (see below) and held two international conferences on biosecurity in 2015 and 2017.

http://www.oie.int
FAO “leads international efforts to defeat hunger.” It provides resources for biosafety and biological risk management in food and agriculture and is also a partner organization of the GHSA (see below).

http://www.fao.org
UNESCO “seeks to build peace through international cooperation in Education, the Sciences and Culture.” It is a partner in the World Science Forum, held every 2 years addressing global science policy topics, and produces a World Science Report every 5 years. It is also home to the World Commission on Ethics in Science and Technology (COMEST), an advisory body and forum that considers the ethics of emerging technologies, among other areas.

https://en.unesco.org; http://www.unesco.org/new/en/social-and-human-sciences/themes/comest
CBD, along with associated protocols such as the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, addresses issues such as movement of modified organisms and access and use of genetic resources. It also discusses biosafety and implications for ecosystems and biodiversity of advances in biotechnology such as synthetic biology.

https://www.cbd.int
OECD “work[s] with governments to understand what drives economic, social and environmental change.” The Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy periodically holds ministerial meetings on science and technology policy; many OECD committees and working parties address relevant topics in biotechnology. In 2007 it published the “Best Practice Guidelines for Biological Resource Centers” that includes biosecurity; OECD has previously addressed dual use issues.

http://www.oecd.org
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Forum, Organization, or Body Category
12 Australia Group Security policy coordination and action
13 Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) Security policy coordination and action
14 Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (GP) Security policy coordination and action
15 International Experts Group of Biosafety and Biosecurity Regulators (IEGBBR) Security policy coordination and action
16 European Biosecurity Regulators Forum (EBRF) Security policy coordination and action
17 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional organizations that address science, technology, and security issues
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Summary
“The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonisation of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.” It addresses dual use issues as part of intangible technology transfers.

http://www.australiagroup.net
GHSA is a “partnership of over 64 nations, international organizations, and nongovernmental stakeholders to help build countries’ capacity to help create a world safe and secure from infectious disease threats and elevate global health security as a national and global priority.” Its Action Package Prevent 3: Biosafety and Biosecurity aims to promote biological risk management and biosafety and biosecurity measures, including training and outreach activities to “promote a shared culture of responsibility [and] reduce dual use risks.”

https://www.ghsagenda.org; https://www.ghsagenda.org/packages/p3-biosafety-biosecurity
The GP “is an international forum for coordination of projects to prevent CBRN terrorism and proliferation.” Its Biological Security Working Group includes five deliverables for 2012–2017. Aim #4 is to “Reinforce and strengthen biological nonproliferation principles, practices, and instruments,” and Aim #5 is to “Reduce proliferation risks through the advancement and promotion of safe and responsible conduct in the biological sciences.”

http://www.gpwmd.com/bswg
IEGBBR includes government regulatory officials in biosafety and biosecurity from 11 countries, with WHO, OIE, and the United Nations participating as nonmember observers. The group meets every 2 years to promote international cooperation, contribute to strengthening of biosafety and biosecurity oversight mechanisms, and support responses to emerging issues and threats posed by human and animal pathogens.
The EBRF includes members of government regulatory bodies from Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The group meets every 6 months to discuss topics in biosecurity and dual use. For example, in 2014 the group produced “Guidelines for the Implementation of Action B2.” Action B2 of the EU CBRN Action Plan requires members to establish review procedures and a registry for secure substances and facilities working with such substances. The guide describes how member states can implement Action B2 and be in compliance with UNSCR 1540.

http://www.ebrf.eu/about.html; http://www.ebrf.eu/documents.html
ASEAN promotes regional economic growth, peace and stability, and collaboration. The association and member countries serve as regional and national conveners of workshops and courses addressing biosecurity and dual use.

http://asean.org
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Forum, Organization, or Body Category
18 European Union (EU) and European Commission (EC) Regional organizations that address science, technology, and security issues
19 Organization of American States (OAS) Regional organizations that may address science, technology, and security issues
20 African Union Regional organizations that may address science, technology, and security issues
21 International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC) International nongovernmental organization
22 Global Research Council International science forums
23 World Conferences on Research Integrity International science forums
24 World Science Forum International science forums
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Summary
The EC serves as the “executive arm” of the European Union in developing strategy, implementing EU decisions and policies, and representing the EU in international bodies. EU funding supports projects on biosafety and biosecurity in member and partner countries; EU funding has also supported regional workshops and educational activities under the BWC.

https://europa.eu/european-union/index_en; https://ec.europa.eu/commission/index_en
OAS promotes regional political dialogue, collaboration, and other aims and incorporates four main pillars: “democracy, human rights, security, and development.” It has a program to support implementation of UNSCR 1540 including provision of technical assistance and capacity building to member states. It also holds ministerial meetings on topics such as education and science and technology.

http://www.oas.org
The African Union promotes regional cooperation and development, among other aims. The Union provides an opportunity for networks of expertise and discussions on topics such as biosafety and biosecurity.

https://au.int
ICRC works to ensure “humanitarian protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence.” Its 2004 initiative on Biotechnology, Weapons, and Humanity introduced the ICRC’s concept of a “web of prevention” supporting biosecurity.

https://www.icrc.org; https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/misc/5vdj7s.htm
A virtual organization that annually convenes leaders of government science and engineering funding agencies from as many as 50 developed and developing countries to promote cooperation and collaboration and to address common problems.

https://www.globalresearchcouncil.org/about
The conferences are convened approximately every 2 to 3 years and focus on research integrity and responsible conduct of research.

https://wcrif.org
The Forum is convened every 2 years and address global science policy topics in cooperation with UNESCO, ICSU (now ISC), American Association for the Advancement of Science, and other global science partners.

https://worldscienceforum.org
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Forum, Organization, or Body Category
25 Science and Technology in Society Forum International science forums
26 World Economic Forum Additional international forums
27 InterAcademy Partnership (IAP) International scientific organization/union
28 International Science Council (ISC) International scientific organizations
29 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) International scientific organizations
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Summary
The Forum is convened annually in Japan and aims to provide an opportunity for dialogue on beneficial opportunities arising from developments in science and technology, as well as ethical, safety, and environmental issues.

http://www.stsforum.org
“The World Economic Forum is the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation” and its activities take place at the intersection of three focus areas: “mastering the fourth industrial revolution,” “solving the problems of the global commons,” and “addressing global security issues.” Under this last umbrella, it has convened discussions on biosecurity and biological risk reduction, including in the area of global health security.

https://www.weforum.org
IAP undertakes convening activities on topics related to biosecurity, dual use, and responsible conduct of science. It also produces statements and reports, such as “responsible Conduct in the Global Research Enterprise.” In 2004, IAP convened a Biosecurity Working Group to serve as a focal point for activities in this area; membership includes national academies of Australia, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

http://www.interacademies.org
ISC “brings together 40 international scientific Unions and Associations and over 140 national and regional scientific organizations including Academies and Research Councils.” (ISC formed in 2018 from the merger of the International Council for Science, ICSU, and the International Social Science Council, ISSC.) ISC Statute 7 notes that the free and responsible practice of science “requires responsibility at all levels to carry out and communicate scientific work with integrity, respect, fairness, trustworthiness, and transparency, recognising its benefits and possible harms.” ISC’s Committee on Freedom and Responsibility in the conduct of Science (CFRS) advises the governing board on issues in this area.

https://council.science; https://council.science/topics/cfrs
IUBMB “is devoted to promoting research and education in biochemistry and molecular biology throughout the world and gives particular attention to areas where the subject is still in its early development.” Its code of ethics includes the obligation to “not engage knowingly in research that is intended for the production of agents of biological warfare or bioterrorism, nor promote such agents” and IUBMB has been a convening partner on several prior international forums on biosecurity.

https://iubmb.org
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Forum, Organization, or Body Category
30 International Union of Microbiological Societies (IUMS) International scientific organizations
31 International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) International scientific organizations
32 International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) International scientific organizations
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
Summary
IUMS is a global organization that promotes research and cooperation in the microbiological sciences. In its Code of Ethics against Misuse of Scientific Knowledge, Research and Resources, “IUMS also strives to promote ethical conduct of research and training in the areas of biosecurity and biosafety so as to prevent use of microorganisms as biological weapons and therefore to protect the public’s health and to promote world peace.” It has been a convening partner on several prior international forums on biosecurity.

https://www.iums.org
IUPAC “is the global organization that provides objective scientific expertise and develops the essential tools for the application and communication of chemical knowledge for the benefit of humankind and the world.” Through its project system it has convened conferences, developed educational materials, and undertaken other activities related to chemical and biological safety and security and responsible conduct of science. In partnership with OPCW it has convened a series of meetings on advances in science and technology to help inform CWC review conferences.

https://iupac.org
ISSCR is a “transnational, cross-disciplinary science-based organization dedicated to stem cell research.” In addition to an annual meeting, awards, and other activities, it publishes guidelines addressing “cultural, political, legal, and ethical perspectives related to stem cell research and its translation to medicine,” most recently updated in 2016 and available in several languages. These are not intended to address dual use issues but may serve as a potential model for a research community that wants to develop relevant practice, bioethics, and/or dual use guidelines for its field.

http://www.isscr.org
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F: Examples of Regional and International Forums, Organizations, or Bodies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25154.
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Continuing advances in science and technology offer the promise of providing tools to meet global challenges in health, agriculture, the environment, and economic development; some of the benefits are already being realized. However, such advances have the potential to challenge the oversight systems for responsible conduct of life sciences research with dual use potential – research that may have beneficial applications but that also could be misused to cause harm.

Between June 10 and 13, 2018, more than 70 participants from 30 different countries and 5 international organizations took part in an international workshop, The Governance of Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: Advancing Global Consensus on Research Oversight, to promote global dialogue and increased common understandings of the essential elements of governance for such research. Hosted by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb, Croatia, the workshop was a collaboration among the InterAcademy Partnership, the Croatian Academy, the Croatian Society for Biosafety and Biosecurity, and the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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