National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R1
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R2
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R3
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R4
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R5
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R6
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R7
Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R8
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R9
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R10
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R11
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R12
Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25182.
×
Page R13

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives David Francis and Amy Stephens, Editors Committee on Supporting English Learners in STEM Subjects Board on Science Education Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by a contract between the National Academy of Sciences and National Science Foundation (#10003038). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25182 Library of Congress Control Number Additional copies of this publication are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25182. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

COMMITTEE ON SUPPORTING ENGLISH LEARNERS IN STEM SUBJECTS David J. Francis (Chair), University of Houston Alison Bailey, University of California, Los Angeles Hyman Bass, University of Michigan Cory Buxton, University of Georgia Kathryn Chval, University of Missouri Marta Civil, University of Arizona Christine M. Cunningham, Museum of Science, Boston Rodolfo Dirzo, Stanford University (Resigned from committee, June 2017) Leslie Herrenkohl, University of Washington Megan Hopkins, University of California, San Diego Okhee Lee, New York University Judit Moschkovich, University of California, Santa Cruz Kendra Renae Pullen, Caddo Parish Public Schools Maria Santos, WestEd Mary Schleppegrell, University of Michigan Guillermo Solano-Flores, Stanford University Amy Stephens, Study Director Kenne Dibner, Program Officer Suzanne Le Menestrel, Senior Program Officer, Board on Children, Youth, and Families Margaret Kelly, Senior Program Assistant Tiffany Taylor, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow (Spring 2017); Research Associate Heidi Schweingruber, Director, Board on Science Education v PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION Adam Gamoran (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation Megan Bang, Northwestern University and Spencer Foundation Sunita V. Cooke, MiraCosta College Melanie Cooper, Michigan State University Rush D. Holt, American Association for the Advancement of Science Matthew Krehbiel, Achieve, Inc. Lynn Liben, The Pennsylvania State University Cathryn (Cathy) Manduca, Carleton College John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tonya M. Matthews, Michigan Science Center William Penuel, University of Colorado Boulder Stephen L. Pruitt, Southern Regional Education Board Kendra Renae Pullen, Caddo Parish Public Schools Marshall “Mike” Smith, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching Roberta Tanner, Thompson School District (retired) Heidi Schweingruber, Director vi PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES Angela Diaz (Chair), Departments of Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Shari Barkin, Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children’s Hospital, Vanderbilt University Thomas F. Boat, Academic Health Center, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati W. Thomas Boyce, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia David A. Brent, Western Psychiatric Institute and University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine David V.B. Britt, Retired CEO, Sesame Workshop Debbie I. Chang, Nemours Health and Prevention Services Patrick H. Deleon, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine and the Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Elena Fuentes-Afflick, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, and Chief of Pediatrics, San Francisco General Hospital Eugene E. Garcia, Mary Lou Fulton Teachers’ College, Arizona State University J. David Hawkins, School of Social Work, University of Washington Jeffrey W. Hutchinson, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Jacqueline Jones, Foundation for Child Development Ann S. Masten, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota Velma Mcbride Murry, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University Bruce S. Mcewen, Harold and Margaret Milliken Hatch Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University Martin J. Sepulveda, Research Division, IBM Corporation (retired) Natacha Blain, Director vii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Preface English learners (ELs), comprise a diverse and multitalented pool of learners that is persistently increasing, both in absolute size and as a percentage of the U.S. school population. ELs span over 350 language groups, represent diversity in cultural groups, and span the full range of social classes within U.S. society. Such diversity is at once a strength of the EL population and a complication to finding simple solutions to improving STEM outcomes for the group writ large. Long-held accounting practices in education and U.S. policy complicate the development of a clear picture of the educational attainment of ELs. Thus, high school graduation rates, college going, and career choices among ELs are misestimated in many official statistics and reports because of the failure to consider those English-proficient students who began school as ELs. These facts notwithstanding, ELs are underrepresented in STEM fields in college as well as in the workforce. These lower participation rates are made more troublesome by the ever- increasing demand for workers and professionals in STEM fields and by the disproportionate economic value that these jobs bring to society and, as a result, to the individuals employed in STEM fields. In general, jobs in STEM fields have higher earning potential than non-STEM jobs, and the number of jobs in STEM have outpaced all other fields since 1990. Opening avenues to success in STEM for the nation’s ELs offers a path to improved earning potential, income security, and economic opportunity for these students and their families. At least as important, increasing the diversity of the STEM workforce confers benefits to the society as a whole, not simply due to the improved economic circumstances for a substantial segment of society, but also because diversity in the STEM workforce will bring new ideas and new solutions to STEM challenges. Organizing schools and preparing teachers so that all students can reach their full potential in STEM has the potential to transform the lives of individual students, as well as the lives of the teachers, the schools, and society as a whole. In the report that follows, the committee attempts to determine what can be learned from the research literature to help guide improvements in the educational system, through improved assessments and assessment practices; reporting and classification; improved instruction that recognizes the central role that content area instruction plays in children’s language development and content area achievement; leveraging connections to home, culture, and school; better preparation of teachers and administrators; and the establishment of federal, state, and local policies that will build and sustain capacity of school systems to allow all ELs to reach their full potential as STEM learners. The report is essentially organized into three sections. The first set of chapters were provided by the committee in an effort to detail the essential background that readers must understand to benefit from the reviews of the literature in the subsequent chapters and the resultant conclusions and recommendations that follow from the committee’s deliberations. The committee found throughout its conversations that we shared a patchwork of common understanding about ELs as a population, about the schools and programs that serve these students, about the roles of standards in each of the STEM disciplines, and about the symbiotic central importance of language to the development of content area proficiency and of active engagement in content area learning to the development of language. I believe that it is fair to say that each of us had some understanding of portions of the overlapping patchwork, but none of us had as firm an understanding of the entire patchwork at the outset as we do today. Our viii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

objective in providing the early framing chapters was to detail, as best as possible, the essential background knowledge that guided our organization of the literature, and our thinking regarding the pieces and how they fit together. These chapters provide the givens that defined the starting point for the committee, and that we felt must be understood by the reader as the essential context for the chapters that detail our reviews, conclusions, and recommendations. Throughout its work the committee kept its focus on the students, teachers, administrators, parents, families, communities, policy makers, and researchers, as well as the specific roles that each plays in the STEM attainment of ELs; and the challenges that each faces in effectively fulfilling its role. Our perspective is very much an educational systems perspective, but our focus in individual chapters was necessarily on specific components of the system. I hope that this systems perspective comes through in the individual chapters albeit in a more limited scope. This perspective is critical to real, substantial, and sustainable improvement. Focusing singularly on assessment, on instruction, on home-school connections, or on teacher preparation will not achieve what is possible through orchestrated, persistent, system-wide efforts. Coordinated effort is more difficult to achieve than concentrated effort by a single individual or type of individual, but ultimately more effective and more sustainable. I hope that each of the groups mentioned above finds specific, actionable steps that it can take to improve STEM outcomes for ELs. More importantly I hope that this report will motivate members of each of these groups to work together to create focused, system-wide effort toward the goal of allowing each child who enters a U.S. school as an EL to reach her or his full potential in STEM and proficiency in English. This report has been a labor of love for each of the committee members. To a person, the committee worked exceptionally hard to complete its work and produce this consensus report. Each individual’s commitment to working as a part of the team to develop a shared understanding of the students, the teachers, the homes and families, and the components of the educational system and what can be done to improve ELs’ STEM outcomes was remarkable. The committee was beyond fortunate to have Dr. Amy Stephens as the study director. Her steady hand, expert knowledge of the content and process, personal support of each of the committee members, and shear perseverance and hard work down the stretch made the impossible not only possible, but also enjoyable. I cannot thank her enough. In closing, I hope that readers will find much value in this consensus committee report of the National Academies and that individuals will be personally motivated to do their part in contributing to improved STEM education for ELs. While many questions remain unanswered by the current research literature, the report outlines what can be done now and what steps can be taken to guide future steps through research. David Francis, Chair Committee on Supporting English Learners in STEM Subjects ix PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Acknowledgments This Consensus Study Report represents the work of many individuals, especially those who served on the committee and participated in the committee’s open sessions. The first thanks are to the committee members for their deep knowledge and contributions to the study. This report was made possible by the important contributions of the National Science Foundation. We particularly thank Julio Lopez-Ferrao, program director in the Division of Research on Learning in Formal and Informal Settings (EHR/DRL), who advocated for this study. The committee benefited from presentations by, and discussions with, the many individuals who participated in our fact-finding meetings. We thank Julie Bianchini, University of California, Santa Barbara; Rebecca Callahan, The University of Texas at Austin; Sylvia Celedón-Pattichis, (,University of New Mexico; Daryl Greenfield, University of Miami; Tom Humphries, University of California, San Diego; Kara Jackson, University of Washington; Bill McCallum, University of Arizona; Kylie Peppler, Indiana University, Bloomington; Nancy Songer, Drexel University; Julie Sugarman, Migration Policy Institute; Ruby Takanishi, New America; Karen Thompson, Oregon State University; Sara Tolbert, University of Arizona; Sultan Turkan, Educational Testing Services; Claudio Vargas, coordinator of science programs K-12 in California’s Oakland Unified School District; Mark Warschauer, University of California, Irvine; and Amelia Wenk Gotwals, Michigan State University. This Consensus Study Report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Diane L. August, Center for English Language Learners, American Institutes for Research; Filiberto Barajas-López, Mathematics Education, University of Washington; George C. Bunch, Education Department, University of California, Santa Cruz; Ester de Jong, School of Teaching and Learning, University of Florida; Richard P. Duran, Graduate School of Education, University of California, Santa Barbara; Kara Jackson, College of Education, University of Washington; Robert Linquanti, California Comprehensive Center, WestEd; Luciana C. Oliveira, Department of Teaching and Learning, University of Miami; Maria Chiara Simani, California Science Project, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside; and Karen Thompson, College of Education, Oregon State University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Donna Christian, Senior Fellow, Center for Applied Linguistics and Douglas S. Massey, Department of Sociology, Princeton University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. x PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Thanks are also due to the project staff: Amy Stephens of the Board on Science Education who directed the study. Tiffany Taylor, who started out as a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Fellow and then transitioned into a research associate during this project for her help with drafting and editing parts of the report. Kenne Dibner (program officer with the Board on Science Education) and Suzanne Le Menestrel (senior program officer with the Board on Children, Youth, and Families) were instrumental in thinking through committee dynamics during meetings and thinking about engaging key stakeholder groups. Margaret Kelly managed the study’s logistical and administrative needs and Leticia Garcilazo Green stepped in at the end to help with study completion. Heidi Schweingruber (director of the Board on Science Education) provided thoughtful advice and helpful suggestions throughout the entire process. Staff of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education also provided help: Paula Whitacre edited and substantially improved the readability of the report; Kirsten Sampson-Snyder expertly guided the report through the review process, and Yvonne Wise masterfully guided the report through production. xi PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Contents Summary S-1 Chapter 1. Introduction 1-1 Evolution of Research on Language and STEM Learning Charge to the Committee Study Approach An Asset-Oriented View of English Learners Report Organization References Chapter 2. Factors Shaping English Learners’ Access to STEM Education in U.S. Schools 2-1 Heterogeneity of English Learners Program Models for English Learners English Learner Classification Status and STEM Access Factors and Challenges Associated with “Achievement Gap” Metrics English Learner Placement in STEM Coursework Summary References Chapter 3. Relationship between Language and STEM Learning for English Learners 3-1 The Role of Language and Culture in STEM Learning Language as Meaning-Making Current Context of STEM PreK-12 Education for English Learners New Opportunities for EL STEM Learning Summary References Chapter 4. Effective Instructional Strategies for STEM Learning and Language Development in English Learners 4-1 Classroom Culture Interactions Between STEM Content Teachers and ESL Teachers Promising Instructional Strategies to Support STEM Content and Language Development Curriculum Summary References Chapter 5. School-Family-Community: Contextual Influences on STEM Learning for English Learners 5-1 The Positioning of English Learners’ Cultures in STEM Caregiver and Family Involvement in Schools xii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Supporting Teachers in Working with Families and Communities, Building Stronger Connections for Mutual Understanding Summary References Chapter 6. Preparing the Educator Workforce for English Learners in STEM 6-1 Preservice Teacher Preparation In-Service Teacher Professional Development Cross-Cutting Themes for Supporting Teachers of STEM to ELs Preparation of Teacher Educators Summary References Chapter 7. Assessing STEM Learning among English Learners 7-1 English Learners in Large-Scale STEM Assessment Programs Classroom Summative and Formative STEM Assessment with English Learners Summary References Chapter 8. Building Capacity to Transform STEM Learning for English Learners 8-1 Federal and State Policy Considerations Capacity Building at the District and School Level Summary References Chapter 9. Conclusions, Recommendations, and Research Agenda 9-1 Conclusions Recommendations Research Agenda References Appendix A. Committee and Staff Biographies A-1 xiii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Next: Summary »
English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives Get This Book
×
Buy Prepub | $64.00 Buy Paperback | $55.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The imperative that all students, including English learners (ELs), achieve high academic standards and have opportunities to participate in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning has become even more urgent and complex given shifts in science and mathematics standards. As a group, these students are underrepresented in STEM fields in college and in the workforce at a time when the demand for workers and professionals in STEM fields is unmet and increasing. However, English learners bring a wealth of resources to STEM learning, including knowledge and interest in STEM-related content that is born out of their experiences in their homes and communities, home languages, variation in discourse practices, and, in some cases, experiences with schooling in other countries.

English Learners in STEM Subjects: Transforming Classrooms, Schools, and Lives examines the research on ELs’ learning, teaching, and assessment in STEM subjects and provides guidance on how to improve learning outcomes in STEM for these students. This report considers the complex social and academic use of language delineated in the new mathematics and science standards, the diversity of the population of ELs, and the integration of English as a second language instruction with core instructional programs in STEM.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!