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A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty (2019)

Chapter: Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
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Appendix A

Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Greg Duncan (Chair) is a distinguished professor of education at the University of California, Irvine. Duncan spent the first 25 years of his career at the University of Michigan, working on and ultimately directing the Panel Study of Income Dynamics project. He held a faculty appointment at Northwestern University between 1995 and 2008. His recent work has focused on assessing the role of school-entry skills and behaviors on later school achievement and attainment and the effects that increasing income inequality has on schools and children’s life chances. He was president of the Population Association of America in 2008 and of the Society for Research in Child Development between 2009 and 2011 and was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2010. Duncan holds a B.A. in economics from Grinnell College and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan. He has an honorary doctorate from the University of Essex.

J. Lawrence Aber is the Willner family professor of psychology and public policy at the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and university professor at New York University, where he also chairs the board of the Institute of Human Development and Social Change and is co-director of Global TIES for Children, an international research center. Aber is the former director of the National Center for Children in Poverty at Columbia University. An internationally recognized expert in child development and social policy, he has co-edited a number of

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

books on the intersection of these fields. Aber’s basic research examines the influence of poverty and violence, at the family and community levels, on the social, emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and academic development of children and youth. He also designs and conducts rigorous evaluations of innovative programs and policies for children, youth, and families. He has served on numerous National Academies committees. Aber holds a Ph.D. in clinical-community and developmental psychology from Yale University.

Dolores Acevedo-Garcia is Samuel F. and Rose B. Gingold professor of human development and social policy and director of the Institute for Child, Youth, and Family Policy at the Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University. Her research focuses on the social determinants of racial/ethnic inequities in health, the role of social policies in reducing those inequities, and the health and well-being of children with special needs. She is also project director for diversitydatakids.org, a comprehensive research program and indicator database on child wellbeing and opportunity by race and ethnicity across multiple sectors (such as education, health, and neighborhoods) and geographies, which is funded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She was a member of the MacArthur Foundation Research Network on How Housing Matters for Families and Children (2009–2014). She is a member of the editorial board of the journals Social Problems; Cityscape and the Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Acevedo-Garcia holds a B.A. in public administration from El Colegio de Mexico (Mexico City) and both a master’s degree in public administration/urban and regional planning and a Ph.D. in public policy with a concentration in demography from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University.

Janet Currie is the Henry Putnam professor of economics and public affairs at Princeton University and the co-director of Princeton’s Center for Health and Wellbeing. She also co-directs the Program on Families and Children at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She has served as the vice president of the American Economic Association, is an incoming president of the American Society of Health Economics, and is a member of both the National Academy of Medicine and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, the Society of Labor Economists, and the Econometric Society, and has honorary degrees from the University of Zurich and the University of Lyon. She has served on the Board of Reviewing Editors of Science and as the editor of the Journal of Economic Literature, as well as serving on the editorial board of the Quarterly Journal of Economics and many other economics journals. Her research focuses on health and well-being,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

especially concerning children. She has written about early intervention programs, programs to expand health insurance and improve health care, public housing, and food and nutrition programs. Her current research focuses on socioeconomic differences in health and access to health care, environmental threats to health, and mental health. Currie holds a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University.

Benard P. Dreyer, past president (2016) of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), is a general and development-behavioral pediatrician who has spent his professional lifetime serving poor children and families. He is also professor of pediatrics at New York University, where he leads the Division of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, and director of pediatrics at Bellevue, where he works as a hospitalist. For more than 30 years he led a primary care program at Bellevue, including co-located mental and oral health services and clinics in homeless shelters. His research focuses on interventions in primary care to improve early childhood outcomes, including early brain development and obesity. Dreyer has held numerous positions on AAP task forces and executive and research committees and is also the medical director of policies for the AAP, which produces more than 80 policies and clinical reports each year. He was president of the Academic Pediatric Association and founded and chairs the association’s Task Force on Childhood Poverty and its Research Scholars Program. He also hosts a weekly radio show, On Call for Kids, on the Sirius XM Doctor Radio channel. He has served on multiple roundtables, committees, and planning committees for the National Academies. Dreyer holds an M.D. from the New York University School of Medicine.

Irwin Garfinkel is the Mitchell I. Ginsberg professor of contemporary urban problems and co-founding director of the Columbia Population Research Center. Previously, Dr. Garfinkel was the director of the Institute for Research on Poverty (1975–1980) and the School of Social Work (1982–1984), both at the University of Wisconsin. Between 1980 and 1990, he was the principal investigator of the Wisconsin child support study. His research on child support and welfare influenced legislation in Wisconsin and other states in the United States, in the U.S. Congress, and in Great Britain, Australia, and Sweden. A social worker and an economist by training, he has authored or coauthored more than 200 scientific articles and 16 books and edited volumes on poverty, income transfers, program evaluation, single-parent families and child support, and the welfare state. He was a member of the committee for the Workshop on Design of the National Children’s Study Main Study and a member of the Panel on Data and Methods for Measuring the Effects of Changes in Social Welfare Programs. Garfinkel holds a Ph.D. in social work and economics from the University of Michigan.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

Ron Haskins is a senior fellow and holds the Cabot Family Chair in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution, where he co-directs the Center on Children and Families. He is also a senior consultant at the Annie E. Casey Foundation and was president of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management in 2016. He is the coauthor of several books on welfare reform social policy. Beginning in 1986, he spent 14 years on the staff of the House Ways and Means Committee, and subsequently he was appointed to be the senior advisor to President George W. Bush for welfare policy. He and his Brookings colleague Isabel Sawhill were recently awarded the Moynihan Prize by the American Academy of Political and Social Science for being champions of the public good and advocates for public policy based on social science research. He was recently appointed by House Speaker Paul Ryan to cochair the Commission on Evidence-based Policymaking. Haskins holds a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in developmental psychology, all from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Hilary Hoynes is a professor of public policy and economics and holds the Haas Distinguished Chair in Economic Disparities at the University of California, Berkeley, where she also codirects the Berkeley Opportunity Lab. She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists. She has served as co-editor of the American Economic Review and the American Economic Journal: Economic Policy and is on the editorial board of the American Economic Review: Insights. Hoynes currently serves on the American Economic Association’s Executive Committee and on the State of California Task Force on Lifting Children and Families out of Poverty, while her many previous appointments include membership on the Commission on Evidence-based Policymaking. In 2014, she received the Carolyn Shaw Bell Award from the American Economic Association. Her research focuses on poverty and inequality and the impacts of government programs on low-income families. Current projects include evaluating the effects of access to the social safety net in early life on outcomes in later life, as well as the role of the safety net in mitigating income losses. Hoynes holds a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.

Christine James-Brown became president and chief executive officer of the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) in April 2007, assuming the leadership of the nation’s oldest and largest membership-based child welfare organization. She came to CWLA from United Way International, where she had served since 2004 as the organization’s fifth president and CEO. As president and CEO, she was responsible for the efforts of the worldwide network of United Way nonprofit member organizations spanning six continents and five regions and serving communities in 45 countries and

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

territories. She has served as a member of the boards of the School District of Philadelphia, Community College of Philadelphia, the Samuel S. Fels Fund, the Greater Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce, Citizens Bank, Public/Private Ventures, and the Pennsylvania Bar Association Judicial Evaluation Commission. She has received numerous awards and recognition throughout her career, including the National Council of Negro Women’s Mary McLeod Bethune Award, B’nai B’rith’s Humanitarian Award, and Operation Understanding’s Distinguished Community Leadership Award. In 1996, she received an honorary doctorate from Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. James-Brown holds a B.A. in cultural anthropology from Rutgers University.

Vonnie C. McLoyd is the Ewart A. C. Thomas collegiate professor of psychology in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts at the University of Michigan. McLoyd’s scholarship helped shape the field of developmental psychology by focusing on how a child develops socially and how social interactions influence cognitive development, shedding light on the ways in which the environment and social context, especially race, ethnicity, and poverty, influence development. Her work has helped change the perspective of the field and has led to a widespread recognition of how socio-environmental factors influence the health, well-being, and developmental experiences of children, adolescents, and their families. Most notable among the many honors McLoyd has received is a MacArthur Fellowship, which was awarded in 1996. Other scholarly activities include participation in the MacArthur Network on Transition to Adulthood, the Council of the Foundation of Child Development, and the advisory board of the National Center for Children in Poverty. She has also served as a member of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families at the National Academies. McLoyd holds a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Michigan.

Robert Moffitt is the Krieger-Eisenhower professor of economics at Johns Hopkins University, where he has worked since 1995. He also holds a joint appointment at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. His research interests are in the areas of labor economics and applied microeconometrics. He is a fellow of the Econometric Society, a fellow of the Society of Labor Economists, a national associate of the National Academy of Sciences, a recipient of a MERIT Award from the National Institutes of Health, a recipient of a Guggenheim fellowship, a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and past president of the Population Association of America. He has served as chief editor of the American Economic Review and the Journal of Human Resources and as co-editor of the Review of Economics and Statistics. He has also served on multiple

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

National Academies panels, including the Committee for the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, the Panel on Data and Methods for Measuring the Effects of Changes in Social Welfare Programs, the Panel to Evaluate Microsimulation Models for Social Welfare Programs, and the Panel to Evaluate Welfare Reform, which he chaired. Moffitt holds a Ph.D. in economics from Brown University.

Cynthia Osborne is an associate professor and director of the Center for Health and Social Policy at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at the University of Texas at Austin. She is also the director of the Child and Family Research Partnership, an in-house research group that conducts rigorous research on policy issues related to young children, adolescents, and their parents. Her teaching and research interests include social policy issues, poverty and inequality, family and child well-being, and family demography. Osborne has extensive experience leading long-term evaluations of state and national programs, with the aim of helping organizations understand what works and how to ensure sustainable implementation of effective policies. Her work includes evaluations for the Texas Home Visiting Program, the largest home visiting program in the country; for critical child welfare programs of the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services; and for key child support programs of the Texas Office of the Attorney General. She previously was director of the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs’ Project on Education Effectiveness and Quality, an initiative that measured state educator preparation programs’ influence on student achievement. Osborne holds a Ph.D. in demography and public affairs from Princeton University.

Eldar Shafir is the Class of 1987 professor of behavioral science and public policy at Princeton University, the inaugural director of Princeton’s Kahneman-Treisman Center for Behavioral Science and Public Policy, and cofounder and scientific director at ideas42, a social science research and development lab. He studies decision making, cognitive science, and behavioral economics. His recent research has focused on decision making in contexts of poverty and on the application of behavioral research to policy. He is past president of the Society for Judgment and Decision Making, and a member of the World Economic Forum’s Global Council on Behavioural Science. He was a member of President Barack Obama’s Advisory Council on Financial Capability. He has received several awards, most recently a Guggenheim fellowship, as well as the William James Book Award. He was named one of Foreign Policy Magazine’s 100 Leading Global Thinkers of 2013. Books he has edited or coauthored have addressed fundamental issues in understanding poverty and social policy. Shafir holds a Ph.D. in cognitive science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

Timothy M. (Tim) Smeeding is the Lee Rainwater distinguished professor of public affairs and economics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He was director of the Institute for Research on Poverty from 2008 to 2014 and the founding director of the Luxembourg Income Study from 1983 to 2006. Smeeding’s recent work has examined social and economic mobility across generations, inequality of income, consumption and wealth, and poverty in national and cross-national contexts, and he has authored several books on those topics. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences’ Standing Committee on the American Opportunity Study, and in the past has served on the Committee for Behavioral, Social Sciences and Education as well as multiple planning, steering, and other committees for the National Academies. He is also a member of the American Pediatrics Association Taskforce on Child Poverty. Smeeding holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Don E. Winstead, Jr., founded Don Winstead Consulting, LLC, a Tallahassee, Florida, health and human services consulting practice in 2011. He is a nationally recognized expert on federal funding issues and has negotiated ground-breaking federal waivers in welfare reform and child welfare. Winstead began his career as a front-line caseworker and has worked in a variety of direct service, administrative, and managerial positions ranging from social worker to deputy secretary of the Florida Department of Children and Families. He served as deputy secretary for a total of 8 years, serving under four secretaries and three governors. From late 2001 to early 2005, he served as deputy assistant secretary for human services policy at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He is a member of the advisory board for the National Poverty Centers and is a past member of the board of directors of Child Trends, a nonprofit, nonpartisan research center that studies children at all stages of development. Winstead holds a B.A. in English from the University of South Florida.

PROJECT STAFF

Suzanne Le Menestrel (Study Director) is a senior program officer with the Board on Children, Youth, and Families at the National Academies, where her responsibilities have included directing four consensus studies focused on children and adolescents, from birth to age 21. Prior to her tenure with the National Academies, Le Menestrel was the founding national program leader for youth development research at 4-H National Headquarters, served as research director at the Academy for Educational Development’s Center for Youth Development and Policy Research, and was a research associate at Child Trends. She was a founder of the Journal of Youth Development: Bridging Research and Practice and chaired its

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

Publications Committee. She has published in numerous refereed journals and is an invited member of several advisory groups, including a research advisory group for the American Camp Association, a Girl Scouts of the Nation’s Capital STEM Strategy advisory group, and the National Leadership Steering Committee for the Cooperative Extension System–Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Culture of Health Initiative. Le Menestrel holds an M.S. and a Ph.D. in human development and family studies from the Pennsylvania State University, a B.S. in psychology from St. Lawrence University, and a nonprofit management executive certificate from Georgetown University.

Pamella Atayi has served since 2009 as a program coordinator on the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Academies. She currently coordinates and oversees the work of support staff handling clerical, administrative, and logistical aspects of meetings. Atayi provides work direction and assists with the daily supervision of support staff. She also compiles and summarizes information for the development and revision of a variety of documents and participates in research efforts. She serves as a liaison between programs and boards of the National Academies and related external customers, members, and sponsors concerning clerical and administrative matters. She was awarded the Sandra H. Matthews Cecil Award by the Institute of Medicine (now Health and Medicine Division) in 2013 and the DBASSE Espirit de Corps Award in 2017. Atayi earned her B.A. in English from the University of Maryland University College and holds a diploma in computer information systems from Strayer University.

Constance F. Citro is a senior scholar with the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) of the National Academies. She previously served as CNSTAT’s director (2004–2017), acting chief of staff (2003–2004), and senior study director (1986–2003). She began her career with CNSTAT in 1984 as study director for the panel that produced The Bicentennial Census: New Directions for Methodology in 1990. Prior to joining CNSTAT, she held positions as vice president at both Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., and Data Use and Access Laboratories, Inc. Citro was an American Statistical Association/National Science Foundation/Census research fellow in 1985–1986 and is currently a fellow of the American Statistical Association and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. She co-edited the 2nd through 6th editions and edited the 7th edition of Principles and Practices for a Federal Statistical Agency and contributed to studies on measuring racial discrimination, expanding access to research data, the usability of estimates from the American Community Survey, the National Children’s Study research plan, and the Census Bureau’s 2010 census program of experiments and evaluations. Citro holds a B.A. in political

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

science from the University of Rochester and an M.A. and Ph.D. in political science from Yale University.

Christopher Mackie is a study director with the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academies, where he specializes in economic measurement and statistics. Mackie served most recently as study director for the Panel on the Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration. His prior projects were on the measurement of self-reported well-being and on measuring civic engagement and social cohesion. He was study director for the expert committees that produced the reports, At What Price? Conceptualizing and Measuring Cost-of-Living and Price Indexes; Beyond the Market: Designing Nonmarket Accounts for the United States; Understanding Business Dynamics: An Integrated Data System for America’s Future; Accounting for Health and Health Care: Approaches to Measuring the Sources and Costs of Their Improvement; Improving Measurement of Productivity in Higher Education; and Subjective Well-being: Measuring Happiness, Suffering, and Other Dimensions of Experience. He is author of Canonizing Economic Theory: How Theories and Ideas Are Selected in Economics. Mackie holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of North Carolina and has held teaching positions at the University of North Carolina, North Carolina State University, and Tulane University.

Dara Shefska is a research associate on the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Academies. Shefska supports two consensus studies. She joined the National Academies in 2015 as a research assistant on the Food and Nutrition Board, staffing the Roundtable on Obesity Solutions. In this role, she focused on early childhood obesity prevention, publications, and communications. She was awarded the Health and Medicine Division’s Fineberg Impact Award in 2016 for her efforts to increase the visibility of roundtable workshops and publications. She holds a B.A. in urban geography from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec.

Elizabeth Townsend serves as an associate program officer on the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, supporting two consensus studies. Prior to joining these studies, Townsend was a research associate for the Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences’ Decadal Survey on Social and Behavioral Sciences for Applications to National Security. Under the Board on Children, Youth, and Families other studies that she has worked on produced the reports Ethical Considerations for Research on Housing-Related Health Hazards Involving Children; Children’s Health, the Nation’s Wealth: Assessing and Improving Child Health; and Working Families and Growing Kids: Caring for Children and Adolescents. Townsend holds a B.S. from Radford University and an M.P.H. from the University of Alabama at

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×

Birmingham, where she interned at the Comprehensive Cancer Center and volunteered with the Alabama Vaccine Research Clinic and 1917 Clinic.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
Page 278
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
Page 279
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
Page 280
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
Page 281
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
Page 282
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
Page 283
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Biosketches of Committee Members and Project Staff." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25246.
×
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The strengths and abilities children develop from infancy through adolescence are crucial for their physical, emotional, and cognitive growth, which in turn help them to achieve success in school and to become responsible, economically self-sufficient, and healthy adults. Capable, responsible, and healthy adults are clearly the foundation of a well-functioning and prosperous society, yet America's future is not as secure as it could be because millions of American children live in families with incomes below the poverty line. A wealth of evidence suggests that a lack of adequate economic resources for families with children compromises these children’s ability to grow and achieve adult success, hurting them and the broader society.

A Roadmap to Reducing Child Poverty reviews the research on linkages between child poverty and child well-being, and analyzes the poverty-reducing effects of major assistance programs directed at children and families. This report also provides policy and program recommendations for reducing the number of children living in poverty in the United States by half within 10 years.

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