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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Part III - Controller/Facilitator Handbook." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25251.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Controller/Facilitator Handbook P A R T I I I

EXERCISE SENSITIVE EXERCISE SENSITIVE TERA Airport Exercise Controller/Facilitator Handbook Developed for use with Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Exercises on the TERA Support Portal (https://tera.train-emst.com/)

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook ii EXERCISE SENSITIVE The Controller/Facilitator Handbook describes the roles and responsibilities of exercise Controllers and Facilitators and the procedures they should follow. Because the Controller/Facilitator Handbook contains information about the scenario and about exercise administration, it is distributed to only those individuals specifically designated as Facilitators and Controllers. It should not be provided to exercise Players.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook iii EXERCISE SENSITIVE Table of Contents General Information ..................................................................................................................... 1 Exercise Objectives ................................................................................................................ 1 Participant Roles and Responsibilities.................................................................................... 1 Exercise Assumptions and Artificialities................................................................................. 2 TERA Exercise Preparedness and Conduct................................................................................. 4 Initial Planning ......................................................................................................................... 4 Preparing the Transportation Emergency Response Application....................................... 5 Exercise Documentation ........................................................................................................ 7 Prior to the Exercise................................................................................................................. 7 Conducting the Exercise ........................................................................................................ 8 General Exercise Conduct......................................................................................................... 10 Exercise Play.......................................................................................................................... 10 Safety Requirements ............................................................................................................. 10 Exercise Start ......................................................................................................................... 12 Controller/Facilitator Information and Guidance.....................................................................13 Controller/Facilitator Responsibilities................................................................................... 13 Documenting the Exercise ...................................................................................................13 Exercise Tools ........................................................................................................................ 13 Controller/Facilitator Instructions ......................................................................................... 14 Exercise Setup and Orientation............................................................................................ 15 Assessment and Analysis of the Exercise.................................................................................. 16 Debriefings............................................................................................................................. 16 Evaluation .............................................................................................................................. 16 Improvement Planning ......................................................................................................... 17 Appendix A. Typical Exercise Schedule ..................................................................................A-1 Appendix B. Scenario Overviews ............................................................................................ B-1 Appendix C. Acronyms and Abbreviations............................................................................C-1 Appendix D. Evaluation Form ..................................................................................................D-1

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 1 EXERCISE SENSITIVE GENERAL INFORMATION EXERCISE OBJECTIVES The following objectives describe the expected outcomes for the Players in the exercise. Apply National Incident Management System (NIMS) Incident Command System (ICS) response protocols in airport emergency situations. Determine the correct degree of response, at the correct time, during an emergency. Differentiate important from unimportant information during a crisis. Determine short-term and long-term recovery and restoration needs for the airport. State how incoming and outgoing information should flow during a crisis. Define the roles and duties of the personnel around them. Describe the actions that promote effective planning during an emergency. PARTICIPANT ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES The term participant encompasses many groups of people, not just those playing in the exercise. Groups of participants involved in the exercise, and their respective roles and responsibilities, are as follows: Players have an active role in responding to scenario events and execute their regular roles and responsibilities during the exercise. Players initiate actions that will respond to and recover from the scenario. The Controller is responsible for providing oversight to the exercise by moderating flow and Player engagement. In Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) exercises, the Controller may also serve as a Facilitator and may also be the TERA Simulation Cell (SimCell) operator. The terms “Controller” and “Facilitator” may be used interchangeably in this document. The Facilitator keeps Player discussions on track with the objectives for any discussion components of the exercise. They ensure all issues and objectives are explored as thoroughly as possible within time constraints. Subject-matter experts may also assist with facilitation during the exercise. Evaluators observe and document observations, capture unresolved issues, and analyze exercise results. Evaluators do not interfere with exercise flow. Simulators are control staff personnel who role play non-participating organizations or individuals. They most often operate out of the SimCell, but they may occasionally have face-to-face contact with Players. Simulators enact

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 2 EXERCISE SENSITIVE roles (e.g., media reporters, federal officials, next of kin) in accordance with instructions provided in the Master Scenario Events List. All Simulators are ultimately accountable to the Controller. In TERA exercises, the SimCell may only consist of the TERA SimCell operator, who is controlling the TERA interface. Observers do not directly participate in the exercise and should not interfere in exercise play. They observe the exercise as it unfolds while remaining separated from Player activities. The Exercise Director is responsible for managing all exercise staff and the overall exercise effort. This may be the Lead Controller or another individual. EXERCISE ASSUMPTIONS AND ARTIFICIALITIES In all exercises, assumptions and artificialities are necessary to complete play in the time allotted and/or account for logistical limitations. Exercise participants should accept that assumptions and artificialities are inherent in any exercise and should not allow these considerations to negatively impact their participation. Assumptions Assumptions constitute the implied factual foundation for the exercise and, as such, are assumed to be present before the exercise starts. The following assumptions apply to this exercise: This is a no-fault exercise. This exercise will be conducted in a low-stress learning environment. There is no single right response to scenario events, and open discussion is encouraged. Varying viewpoints, even disagreements, are expected. Decisions are not precedent setting. Decisions made during the exercise may not reflect your department’s final position on a given issue. This exercise is an opportunity to present multiple options and possible solutions. Issue identification is not as valuable as suggestions and recommended actions. While a number of issues may be identified during the exercise, a goal is to develop suggestions or recommend actions that could improve the airport’s response to the scenario. Problem-solving efforts should be the focus. Players should use their knowledge of current capabilities. The scenario is realistic and plausible. It contains sufficient detail to elicit response activities. Some scenario aspects have been sped up or slowed down. Some decisions have been omitted or assumed in order to enhance exercise discussions. There are no “hidden agendas,” so please don’t fight the scenario.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 3 EXERCISE SENSITIVE Exercise communication and coordination will be limited to the exercise venue. Simulators and Controllers will represent all entities that are not represented at the exercise venue (i.e., “the rest of the world”) and can be contacted during the exercise to report information and make requests appropriate for responding to the scenario. Aside from face-to-face communications, which should be recorded in summary by participating Players in TERA, communications will be conducted using the TERA platform. In order to achieve the exercise objectives, the exercise will not be conducted in real time. Artificialities During this exercise, the following artificialities apply:

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 4 EXERCISE SENSITIVE TERA EXERCISE PREPAREDNESS AND CONDUCT INITIAL PLANNING Preparing for an exercise properly will help ensure that all aspects of the exercise, including the facility, resources, Players, and exercise management staff, are in positioned for a successful experience. Fundamentally, the need for the exercise must be identified, often as part of a greater training and Exercise Plan. There are nine scenarios available in the suite of TERA airport exercises, corresponding with the required preparedness scenarios in 14 CFR Part 139: Terminal fire Bomb threat Sabotage Severe storm Power outage Fuel farm fire Mass casualty incident Hazardous materials incident Water rescue Ideally, your airport should conduct a tabletop exercise of the scenario prior to conducting a TERA functional exercise. A tabletop exercise will help identify fundamental areas for improvement in your Airport Emergency Plan (AEP), which will allow for deeper analysis in a functional exercise. Once a scenario and date are agreed upon with airport leadership, exercise participants should be identified. As a functional exercise, you should consider the organizational elements (internal to the airport) and organizations (external to the airport) that would participate in an activation of your Emergency Operations Center (EOC) for such an incident. Your AEP should provide an initial list of these internal and external stakeholders. Be sure to give plenty of notice for the exercise, and encourage participants to review their own emergency policies and procedures as well as the AEP prior to the exercise. Preregistration will help you to identify who will be attending. TERA exercises are structured around the NIMS ICS as the organizational model for an EOC. If your EOC does not use an ICS-based model, you may want to consider having an exercise custom designed for you, as these pre-scripted exercises may not address how your EOC is organized in real life. As you identify exercise participants, be sure to identify staff for the following positions: EOC Manager Safety Officer Liaison Officer Public Information Officer Operations Section Chief

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 5 EXERCISE SENSITIVE Planning Section Chief Logistics Section Chief Finance/Administration Section Chief Law Enforcement Branch Director (staffed for some exercises) These positions are the only designated positions within TERA. They are predesignated as a matter of exercise design, so TERA knows what positions to send injects to. TERA exercises do not require all of these positions to be filled, but exercises in which all roles are filled result in better engagement for all participants. Note that the EOC Manager position MUST be filled for every exercise. As with ICS, the responsibilities of any subordinate positions not filled become the responsibility of their primary, in this case the EOC Manager. If necessary, one person may be assigned to multiple positions and will receive all relevant injects. However, note that this may result in overburdening this person, especially if they’re handling very active roles. Likewise, multiple people can be assigned to each position within TERA, which is helpful in designating a Unified Command or a deputy position. You can also staff subordinate positions, such as a Situation Unit Leader within the Planning Section in such a manner. Be aware, though, that TERA does not directly recognize subordinate positions, so everyone assigned to one of these positions in TERA will receive every inject designated for the assigned position within TERA. Instead of assigning exercise participants beyond the identified command and general staff positions in TERA, you can opt for them to not participate in the exercise through TERA. This does result in only the command and general staff positions being able to interact with the SimCell (via TERA). However, this also results in only those assigned positions receiving injects, which can cause less confusion. Controllers and Facilitators must ensure, if this model is used, that those not participating through TERA are engaged through their chain of command within the EOC through proper communication and coordination. When scheduling your exercise, be sure to allocate time for a Controller and Evaluator briefing, the introductory Player briefing and TERA orientation, the exercise itself, a Player hotwash, and a Controller and Evaluator debriefing. In all, an exercise can take about 6 hours, so arrangements for lunch may be necessary. PREPARING THE TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY RESPONSE APPLICATION Every individual participating in the exercise who will be using TERA must have their own internet-connected computer. While Microsoft® Internet Explorer or Edge is recommended, Google® Chrome and Firefox have been found to generally have no problems with TERA. If problems are encountered, it is suggested that the user tries to log in via Internet Explorer or Edge. An up-to-date version of Adobe® Flash must also be installed on each computer.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 6 EXERCISE SENSITIVE Individuals must also have their own TERA account. They should visit https://tera.train-emst.com to register for an account. Access credentials will be confirmed with each individual via email. This email provides them with an initial password. It is extremely important that users receive and save this email (note: it may be directed to their spam folder). Be sure to have participants register early (at least one week in advance) to ensure there are no problems. Encourage participants to explore the TERA website once they have access and to review the tutorials and User’s Guide. Be sure to schedule your exercise within TERA. It is most helpful to do this in advance of the exercise. When you log into TERA at https://tera.train-emst.com, select Staff Training on the left, then Host an Exercise. In the Staff Exercise Scheduler, you can name your exercise and select important information to schedule the exercise. Under Exercising Organization, select Airport, then under Scenario, select the scenario you wish to use. TERA airport exercises do not discern between novices and more advanced users, so you may keep novice selected. Select Next. On the second screen of the Staff Exercise Scheduler, use the drop-down menus to find your state and airport. You may then select the date and time of the exercise. Voice chat will remain disabled. Choose the TV (video) display setting of your preference. Each exercise has limited customizations that can help add realism and context to your exercise. These may include a runway number or gate numbers. Click the Customization Wizard below the calendar to view and edit the customizations available in your selected scenario. Once you have completed the Customization Wizard, click Done. This will return you to the second screen of the Staff Exercise Scheduler. Click Next. On this screen, find then drag and drop TERA users who will host the exercise. These are individuals who will be controlling the exercise. When you are done, click Next. On this screen, you will find then drag and drop TERA users into their Player roles. As indicated earlier, more than one person may be assigned to a role. When you are done, click Schedule. Note that you can return to this exercise file later to make additional customizations or staff assignments. NOTE: In the current version of TERA, the positions of Liaison Officer and Safety Officer cannot be assigned at this time. See instructions in the Conducting the Exercise section on adding them once the exercise has been initiated and is about to begin. The TERA Trainer’s Guide, available from the TERA website, can provide additional information on scheduling and hosting an exercise.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 7 EXERCISE SENSITIVE EXERCISE DOCUMENTATION The Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) identifies standards in the design, conduct, and evaluation of exercises. These standards are based upon decades of best practices and are intended to enhance the effectiveness of exercises. Part of the HSEEP standards are certain exercise documents. These documents include the Exercise Plan (ExPlan), Controller and Evaluator Handbooks, the Evaluation Plan, and Exercise Evaluation Guides (EEGs). These are defined by HSEEP as follows: Exercise Plan: An ExPlan is a general information document that helps operations- based exercises run smoothly by providing participants with a synopsis of the exercise. It is published and distributed to the participating organizations following development of most of the critical elements of the exercise. In addition to addressing exercise objectives and scope, an ExPlan assigns activities and responsibilities for exercise planning, conduct, and evaluation. The ExPlan is intended to be seen by the exercise Players and observers—therefore, it does not contain detailed scenario information that may reduce the realism of the exercise. Controller and Evaluator Handbooks: The Controller and Evaluator Handbooks specifically describe the roles and responsibilities of exercise Controllers and Evaluators and the procedures they must follow. Because the Controller and Evaluator Handbooks contain information about the scenario and about exercise administration, it is distributed only to those individuals specifically designated as Controllers or Evaluators. Evaluation Plan: The Evaluation Plan provides evaluation staff with guidance and instructions on evaluation or observation methodology to be used as well as essential materials required to execute their specific functions. Exercise Evaluation Guides: EEGs provide a template for observing and collecting exercise data in relation to objectives and associated core capabilities. EEGs typically identify targets and critical tasks for exercise objectives and core capabilities and enable Evaluators to capture structured and unstructured data regarding exercise performance. Evaluators should develop and customize EEGs to meet the unique objectives of their exercise and to reflect jurisdiction-specific capability targets. A template Exercise Plan, this Controller/Facilitator Handbook, an Evaluator Handbook/evaluation plan, and EEGs have been provided for your use. Be sure to modify these for your exercise and distribute to the appropriate parties. PRIOR TO THE EXERCISE A day or two before the exercise, all documents should be finalized, your EOC set up and technology tested, and all participants pre-registered for the exercise. Be sure to review and finalize scenario customizations as well. At any point prior to the exercise

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 8 EXERCISE SENSITIVE you should conduct a Controller/Facilitator and Evaluator briefing with your identified Controllers, Facilitators, and Evaluators. Provide them with copies of the ExPlan, Controller/Facilitator and Evaluator plans and handbooks, and EEGs. At the Controller/Facilitator and Evaluator briefing, you will explain the premise of the exercise and reinforce their roles. CONDUCTING THE EXERCISE Before the exercise begins, all participants should receive the player briefing. A briefing template is provided for your customization and use. This briefing template provides for staff introductions, an agenda, an overview of the TERA exercises and exercise objectives, a review of exercise participant roles, and exercise ground rules. Prior to users logging into their accounts, the SimCell/Lead Controller should log into their account and initiate the exercise. Return to your scheduled exercise to join it. When the exercise is first launched, the clock is paused. The SimCell or Lead Controller can then go back to assign the Safety Officer and Liaison Officer positions. This is done by clicking the button with two arrows on the top right of the screen that is tagged “Invite/Edit” when you hover your mouse over it. Players may now sign into TERA. As with any computer-based training, some difficulties may be experienced because of the user’s comfort level with technology and occasional technological errors that may occur. In the event of a lost password, direct users to click Forgot Password? on the login screen and follow directions there. Once Players are logged into TERA, they will click Staff Training, then Join an Exercise, then click Join for the day’s exercise. The exercise will take a moment to load. Once it has loaded, they should click Proceed to Exercise on the TERA welcome screen. Remind all Players to turn the volume up on their computers. All Players should now see the main TERA exercise interface screen. It is strongly suggested that you have a screen projected for Players to follow along through an orientation. Briefly explain every button and feature on this interface as well as how to use certain functions such as email. This review should take approximately 15–20 minutes. NOTE: Some users may have adjusted the “zoom” settings on their web browsers (usually found within the browser’s “View” menu). Having this set to anything but the default setting may result in the TERA display not being formatted properly. All users should go to the “View” menu in their browser and return their “zoom” settings to the default. Once the orientation is complete, it is time for the Player demo. This first-time segment of the exercise will provide a hands-on familiarization for the Players. Click the Play button from the SimCell/Controller interface and direct Players to review and respond to the injects they receive and take some time to explore the interface. This

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 9 EXERCISE SENSITIVE should take no longer than 5 minutes. At this point, notify Players that the exercise will begin. Click the Fast Forward button (only once!), and the exercise will advance to the first time segment of the exercise. This button is located next to the Play button on the top left of the screen. In the first few minutes, Players will be provided with initial exercise information. Remind them to explore all highlighted buttons and to communicate with each other, as not everyone receives the same information or injects. All staff should be aware of any Players having difficulty with TERA and assist them as needed. As the exercise progresses, there may be expected actions that are critical to exercise progress and/or timeliness. As such, Controllers may need to assist certain Players. Some Players may be overwhelmed by the TERA system, which is probably new to them. If they are in need of help, ask them what action they would take in a real incident, then relate that to an action in TERA, if appropriate. Outside of TERA, Players should be encouraged to use their regular means of incident management, which may include digital or analog display boards, GIS, and resource management or EOC management systems. The SimCell and Controllers can speed up or slow down the exercise as needed from their TERA interface. This control is located next to the Fast Forward button. All exercises are designed to run in approximately 3 hours, including meetings. Speeding up or slowing down the exercise for extensive periods of time may impact this time frame. Prior to a meeting, consider having a Controller discuss the purpose of the meeting with the Player who should be conducting it. Remember, exercises are also learning experiences, so certain Players may be new to the role they are in. To reinforce the learning environment of the exercise, we encourage all meetings to be held in the EOC so that non-meeting participants can still observe. While the meeting-time segments are timed, TERA may be paused for convenience. If the meeting strays from its purpose, is taking too long, or has not addressed all important points, a Controller may be needed to facilitate. The end of each meeting provides an ideal opportunity to ask Players if they have any questions regarding the exercise or TERA. At the end of each meeting, click Play and advance to the next time segment by pressing the Fast Forward button only once. Each exercise closes with a facilitated discussion on short- and long-term recovery issues for an airport related to the scenario presented. The presentation materials are provided in the scenario for the Players to use. Facilitators may consider moderating this discussion as needed for the sake of timeliness, focus, and follow-up questions or discussion points. Evaluators should capture discussion notes during this session. Once this facilitated discussion is complete, you may close the exercise in TERA and proceed to the hotwash.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 10 EXERCISE SENSITIVE GENERAL EXERCISE CONDUCT EXERCISE PLAY Controller/Facilitators will report to <Insert Exercise Venue> at <Insert Time> to begin exercise setup. Registration for the Players will begin at <Insert Registration Time>. Prior to the start of the exercise, there will be a Player briefing provided by the Lead Controller/Exercise Director. Controllers and Facilitators will follow the progress of the exercise, make sure it remains on track, and provide key data/information to Players to prompt or initiate certain Player actions. Exercise Rules The following are the general rules that govern exercise play: The Lead Controller/Exercise Director will initiate exercise play by transmitting the start of the exercise (STARTEX) message. The decision to conclude the exercise will be determined by the Lead Controller/Facilitator based upon the completion of operations and attainment of the exercise objectives. Real-world emergency actions take priority over exercise actions. Exercise participants will comply with real-world response procedures unless otherwise directed by control staff. Players initiating communication with the SimCell must identify the organization, agency, office, or individual with whom they wish to speak. “REAL-WORLD EMERGENCY” will be the designated phrase that indicates there is an emergency requiring immediate attention that may or may not stop exercise play. This is a no-fault exercise. There is no single “right” response to scenario events. The exercise is an opportunity to discuss and present multiple options and possible solutions. Players, Observers, and Evaluators will not engage in casual conversation. The Controllers/Facilitators or Evaluators will provide Players only the information they are specifically designated to disseminate. Players are expected to obtain other necessary information through TERA or existing emergency information channels. SAFETY REQUIREMENTS General Exercise participant safety takes priority over exercise events. Although participants involved in the exercise come from various agencies, they share the same basic responsibility for ensuring a safe environment for all personnel involved in the

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 11 EXERCISE SENSITIVE exercise. In addition, many aspects of an emergency response are inherently dangerous. Professional health and safety ethics should guide all participants to operate in their assigned roles in the safest manner possible. The following general requirements apply to the exercise: All Controller/Facilitators and Evaluators will serve as safety observers for exercise activities. The Lead Controller/Exercise Director should be notified immediately of any emergency situation. If, during the conduct of the exercise, a real-world emergency (e.g., medical, operational) occurs, the exercise may be suspended or terminated at the discretion of the Lead Controller/Facilitator. All participants will comply with their respective environmental, health, and safety plans and procedures, as well as the appropriate federal and state health and safety regulations. Participants will be responsible for their own safety and each other’s safety during the exercise. It is the responsibility of all persons associated with the exercise to notify a safety officer if, in their opinion, a real safety problem exists. Once the problem is corrected, exercise play can be resumed. Non-emergency Interruptions to Exercise Play Only the Lead Controller/Exercise Director can announce exercise “holds” or “stops.” Controllers/Evaluators should communicate with the Lead Controller/Facilitator if they believe a hold/stop is required. Medical Emergency In the event of a medical emergency, emergency medical services should be called for assistance and transport as required. The Lead Controller and Exercise Director should be notified immediately and informed that there is a “REAL-WORLD EMERGENCY.” This will be communicated to all exercise staff, and exercise play will be stopped. Exercise play will be resumed when the emergency situation has been resolved. Fire Emergency In the event of a fire, the fire department will be called as required. All participants will follow the emergency procedures for the exercise location. The Exercise Director, Lead Controller, and Controller/Evaluators should be notified immediately and be informed that there is a “REAL-WORLD EMERGENCY.” Exercise play will be resumed when the emergency has been resolved. For any other type of emergency, notify and follow the direction of the Lead Controller or Exercise Director.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 12 EXERCISE SENSITIVE EXERCISE START Exercise Start, Suspension, and Termination Instructions The exercise is scheduled to run for <Insert Exercise Duration> or until the Lead Controller/Exercise Director determines that the exercise objectives have been met. The Lead Controller/Exercise Director will announce the start of the exercise, exercise suspension, and exercise termination. TERA Check Before the start of the exercise, the Controllers/Facilitators and Evaluators will conduct a test of TERA to help ensure the uninterrupted flow of control information. Player Briefing The Lead Controller/Exercise Director will give all Players a Player briefing that will summarize key exercise instructions and safety issues.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 13 EXERCISE SENSITIVE CONTROLLER/FACILITATOR INFORMATION AND GUIDANCE CONTROLLER/FACILITATOR RESPONSIBILITIES Exercise facilitation and control ensures that the exercise is conducted in accordance with the Exercise Plan (ExPlan) and enables Players to accomplish the objectives of the exercise. Controller/Facilitators will: Provide exercise materials to Players, Monitor the exercise timeline and pace, Provide feedback to the Lead Controller/Exercise Director on urgent matters, Ensure that Players are engaged and focused, Facilitate and moderate group discussions, Answer general questions about the scope of exercise play, and Assist Evaluators in identifying Player actions and decisions. DOCUMENTING THE EXERCISE While Evaluators are monitoring Player actions relative to assessment, Facilitators and Controllers should be monitoring Player actions relative to the progress of the exercise. It is helpful for Controllers and Facilitators to have a copy of the Master Scenario Events List to aid them in tracking progress. Keeping notes, including times, of key Player actions and decisions can be helpful in monitoring Player progress. If exercise play appears to be too slow or too fast for some or all Players, Controller/Facilitators should coordinate with the Lead Controller and SimCell to determine a course of action. EXERCISE TOOLS Controller/Facilitator Handbook This Controller/Facilitator Handbook is designed to help exercise Controllers and Facilitators control and facilitate the exercise. This handbook also enables Controllers and Facilitators to understand their roles and responsibilities in exercise execution and conduct. Should a Player, Observer, or media representative find an unattended handbook, it should be given to the Lead Controller/Exercise Director. TERA TERA is a simulation-based exercise training system that allows individuals or teams to make decisions in realistic, scenario-driven situations. TERA is completely web based. Each exercise scenario presents the unfolding incident through realistic injects including email, news, videos, website articles, and simulated radio and phone calls.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 14 EXERCISE SENSITIVE Users make decisions and mitigate the incident by responding to messages, communicating with teammates, and giving commands to simulated entities. TERA exercises are accessed through a web portal that users must register for and log in to access. CONTROLLER/FACILITATOR INSTRUCTIONS Controller/Facilitator Training This training will generally be conducted on the day prior to the exercise and will assist in preparing Controllers and Facilitators for performance of their duties. It will include a detailed review of exercise events and activities. This training is the time for Controllers/Facilitators to ask questions and ensure that they completely understand their roles and responsibilities. Questions will be addressed and information clarified so that Controllers/Facilitators feel confident that they can perform their assignments effectively. Before the Exercise  Review the appropriate scenario annex (see Appendix B. Scenario Overviews).  Review the appropriate airport plans, policies, and procedures.  Review this handbook, including the exercise objectives and supporting appendices.  Attend the Controller/Facilitator training.  Report to the exercise venue no later than 1 hour prior to the exercise start time to begin exercise setup. During the Exercise  Wear your designated exercise badge or vest.  Stay in proximity to Player decision makers.  Avoid personal conversations with exercise Players unless there is a safety issue.  Monitor significant events and play decisions and track correlation to the Master Scenario Events List.  Observe and record exercise artificialities that interfere with exercise realism. If an exercise artificiality interferes with exercise play, report it to the Lead Controller.  Do not prompt Players regarding what a specific response should be.  Do not give information to Players about the scenario or other participants’ methods of problem resolution. Players are expected to obtain information through their own resources.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 15 EXERCISE SENSITIVE All questions that you cannot answer with the exercise material or from the training should be directed to the Lead Controller. After the Exercise Attend the hotwash, which will be conducted after the exercise. The Lead Controller or a designee will conduct the hotwash. Summarize your notes and prepare for the Exercise Debrief. Complete the Controller/Facilitator Evaluation Form (see Appendix D. Evaluation Form). EXERCISE SETUP AND ORIENTATION Room Setup TERA exercises can accommodate practically any reasonable number of participants, from just a few to a few dozen. The pre-scripted airport scenarios in TERA are intended to be EOC-based exercises. As such, they are best conducted with airport EOC staff, organized by NIMS ICS command and general staff positions, which include: EOC Manager Safety Officer Liaison Officer Public Information Officer Operations Section Chief Planning Section Chief Logistics Section Chief Finance/Administration Section Chief Additionally, many scenarios have a specified role for a law enforcement branch director within the Operations Section. Only these listed positions are available as Player positions within the pre-scripted TERA airport exercises. Other roles, however, may be played, with Player interactions driving participation.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 16 EXERCISE SENSITIVE ASSESSMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THE EXERCISE DEBRIEFINGS Post-exercise debriefings aim to collect sufficient relevant data to support effective evaluation and improvement planning. Hotwash At the conclusion of exercise play, the Controller/Facilitator will facilitate a hotwash to allow Players to discuss strengths and areas for improvement. Evaluators can also seek clarification regarding Player actions and decision-making processes. The hotwash should not exceed 30 minutes. Exercise Debrief Evaluators attend the Exercise Debrief immediately following the hotwash. During this debrief, Evaluators provide an overview of their observations and discuss strengths and areas for improvement. Participant Feedback Forms Participant Feedback Forms provide Players with the opportunity to comment candidly on exercise activities and exercise design. Participant Feedback Forms should be provided to a Controller at the conclusion of the hotwash. EVALUATION Exercise Evaluation Guides EEGs assist Evaluators in collecting relevant exercise observations. EEGs document exercise objectives. Each EEG provides Evaluators with information on what they should expect to see demonstrated in their functional area. The EEGs, coupled with the Controller/Facilitator Evaluation Forms, Participant Feedback Forms, and hotwash notes, are used to evaluate the exercise and compile the After-Action Report (AAR). After-Action Report The AAR summarizes key information related to evaluation. The AAR primarily focuses on the analysis of objectives, including capability performance, strengths, and areas for improvement. AARs also include basic exercise information, including the exercise name, type of exercise, dates, location, participating organizations, a brief scenario description, and the name of the exercise sponsor and point of contact.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook 17 EXERCISE SENSITIVE IMPROVEMENT PLANNING Improvement planning is the process by which the observations recorded in the AAR are resolved through development of concrete corrective actions, which are prioritized and tracked as a part of a continuous corrective action program. After-Action Meeting The After-Action Meeting (AAM) is a meeting held among decision makers from the airport, as well as members of the exercise planning team, to review and refine the draft AAR/Improvement Plan (IP). The AAM should be an interactive session, providing attendees the opportunity to discuss and validate the observations and corrective actions in the draft AAR/IP. Improvement Plan The IP identifies specific corrective actions, assigns them to responsible parties, and establishes target dates for their completion.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook A-1 EXERCISE SENSITIVE APPENDIX A. TYPICAL EXERCISE SCHEDULE Time Exercise Event 8:30 am – 8:45 am Registration 8:45 am – 9:15 am Welcome, Opening Remarks, and Exercise Overview 9:15 am – 9:45 am TERA Sign-In and Familiarization 9:45 am – 1:15 pm Exercise Conduct 1:15 pm – 1:55 pm Hotwash and Feedback 1:55 pm – 2:00 pm Closing Comments 2:00 pm – 3:00 pm Exercise Debrief 3:00 pm Adjourn

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook B-1 EXERCISE SENSITIVE APPENDIX B. SCENARIO OVERVIEWS POWER OUTAGE Scenario Summary A VIP event, high heat, a summer storm, and damage to an off-site sub-station contribute to a power outage at the airport. SEVERE STORM Scenario Summary A local event is disrupted by a severe storm which causes a hard landing of an aircraft. BOMB THREAT Scenario Summary A bomb threat becomes reality when an explosive device is detonated in the airport at a security checkpoint. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INCIDENT Scenario Summary An unknown substance discovered at a gate makes passengers ill. TERMINAL FIRE Scenario Summary A fire does extensive damage to a terminal and endangers passengers. SABOTAGE Scenario Summary An intentional act causes a crash, damaging an aircraft and the terminal building.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook B-2 EXERCISE SENSITIVE FUEL FARM FIRE Scenario Summary A repair accident causes a devastating fire at the fuel farm. WATER RESCUE Scenario Summary Bad weather causes an aircraft to crash into the water beyond the runway. (use as appropriate) MASS CASUALTY INCIDENT Scenario Summary A hard landing results in a mass casualty incident aboard a large aircraft.

EXERCISE SENSITIVE Controller/Facilitator Handbook C-1 EXERCISE SENSITIVE APPENDIX C. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS These acronyms and abbreviations may be found in exercise documents and materials and are commonly used by Players. AC Advisory Circular ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADFAA Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act AEP Airport Emergency Plan ANG Air National Guard ARFF Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting CAP Civil Air Patrol CBRNE Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive CDC Centers for Disease Control CISM Critical Incident Stress Management COOP Continuity of Operations CP Command Post (see also ICP) DHS Department of Homeland Security DOD Department of Defense DOT Department of Transportation EAS Emergency Alert System EMT/S Emergency Medical Technician/Services EOC Emergency Operations Center EOD Emergency Ordinance Disposal EOP Emergency Operations Plan EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESF Emergency Support Function FAA Federal Aviation Administration FBO Fixed Base Operator FD Fire Department

EXERCISE SENSITIVE C-2 EXERCISE SENSITIVE FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency IC Incident Commander ICP Incident Command Post ICS Incident Command System JIC/S Joint Information Center/System MOU Memorandum of Understanding NIMS National Incident Management System NOTAM Notice to Airmen NTSB National Transportation Safety Board OEM Office of Emergency Management OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration PD Police Department SOE State of Emergency SOG/P Standard Operating Guideline/Procedure TSA Transportation Security Administration Controller/Facilitator Handbook

EXERCISE SENSITIVE D-1 EXERCISE SENSITIVE APPENDIX D. EVALUATION FORM Controller Name: 1. Please rate your opinion of the exercise: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Very Poor Very Good 2. Compared to previous exercises, this exercise was: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Very Poor Very Good Please provide additional details in the space below. 3. Please rate your opinion on the effectiveness of the TERA system: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Very Poor Very Good Please provide additional details in the space below. 4. List the top 3 strengths of the exercise. (1) (2) (3) Controller/Facilitator Handbook

EXERCISE SENSITIVE D-2 EXERCISE SENSITIVE 5. List the top 3 issues and/or areas where the exercise could have been improved. (1) (2) (3) Identify the action steps that should be taken to address the issues identified above. For each action step, indicate if it is a high, medium, or low priority. (1) (2) (3) 6. What other changes would you make to improve this exercise? Please provide any other recommendations on how this exercise or future exercises could be improved or enhanced. EXERCISE DESIGN AND CONDUCT ASSESSMENT Please rate, on a scale of 1 to 5, your overall assessment of the exercise relative to the statements provided below, with 1 indicating strong disagreement with the statement and 5 indicating strong agreement. Assessment Factor Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree a. The exercise was well structured and organized. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A b. The exercise scenario was plausible and realistic. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A c. The exercise documentation was useful. 1 2 3 4 5 N/A CONTROLLER/EVALUATOR FEEDBACK Please provide any recommendations on how this exercise or future exercises could be improved or enhanced. Controller/Facilitator Handbook

Next: Part IV - Evaluator Handbook with Exercise Evaluation Guides »
Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises Get This Book
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 187: Transportation Emergency Response Application (TERA) Support Materials for Airport EOC Exercises provides tools for airport staff tasked with planning, coordinating, and facilitating a functional Emergency Operations Center (EOC) exercise. The report guides airport staff in using the TERA software to facilitate or enhance federally mandated tabletop exercises. TERA is available online. TERA is not a website hosted or supported by TRB or the National Academies; however, users may register without a fee to use the site. Templates for the exercise player briefing, exercise plan, controller/facilitator handbook, and evaluator handbook are available for download through a zipped file. The contractor's final report is available for download separately.

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