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40 The following is a brief glossary of terminology used in this synthesis. Baler: Equipment or machinery used to compress material into bales or bundles. Collocated: Placed side by side or together as a group; for example, collocated recycling and waste containers. Comingled recycling (or single-stream recycling): Programs where materials of several different types can be managed together as one stream. Compostable: Materials accepted by a composting service provider as compostable. Variations in commercial composting systems affect which items are accepted by each service provider. Commonly compostable items include food scraps, napkins, uncoated paper bags, uncoated paper cups and plates, floral arrangements, and yard trimmings. Items that are sometimes accepted and sometimes prohibited include coated or lined paper dishware and plastics labeled as âcompostableâ or âbiodegradable.â Construction and demolition (C&D) waste: FAA definition (SanMartin and Rinsler, 2014): Any non-hazardous solid waste from land clearing, excavation, and/or the construction, demo- lition, renovation, or repair of structures, roads, and utilities. C&D waste commonly includes concrete, wood, metals, drywall, carpet, plastic, pipes, land clearing debris, cardboard, and salvaged building components. C&D waste is generally categorized as MSW. Deplaned waste: The FAA defines deplaned waste as MSW that is removed from passenger aircraft (SanMartin and Rinsler, 2014). These materials include bottles and cans, newspaper and mixed paper, plastic cups, service ware, food waste, food soiled paper, and paper towels. Disposal: Placement in a landfill or incineration without energy capture. Environmental management system (EMS): The EPA defines an EMS as a set of processes and practices that enable an organization to reduce its environmental impacts and increase operating efficiency, a framework that includes review, evaluation, and improvement of perfor- mance (U.S. EPA, 2017a). Food waste: The FAA defines this as food that is not consumed and the waste generated and discarded during food preparation (SanMartin and Rinsler, 2014). General municipal solid waste: The FAA defines this as common inorganic waste, such as product packaging, disposable utensils, plates and cups, bottles, and newspaper. Less com- mon items, such as furniture and clothing, are also considered general municipal solid waste (SanMartin and Rinsler, 2014). Green waste: The FAA defines this as tree, shrub, and grass clippings, leaves, weeds, small branches, seeds, pods, and similar debris generated by landscape maintenance. Green waste and food waste together may be referred to as âcompostableâ (SanMartin and Rinsler, 2014). Glossary
Glossary 41 Municipal solid waste: Everyday items that are used and then discarded. Recyclable: Materials accepted by a recycling service provider as recyclable. While recy- cling processes exist to convert many items into marketable commodities, local recycling service providers may not accept all materials that could technically be recycled. Commonly recyclable products include aluminum and steel cans, plastic bottles and containers, paper, newspaper, magazines, glass bottles and jars, and scrap metal. Recycled content: A product composed of some recycled as opposed to all virgin materials. Recycling: The EPA defines this as converting waste materials into new ones. Recycling also includes the collection and separation of materials to prepare them for this conversion (U.S. EPA, 2017b). Reuse: The EPA defines this as using materials, equipment, or other items several times either for their original purpose or another purpose in place of single-use alternatives. Reuse lowers the total number of items that need to be recycled, composted, landfilled, or otherwise managed (U.S. EPA, 2018). Sanitary landfill: As defined by 42 U.S.C. 6941-6949a, a landfill where there is no reasonable probability of adverse effects on health or the environment from disposal of solid waste at such facility, differentiated from open dump. Waste collection: The collection of waste materials from dumpsters or compactors for transport to disposal sites such as landfills, transfer stations, and incinerators. Waste management (or management of waste): The oversight of the collection of waste materials and coordinating their transport for recycling or disposal. This also involves planning and implementing waste reduction, reuse, recycling, composting, and other waste programs. Waste and recycling hauling or collection contractors: These providers collect waste and recyclable and compostable materials, typically from dumpsters or compactors, for transport to disposal, recycling, or composting sites such as landfills, transfer stations, material recovery facilities, and recycling or composting processors. They may also provide dumpsters or other collection containers or other services. Waste reduction: The EPA defines this as efforts to minimize the overall total amount of waste created, thereby reducing the amount of waste that needs to be recycled, composted, landfilled, or otherwise managed (U.S. EPA, 2018).