National Academies Press: OpenBook
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Research to Improve Estimates of Impacts of Changes in Truck Size and Weight Regulations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25321.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Research to Support Evaluation of Truck Size and Weight Regulations Truck Size and Weight Limits Research Plan Committee A Consensus Study Report of i PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Transportation Research Board Special Report 328 Subscriber Categories freight transportation; motor carriers; planning and forecasting; policy; research Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334- 3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2018 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This publication was reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/XXXXX Library of Congress Control Number: XXXXXXXXXX ii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org. iii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. iv PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT LIMITS RESEARCH PLAN COMMITTEE James Winebrake, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York, Chair Imad L. Al-Qadi, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign Gongkang Fu, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago David L. Harkey, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Arlington, Virginia Douglas W. Harwood, MRI Global, Kansas City, Missouri Susan E. Hida, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento José Holguín-Veras, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York Clinton V. Oster, Jr., Indiana University, Troy, Montana Michael Tooley, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena Dennis F. Wilkie (NAE), Birmingham, Michigan Sharon L. Wood (NAE), The University of Texas, Austin Transportation Research Board Staff Joseph R. Morris, Study Director Thomas R. Menzies, Jr., Director of Consensus and Advisory Studies Anusha Jayasinghe, Senior Program Assistant v PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

PREFACE The Transportation Research Board formed the Truck Size and Weight Limits Research Plan Committee to specify a program of research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of the effects of changes in the regulations that limit the sizes and weights of trucks. The study was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), U.S. Department of Transportation. The committee included members with expertise in highway safety research, bridge and pavement engineering, motor vehicle engineering, highway administration, law enforcement, and transportation economics. As part of its study, it organized a series of public webinars at which invited experts offered comments on research priorities and methods in the areas of pavement and bridge engineering, highway safety, highway regulatory enforcement, and freight transportation modeling. The webinar participants are listed in Appendix B. In addition, the committee heard presentations at its meetings from Chandra Bondzie, Gene McHale, Thomas Saad, and Robert Zobel, FHWA; John Gray, Association of American Railroads; and Mark Burton, University of Tennessee. This report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The committee thanks the following individuals for their review of this report: Michael Belzer, Wayne State University, Detroit; Judith Corley-Lay, Michigan State University, Lansing; Lidia Kostyniuk, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Gerald McCullough, University of Minnesota, St. Paul; Hani Nassif, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway; Jonathan Regehr, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg; and Bernard Robertson, BIR1, LLC, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report, nor did they see the final vi PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Chris T. Hendrickson (National Academy of Engineering), Carnegie Mellon University (emeritus); and Susan Hanson (National Academy of Sciences), Clark University (emerita), Worcester, Massachusetts. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Joseph R. Morris managed the study, edited the report, and drafted sections of the report under the guidance of the committee and the supervision of Thomas Menzies, Acting Director, Consensus and Advisory Studies Division. Stephanie Seki prepared literature reviews in support of the committee. Karen Febey managed the report review process. Amelia Mathis and Anusha Jayasinghe assisted with meeting arrangements and communications with committee members. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

CONTENTS Summary 1 1 Introduction 4 2 Summary of the Roadmap 13 3 Conclusions 30 References 38 Appendices A Research Problem Statements 44 Pavement Research 44 Bridge Research 55 Safety Research 79 Enforcement Research 98 Mode and Vehicle Choice and Freight Market Research 109 Cross-Cutting Topics; Evaluation of Regulatory Options 120 B Webinar Participants 131 Study Committee Biographical Information 133 viii PREPUBLICATION COPY—Uncorrected Proofs

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TRB's Truck Size and Weight Limits Research Plan Committee has issued its second and final report to the U.S. Department of Transportation. The report presents a research plan to reduce the major sources of uncertainty in projections of the consequences of proposed changes in truck size and weight limits. The report defines a program of 27 coordinated research projects in six areas.

The committee acknowledges that improvements in models for projecting impacts of changes in truck size and weight limits, while necessary, will not guarantee the success of future truck size and weight policy studies. Future studies will be useful as guides for decisions only if policy objectives and practical policy options are clearly defined, the analysis is logically structured to reveal the most promising policies, and uncertainties are properly characterized.

The committee issued its first report in April 2018, which summarized the research recommendations of past truck size and weight limit studies and identified criteria for deciding the priority of topics for inclusion in the research plan.

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