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Page 61
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Refinements to Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Structures in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25416.
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Page 62
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Refinements to Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Structures in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25416.
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Page 63
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Refinements to Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Structures in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25416.
×
Page 63
Page 64
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 5 References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Refinements to Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Structures in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25416.
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Page 64

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61 Chapter 5 REFERENCES AASHTO. 2017. LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 8th Edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., 1,780 p. Abu-Hejleh, N., J. G. Zornberg, T. Wang, and J. Watcharamonthein. 2002. Monitored Displacements of Unique Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Bridge Abutment. Geosynthetics International, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 71–95. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.9.0211. Allen, T. M., and R. J. Bathurst. 2002a. Soil reinforcement loads in geosynthetic walls at working stress conditions. Geosynthetics International, Vol. 9, No. 5-6, pp. 525– 566. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.9.0227. Allen, T. M., and R. J. Bathurst. 2002b. Observed long-term performance of geosynthetic walls, and implications for design. Geosynthetics International, Vol. 9, No. 5-6, pp. 567– 606. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.9.0228. Allen, T. M., and R. J. Bathurst. 2003. Prediction of Reinforcement Loads in Reinforced Soil Walls. Report WA-RD 522.2. Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, WA. Allen, T. M., B. R. Christopher, V. Elias, and J. DiMaggio. 2001. Development of the Simplified Method for Internal Stability Design of Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls. Report No. WA-RD 513.1. Washington State Department of Transportation, Olympia, Washington. Allen, T. M., and R. J. Bathurst. 2018. Application of the Simplified Stiffness Method to Design of Reinforced Soil Walls. ASCE Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0001874. Bathurst, R. J., M. R. Simac, B. R. Christopher, and C. Bonczkiewicz. 1993. A database of results from a geosynthetic-reinforced modular block soil retaining wall. Proc., Soil Reinforcement: Full Scale Experiments of the 80s, ISSMFE/ENPC, Paris, France, pp. 341–365. Bathurst, R. J., Y. Miyata, A. Nernheim, and T. M. Allen. 2008. Refinement of K-stiffness Method for geosynthetic-reinforced soil walls. Geosynthetics International, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 269– 295. https://doi.org/10.1680/gein.2008.15.4.269. Bathurst, R. J., Y. Miyata, and T. M. Allen. 2010. Facing Displacements in Geosynthetic- Reinforced Soil Walls. Earth Retention Conference 3 (ER2010), ASCE, Geo-Institute, Bellevue, Washington, 18 p. https://doi.org/10.1061/41128(384)45. Begnini, C., G. Bosco, D. Cazzuffi, and R. De Col. 1996. Construction and Performance of an Experimental Large-Scale Wall Reinforced with Geosynthetics. Proc., Earth Reinforcements (Ochiai, Yasufuku, and Omine, eds.), Balkema, Rotterdam, pp. 315–320. Christopher, B. R. 1989. Reinforced Soil Structures, Volume II. Summary of Research and Systems Information. Report No. FHWA-RD--89-043. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 158 p. Christopher, B. R. 1993. Deformation Response and Wall Stiffness in Relation to Reinforced Soil Wall Design. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 354 p.

62 Christopher, B. R. 2013. Review of June 18, 2013 GRS-IBS Showcase at Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York and St. Lawrence County Wall Visits. Memorandum. Christopher, B. R., S. A. Gill, J. P. Giroud, I. Juran, F. Scholsser, J. K. Mitchell, and J. Dunnicliff. 1989. Reinforced Soil Structures, Volume I. Design and Construction Guidelines. Report No. FHWA-RD--89-043. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., 287 p. Elias, V., B. R. Christopher, and R. R. Berg. 2001. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes, Design and Construction Guidelines. FHWA-NHI-00-043. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington D.C., 418 p. Samtani, N.C., and E. A. Nowatzki. 2006. Soils and Foundations Reference Manual - Volume 2. FHWA-NHI-06-089. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 594 p. Berg, R. R., B. R. Christopher, and N. Samtani. 2009. Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls and Reinforced Soil Slopes, Design and Construction Guidelines. FHWA-NHI-09-083 and FHWA GEC011. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 668 p. Adams, M., J. Nicks, T. Stabile, J. Wu, W. Schlatter, and J. Hartmann. 2012. Geosynthetic- reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System, Interim Implementation Guide. Report No. FHWA-HRT- 11-026. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia. Adams, M., and J. Nicks. 2018. Design and Construction Guidelines for Geosynthetic-Reinforced Abutments and Integrated Bridge Systems. Report No. FHWA-HRT-17-080. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia. Iwamoto, M. K., P. S. K. Ooi, M. T. Adams, and J. E. Nicks. 2014. Composite Properties from Instrumented Load Tests on Soil Columns Reinforced with Geotextiles. Presented at 93rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Broad, Washington, D.C. Iwamoto, M. K. 2014. Observations from load tests on geosynthetic-reinforced soil. Doctoral dissertation. University of Hawaii at Manoa. Khosrojerdi, S., M. Xiao, T. Qiu, and J. Nicks. 2017. Evaluation of Prediction Methods for Lateral Deformation of GRS Walls and Abutments. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 2, p. 06016022. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943- 5606.0001591. Ling, P., and D. Leshchinsky. 1996. Mesa Walls: Field Data Reduction, Finite Element Analysis, and Preliminary Design Recommendations. Report to Tensar Earth Technologies, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia. Leshchinsky, D. 2009. On Global Equilibrium in Design of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Walls. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 135, No. 3, pp. 309–315. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)1090-0241(2009)135:3(309).

63 Leshchinsky, D., B. Imamoglu, and C. Meehan. 2010. Exhumed Geogrid-reinforced Retaining Wall. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 136, No. 10, pp. 1311– 1323. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000354. Leshchinsky, D., B. Leshchinsky, and O. Leshchinsky. 2017. Limit State Design Framework for Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Structures. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 642–652. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geotexmem.2017.08.005. Leshchinsky, D., O. Leshchinsky, B. Zelenko, and J. Horne. 2016. Limit Equilibrium Design Framework for MSE Structures with Extensible Reinforcement. FHWA-HIF-17-004. Leshchinsky, D., and F. Vahedifard. 2012. Impact of Toe Resistance in Reinforced Masonry Block Walls: Design Dilemma. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 138, No. 2, pp. 236–240. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000579. Mitchell, J. W. 2002. Behavior of Geosynthetically Reinforced Soil Bridge Piers, M.S. Report. University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Miyata, Y., and R. J. Bathurst. 2007a. Development of K-stiffness method for geosynthetic- reinforced soil walls constructed with c-φ soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 12, pp. 1391–1416. https://doi.org/10.1139/T07-058. Miyata, Y., and R. J. Bathurst. 2007b. Evaluation of K-stiffness Method for vertical geosynthetic- reinforced granular soil walls in Japan. Soil and Foundation, Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 319–335. https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.47.319. Nicks, J. E., M. T. Adams, P. S. K. Ooi, and T. Stabile. 2013. Geosynthetic-reinforced soil performance testing—Axial load deformation relationships. Report No. FHWA-HRT-13-066. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia. Phillips, E. K., G. M. Filz, R. R. Berg, and M.C. Brown. 2015. Required Ultimate Geosynthetic Reinforcement Tensile Strengths According to Four Analysis Methods for MSE and GRS Walls. Geosynthetics, Portland, Oregon. Soong, T.-Y., and R. M. Koerner. 1997. On the Required Connection Strength of Geosynthetically Reinforced Walls. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, Vol. 15, No. 4-6, pp. 377–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-1144(97)10016-4. Wu, J. T. H. 2001. Revising the AASHTO Guidelines for Design and Construction of GRS Walls. Report No. CDOT-DTD-R-2001-16. Colorado Department of Transportation, 148 p. Wu, J. T., and P. S. Ooi. 2015. Synthesis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil design topics. Report No. FHWA-HRT-14-094. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia. Wu, J. T. H., and T. Q. Pham. 2014. Closure to “Load-Carrying Capacity and Required Reinforcement Strength of Closely-Spaced Soil Geosynthetic Composites.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Wu, J. T. H., T. Q. Pham, and M. T. Adams. 2013. Composite Behavior of Geosynthetic- Reinforced Soil Mass. Report No. FHWA-HRT-10-077. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia.

64 Wu, J. T. H., K. Ketchart, and M. T. Adams. 2001. GRS Bridge Piers and Abutments. Report No. FHWA-RD-00-038. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia. Yogarajah, I., and K. Z. Andrawes. 1994. Modeling Construction Effects in Polymeric Grid Reinforced Soil Walls. Proc., 5th International Conference on Geotextiles and Related Products, Singapore, pp. 177–182.

Proposed Refinements to Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Structures in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Get This Book
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Web-Only Document 260: Proposed Refinements to Design Procedures for Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Structures in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications explores the effect of adopting a closely‐spaced reinforcement layout in geosynthetic‐reinforced soil structures.

While research since the early 1980s has identified the beneficial effect of closely‐spaced reinforcement in reinforced soil structures, such improvement in performance is not accounted for in the simplified methodologies established by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

Considering the effect of closely‐spaced reinforcement may be particularly relevant in critical structures, such as load‐carrying geosynthetic‐reinforced MSE (GMSE) bridge abutments, which eliminate the use of deep foundations to support the bridge loads. In fact, the adoption of closely‐spaced reinforcement was identified as being particularly relevant for these type of structures, leading to specific design guidelines developed by FHWA for structures that became identified as Geosynthetic‐Reinforced Soil Integrated Bridge System, or GRS‐IBS.

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