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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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342 REFERENCES 1. Al-Madhhachi, A.T., Hanson, G.J., Fox, G.A., Tyagi, A.K., Bulut, R. 2013. Measuring soil erodibility using a laboratory mini jet. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. Vol. 56(3), pp. 901-910. 2. Arulanandan, K. and Perry, E.B. 1983. Erosion in relation to filter design criteria in earth dams. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE. 109(GT5), pp. 682-698. 3. Arulanandan, K., Sargunam, A., Loganathan, P. and Krone, R.B. 1973. Application of chemical and electrical parameters to prediction of erodibility. In Soil Erosion: Causes and Mechanisms; Prevention and Control. Special Report 135, Highway Research Board, pp 42- 51. 4. ASTM D1587 / D1587M-15. 2015. Standard practive for thin-walled tube sampling of fine- grained soils for geotechnical purposes. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015. 5. ASTM D2216-10. 2010. Standard test methods for laboratory determination of water (moisture) content of soil and rock by mass. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2010. 6. ASTM D2487-17. 2017. Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (unified soil classification system). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017. 7. ASTM D422-63. 2007. Standard test method for particle-size analysis of soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007. 8. ASTM D4318-17e1. 2017. Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity indexof soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017. 9. ASTM D4647 / D4647M-13. 2013. Standard test methods for identification and classification of dispersive clay soils by the pinhole test. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013. 10. ASTM D4648. 2016. Standard test methods for laboratory miniature vane shear test for saturated fine-grained clayey soil. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016 11. ASTM D5852. 2007. Standard test method for erodibility determination of soil in the field or in the laboratory by the jet index method (withdrawn 2016). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2007. 12. ASTM D7263-09. 2018. Standard test methods for laboratory determination of density (unit weight) of soil speciments. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018. 13. ASTM D7928-17. 2017. Standard test method for particle-size distribution (gradation) of fine- grained soils using sedimentation (hydrometer) analysis. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2017. 14. ASTM D854-14. 2014. Standard test methods for specific gravity of soil solids by water pycnometer. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014. 15. Benedict, S. T., Deshpande, N., Aziz, N. M. Conrads, P. A. 2006. Trends of abutment-scour prediction equations applied to 144 field sites in South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2003-295, 150 p., available online at http://pubs.waterusgs.gov/ofr03- 295/. 16. Bloomquist, D., Sheppard, D.M., Schofield, S., Crowley, R.W. 2012. The rotating erosion testing apparatus (RETA): A laboratory device for measuring erosion rates versus shear stresses of rock and cohesive materials. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 35(4). Paper ID GTJ104221

343 17. Bogdanov, V.I., Smirnov, R.A. Vlaznost gruntov zony aeratcii v usloviyah zastroyki. In a book : Problemy prognozirovaniay povysheniya urovny gruntovyh vod na zastroennyh territoriayh I borba s ih podtopleniyem, Belgorod, 1972. (Богданов В.И., Смирнов Р.А. Влажность грунтов зоны аэрации в условиях застройки. В кн.: Проблемы прогнозирования повышения уровня грунтовых вод на застроенных территориях и борьба с иx подтоплением (материалы совещания), Белгород, 1972) 18. Bones, E. J. 2014. Predicting critical shear stress and soil erodibility classes using soil properties. MS Thesis, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA. 19. Briaud, J. L. 2008. Case histories in soil and rock erosion: Woodrow Wilson Bridge, Brazos River Meander, Normandy Cliffs, and New Orleans Levees, The 9th Ralph B. Peck Lecture, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 134(10), ASCE, Reston Virginia, USA. 20. Briaud, J. L. 2013. Geotechnical engineering: unsaturated and saturated soils, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA. 21. Briaud, J. L. 2015. Scour depth at bridges: Method including soil properties. I: Maximum scour depth prediction. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 141(2): 04014104. ISSN 1090- 0241/04014104(13). 22. Briaud, J. L., Bernhardt, M., Leclair, M. 2012. The pocket erodometer test: development and preliminary results. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, Paper ID GTJ102889. 23. Briaud, J. L., Chen, H. C., Kwak, K., Han, S., Ting, F. 2001. Multiflood and multilayer method for scour rate prediction at bridge piers, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127(2), pp. 114-125, Feb. 2001, ASCE, Reston, Virginia. 24. Briaud, J. L., Chen, H. C., Li, Y., Nurtjahyo, P., Wang, J. 2005. SRCIOS-EFA method for contraction scour in fin-grained soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Vol. 131, No. 10, ISSN 1090-0241/2005/10-1283-1294. 25. Briaud, J. L., Gardoni, P., Yao, C. 2014. Statistical, risk, and reliability analysis of bridge scour, J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 140(2), 04013011, ASCE 26. Briaud, J. L., Ting, F. C. K., Chen, H. C., Gudavalli, R., Perugu, S., Wei, G. 1999. SRICOS: Prediction of scour rate in cohesive soils at bridge piers, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 125(4), pp. 237-246, April 1999, ASCE, Reston, Virginia. 27. Briaud, J. L., Ting, F., Chen, H.C., Cao, Y., Han, S.-W., Kwak, K., 2001, Erosion function apparatus for scour rate predictions, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127(2), pp. 105-113, Feb. 2001, ASCE, Reston, Virginia. 28. Briaud, J.-L. 2013. Geotechnical Engineering: Unsaturated and Saturated Soils. College Station: WILEY. 29. CDC, 1994. Addressing emerging infectious disease threats: a prevention strategy for the United States. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. 30. CFGB, 1997. Internal erosion: typology, detection, repair, Bulletin du Comite Francais des Grande Barrages FRCOLD NEWS. No. 6 – Special Cingress CIGB Florence. 31. Chapius, R. P. 1986. Quantitative measurement of the scour resistance of natural solid clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 23, pp. 132-141.

344 32. Chapius, R. P. and Gatien, T. 1986. An improved rotating cylinder technique for quantitative measurements of the scour resistance of clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. 23. pp 83-87. 33. Chapuis, R. P. 1986. Use of Rotational Erosion Device on Cohesive Soils. Transportation Research Record, No. 1089, pp. 23-28. 34. Chapuis, R., Gatien, T. 1986. An improved rotating cylinder technique for quantitative measurements of the scour resistance of clays. Can. Geotech. J., pp. 83-87. 35. Chedid, M., Shafii, I., Briaud, J. L., 2018. Erosion Tests on the Teton Dam Soils. The 9th International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Taipei, Taiwan. 36. Chen, Y.H, Anderson, B.A. 1987. Methodology for Estimating Embankment Damage Caused by Flood Overtopping. Transportation Research Record, No. 1151, pp. 1-15. 37. Chow, V.T. 1959. Open-channel hydraulics. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. 38. Clark, L.A., Wynn, T.M. 2007. Methods for Determining Streambank Critical Shear Stress and Soil Erodibility: Implications for Erosion Rate Predictions. Transactions of the ASAE. Vol. 50(1), pp. 95-106. 39. Croad, R.N. 1981. Physics of Erosion of Cohesive Soils, PhD Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Auckland, NZ. 40. Decker, R. S. and Dunnigan, L. P. 1977. Development and use of the soil conservation service dispersion test. In Dispersive Clays, Related Piping, and Erosion in Geotechnical Projects, ASTM STP 623, Eds. Sherard, J. L. and Decker, R.S., American Society for Testing and Materials, 1977, pp. 94-109. 41. Dunn, I. S. 1959. Tractive resistance of cohesive channels. Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, ASCE, pp. 1–24. 42. Gabr, M., Caruso, C., Key, A., Kayser, M. 2013. Assessment of in situ scour profile in sand using a jet probe. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 36(2). 43. Ghebreiyessus, Y. T., Gantzer, C. J., Alberts, E. E., Lentz, R. W. 1994. Soil erosion by concentrated flow: shear stress and bulk density. Transactions of the ASAE. Vol. 37(6), pp. 1791-1797. 44. Gibbs, H. J. 1962. A study of erosion and tractive force characteristics in relation to soil mechanics properties. US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Division of Engineering Laboratories, Soils Engineering Report No. EM-643. 45. Grishanin K.V. 1969. Dynamics of River Flows. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian). 46. Hanson, G. J. 1990. Surface erodibility of earthern channels at high stresses. Part I – Open channel testing. Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 127-131. 47. Hanson, G. J. 1990. Surface erodibility of earthern channels at high stresses. Part II – Developing an in situ testing device. Transactions of the ASAE, Vol. 33, Issue 1, pp. 132-137. 48. Hanson, G. J. 1991. Development of a jet index to characterize erosion resistance of soils in earthen spillways. Trans. ASAE. General Edition, Vol. 34(5), pp. 2015-2020. ISSN 00012351. 49. Hanson, G. J., Cook, K. R. 2004. Apparatus, test procedures, and analytical methods to measure soil erodibility in situ. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. ISSN 0883-8542. Vol. 20(4), pp. 455-462. 50. Hanson, G. J., Hunt, S. L. 2007. Lessons learned using laboratory JET method to measure soil erodibility of compacted soils. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ISSN 0883-8542. Vol. 23(3), pp 305-312.

345 51. Hanson, G. J., Robinson, K. M., Cook, K. R. 2002. Scour below an overfall: Part II. Prediction. Transactions of the ASAE. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Vol. 45(4), pp. 957-964. ISSN 0001-2351. 52. Hanson, G. J., Robinson, K. M., Temple, D. M. 1990. Hydraulic Engineering – Proceedings of the 1990 National Conference. pp. 525-530. ISBN 0872627748. 53. Hanson, G. J., Simon, A., Cook, K. R. 2002. Non-vertical jet testing of cohesive streambank materials. ASAE Annual International Meeting / CIGR XVth World Congress. Paper Number: 022119. 54. Hanson, G.J., and Simon, A. 2001. Erodibility of cohesive streambeds in the loess area of the Midwestern USA, Hydrological Processes, Vol. 15(1), pp. 23-38. 55. Hanson, G.J., and Simon, A. 2001. Erodibility of cohesive streambeds in the loess area of the Midwestern USA, Hydrological Processes, Vol. 15(1), pp. 23-38. 56. Hofland, B., Battjes, J.A., Booij, R. 2005. Measurement of fluctuating pressures on coarse bed material, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, Vol. 131(9), pp.770-781. 57. Julian, J.P., and Torres, R. 2006. Hydraulic erosion of cohesive riverbanks, Geomorphology, 76 (1-2), pp. 193-206. 58. Julien, P.Y. 1995. Erosion and Sedimentation. Cambridge University Press. 59. Justin, J. D. The Design of Earth Dams, Trans. ASCE 87, pp. 1-61, 1923 60. Kandiah, A., Arulanandan, K. 1974. Hydraulic Erosion of Cohesive Soils. Transportation Research Record, No. 497, pp. 60-68. 61. Lefebvre, G., Rohan, K., Douville, S. 1985. Erosivity of natural intact structured clay: Evaluation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal. Vol. 22, pp. 508-517. 62. Li Y., Briaud J.-L., Chen H.-C., Nurtjahyo P., Wang J., 2002, “Shear Stress Approach to Pier Scour Predictions.”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Scour of Foundations, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. 63. Lomtadze V.D. 1977. Engineering geology. Engineering geodynamics. Moscow, Nedra (in Russian) 64. Lyle, W. M., Smerdon, E. T. 1965. Relation of compaction and other soil properties to erosion resistance of soils. Transactions of the ASAE. Vol. 8(3), pp. 419-422. 284-298. 65. Masch, F. D., Jr., Espey, W. H., Jr., and Moore, W. L. 1963. Measurements of the shear resistance of cohesive sediments. Proceedings of the Federal Inter-Agency Sedimentation Conference, Agricultural Research Service, Publication No. 970, Washington, D.C., pp. 151-155. 66. Maslov, N. N. 1968. Osnovy mechaniki gruntov i injenernayay geologiya. Vyshayay skola. 67. McNeil, J., Taylor, C., Lick, W. 1996. Measurements of Erosion of Undisturbed Bottom Sediments with Depth. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. June 1996. Vol. 122 (6), pp. 316-324. 68. Mirzhulava, Z.E. 1967. Razmyv rusla I metodika ocenki ego ustoichivosti. Kolos. Moskva 69. Moody L.F. 1944. Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Transaction of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 66. 70. Moore, W. L., Masch, F. D., Jr. 1962. Experiments on the scour resistance of cohesive sediments. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 67(4), pp. 1437-1449. 71. Mostafa, T.S., Imran, J., Chaudhry, M.H., Kahn, I.B. 2008. Erosion Resistance of Cohesive Soils. Journal of Hydraulic Research. Vol. 46(6), pp. 777-787. 72. Neill, C.R. 1967. Mean-velocity criterion for scour of coarse uniform bed-material, International Association for Hydraulic Research, Vol. 3, pp. 46-54.

346 73. Osipov V.I., Sokolov V.N., Rumyanzeva E.M. 1989. Microstructure of clayey soils. Moscow, Nedra, (in Russian) 74. Reddi, L. N., Lee, I., Bonala, M. V. S. 2000. Comparison of internal and surface erosion using flow pump test on a sand-kaolinite mixture, Geotechnical Testing Journal. Vol. 23, pp. 116–122. 75. Roberts, J.D., Jepsen, R.A., James, S.C. 2003. Measurement of Sediment Erosion and Transport with the Adjustable Shear Stress Erosion and Transport Flume. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Nov. 2003. Vol. 129(11), pp. 862-871. 76. Sanchez, R. L., Strutynsky, A. I. and Silver, M. L. 1983. Evaluation of the erosion potential of embankment core materials using the laboratory triaxial erosion rest procedure. Geotechnical Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Technical Report GL-83-4. 77. Sargunan, A. 1977. Concept of critical shear stress in relation to characterization of dispersive clays. In Dispersive Clays, Related Piping, and Erosion in Geotechnical Projects. Symposium, Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting, American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Special Technical Publication 623, Sherard, J.L. and Decker R.S. eds., pp. 390-397. 78. Shafii, I., Briaud, J. L., Chen, H. C., and Shidlovskaya, A., 2016. Relationship between Soil Erodibility and Engineering Properties. The 8th International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Oxford, U.K. 79. Shafii, I., Zhang, Z., Briaud, J. L., 2018. Measurement of Hydrodynamic Forces on Gravel Particles in the Erosion Function Apparatus. The 9th International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Taipei, Taiwan. 80. Shaikh, A., Ruff, J. F., Charlie, W.A. and Abt, S.R. 1988. Erosion rate of dispersive and nondispersive clays. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Vol. 114(5), pp. 589-600. 81. Shaikh, A., Ruff, J.F., Abt, S. R. 1988. Erosion rate of compacted NA-montmorillonite soils. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE. Vol. 114(3), pp. 296-305. 82. Shan, H., Shen, J., Kilgore, R., Kerenyi, K. 2015. Scour in cohesive soils. US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Publication No. FHWA-HRT-15-033 83. Sheppard, D.M. 2002. Effect of suspended fine sediment on local scour. First International Conference on Scour of Foundations. Nov. 17-20. College Station, Texas, USA. 84. Sheppard, D.M., Bloomquist, D., Slagle, P.M. 2006. Rate of erosion properties of rock and clay. Developed for the Florida Department of Transportation. UF Project 00030890 (4554013-12) 85. Sheppard, D.M., Odeh, M., Glasser, T. 2004. Large scale clear-water local pier scour experiments. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Vol. 130, No. 10. ISSN 0733-9429/2004/10- 957 86. Sherard, J. L. 1984. Discussions and closure on ‘Erosion in relation to filter design criteria in earth dams’ by Arulanandan, K. and Perry, E.B. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE. Vol. 110(7), pp. 996-1005. 87. Sherard, J. L. 1985. Hydraulic fracturing in embankment dams. Symposium on Seepage and Leakage from Dams and Impoundments, ASCE, Eds. Volpe, R.L. and Kelly, W.E., pp. 115- 141. 88. Sherard, J. L. Dunningan, L. P. 1989. Critical filters for impervious soils. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering. Vol. 115(7), pp. 927-947.

347 89. Sherard, J. L., Decker, R. S., Ryker, N. L. 1972. Piping in earth dams of dispersive clay. Conference on Performance of Earth and Earth-supported Structures, ASCE, 1972. Vol. 1(1), pp. 589-626. 90. Sherard, J. L., Dunnigan, L. P., Decker, R. S. 1976. Identification and nature of dispersive soils. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE. 102, pp. 298-312. 91. Sherard, J. L., Dunnigan, L. P., Decker, R. S. and Steele, E. F. 1976. Pinhole test for identifying dispersive soils. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE. Vol. 102, pp. 69-85. 92. Sherard, J. L., Dunnigan, L. P., Talbot, J. R. 1984. Filters for silts and clays. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE. Vol. 110(6), pp. 684-699. 93. Sherard, J. L.1973. Embankment dam cracking. in embankment dam engineering,, Eds. Hirschfeld, R.C. and Poulos, S.J., pp. 271-353. 94. Shidlovskaya, A.V., Briaud, J.-L. Chedid, M., Keshavarz M. Erodibility of soil above the groundwater level: some test results. Proceedings of the 3-rd European Conference on Unsaturated Soils. 12-14 September 2016. Paris. France. 95. Skempton, A.W. 1953. The colloidal “activity” of clays. 3rd International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Switzerland, 1953, Vol. 1, pp.57–61. 96. Skempton, A.W. 1953. The colloidal “activity” of clays. 3rd International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Switzerland, 1953, Vol. 1, pp.57–61. 97. Smerdon, E. T., Beasley, R. P. 1961. Critical tractive forces in cohesive soils, Journal of Agricultural Engineering. Vol. 42(1), pp. 26-29. 98. Smerdon, E. T., Beasley, R. P. 1961. Critical tractive forces in cohesive soils, Journal of Agricultural Engineering. Vol. 42(1), pp. 26-29. 99. SPSS Inc. 2014. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 core system user’s guide. Chicago, IL. 100. Straub, T. D., Over, T. M., Domanski, M. M. 2013. Ultimate pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois. A report of the findings of ICT- R27-105 Bridge Scour Estimation at Sites with Cohesive Soils, Illinois Center for Transportation. Research Report No. FHWA-ICT-13-025. ISSN: 0197-9191. 101. Straub, T. D., Over, T. M. 2010. Pier and contraction scour prediction in cohesive soils at selected bridges in Illinois. A report of the findings of ICT-R27-19 Pier and Contraction Scour Prediction in Cohesive Soils, Illinois Center for Transportation , Research Report ICT- 10-074. ISSN: 0197-9191. 102. Terzaghi, K., Peck, R. B. 1948. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. 1 st Ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 103. Terzaghi, K., Peck, R. B. 1967. Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice. 2 st Ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 104. Thoman, R. W., Niezgoda, S. L. 2008. Determining erodibility, critical shear stress, and allowable discharge estimates for cohesive channels: Case study in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. Vol. 134(12), ISSN 0733-9429/2008/12- 1677-1687. 105. Trammell, M. 2004. Laboratory apparatus and methodology for determining water erosion rates of erodible rock and cohesive sediments. MS thesis to the University of Florida. 106. USSD. 2011. 21st Century Dam Design-Advances and Adaptations. 31st Annual USSD Conference, pp. 1023-1032. 107. Utley, B., Wynn, T. 2008. Cohesive soil erosion: theory and practice. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress.

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Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils Get This Book
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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) has released the pre-publication version of NCHRP Research Report 915: Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils, which provides reliable and simple equations quantifying the erodibility of soils based on soil properties.

The report a detailed analysis of the issue. In addition, the project that developed the report also produced a searchable spreadsheet that uses statistical techniques to relate geotechnical properties to soil erodibility. The spreadsheet, NCHRP Erosion, includes a searchable database that includes compiled erosion data from the literature review and a plethora of erosion tests. It contains equations which may be used to estimate the erosion resistance of soil and determine whether erosion tests are needed.

The following appendices to NCHRP Report 915 were published online in a single Appendices Report.

Appendix 1 – Erosion Test Results Spreadsheets

Appendix 2 – Geotechnical Properties Spreadsheets

Appendix 3 – First and Second Order Statically Analysis Results

Appendix 4 – Deterministic Frequentists’ Regression Analysis

Appendix 5 – Probabilistic Calibration Results

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