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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25470.
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320 Acciardi, R. 1984. Erosion in Relation to Filter Design Criteria in Dams. Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 110, No. 7, pp. 996–999. Amos, C. L., Droppo, I. G., Gomez, E. A., and Murphy, T. P. 2003. The Stability of a Remedial Bed in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario, Canada. Sedimentology, Vol. 50, pp. 149–168. Al-Madhhachi, A. T., Hanson, G. J., Fox, G. A., Tyagi, A. K., and Bulut, R. 2013. Measuring Soil Erodibility Using a Laboratory Mini Jet. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Vol. 56, No. 3, pp. 901–910. Annandale, G. W. 2006. Scour Technology: Mechanics and Practice. McGraw Hill, New York, pp. 430. Annandale, G. W. and Parkhill, D. L. 1995. Stream Bank Erosion: Application of the Erodibility Index Method. In Proceedings of First International Conference on Water Resources Engineering, San Antonio, Tex. Arneson, L. A., Zevenbergen, L. W., Lagasse, P. F., and Clopper, P. E. 2012. Evaluating Scour at Bridges, 5th ed. Publication No. FHWA-HIF-12-003. Hydraulic Engineering Circular No. 18. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. Arulanandan, K., and Perry, E. B. 1983. Erosion in Relation to Filter Design Criteria in Earth Dams. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, Vol. 109, No. 5, pp. 682–698. Arulanandan, K., Loganathan, P., and Krone, R. B. 1975. Pore and Eroding Fluid Influences on Surface Erosion of Soils. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, Vol. 101, pp. 51–66. Arulanandan, K., Sargunam, A., Loganathan, P., and Krone, R. B. 1973. Application of Chemical and Electrical Parameters to Prediction of Erodibility. In Special Report 135: Soil Erosion: Causes and Mechanisms; Prevention and Control. HRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 42–51. ASTM D422-63. 2007. Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D854-14. 2014. Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D1587/D1587M-15. 2015. Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Fine-Grained Soils for Geotechnical Purposes. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D2216-10. 2010. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D2487-17. 2017. Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D4318-17e1. 2017. Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D4647/D4647M-13. 2013. Standard Test Methods for Identification and Classification of Dispersive Clay Soils by the Pinhole Test. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D4648. 2016. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Miniature Vane Shear Test for Saturated Fine- Grained Clayey Soil. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D5852. 2007. Standard Test Method for Erodibility Determination of Soil in the Field or in the Laboratory by the Jet Index Method (withdrawn 2016). ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D7263-09. 2018. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Density (Unit Weight) of Soil Specimens. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. ASTM D7928-17. 2017. Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Distribution (Gradation) of Fine-Grained Soils Using Sedimentation (Hydrometer) Analysis. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pa. Benahmed, N., and Bonelli, S. 2012. Internal Erosion of Cohesive Soils: Laboratory Parametric Study. 6th Inter- national Conference on Scour and Erosion, Aug 2012, Paris. Blaisdell, F.W., Clayton, L.A., and Hebaus, G. G. 1981. Ultimate Dimension of Local Scour. Journal of Hydraulics Division, Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 327–337. References

References 321 Bloomquist, D., Sheppard, D. M., Schofield, S., and Crowley, R. W. 2012. The Rotating Erosion Testing Apparatus (RETA): A Laboratory Device for Measuring Erosion Rates Versus Shear Stresses of Rock and Cohesive Materials. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4. Paper ID GTJ104221. Bogdanov, V. I., and Smirnov, R. A. Vlaznost gruntov zony aeratcii v usloviyah zastroyki. In Problemy prog­ nozirovaniay povysheniya urovny gruntovyh vod na zastroennyh territoriayh I borba s ih podtopleniyem. Belgorod, 1972. (Богданов в.И., СмИрнов р.а. влaжность грунтов зоны аэрацИИ в условИях застройкИ. в кн.: Проблемы ПрогнозИрованИя ПовышенИя уровня грунтовых вод на застроенных террИторИях И борьба с Иx ПодтоПленИем (матерИалы совещанИя), Белгород, 1972). Bones, E. J. 2014. Predicting Critical Shear Stress and Soil Erodibility Classes Using Soil Properties. MS thesis. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology. Briaud, J. L. 2008. Case Histories in Soil and Rock Erosion: Woodrow Wilson Bridge, Brazos River Meander, Normandy Cliffs, and New Orleans Levees. 9th Ralph B. Peck Lecture. Journal of Geotechnical and Geo­ environmental Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 10. Briaud, J. L. 2013. Geotechnical Engineering: Unsaturated and Saturated Soils. John Wiley and Sons, New York. Briaud, J. L., Bernhardt, M., and Leclair, M. 2012. The Pocket Erodometer Test: Development and Preliminary Results. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 35, No. 2, Paper ID GTJ102889. Briaud, J. L., Chedid, M., Chen, H. C., and Shidlovskaya, A. 2017a. Borehole Erosion Test. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 8. ASCE ISSN 1090-0241. Briaud, J. L., Chen, H. C., Kwak, K., Han, S., and Ting, F. 2001a. Multiflood and Multilayer Method for Scour Rate Prediction at Bridge Piers. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 2, pp. 114–125. Briaud, J. L., Govindasamy, A.V., and Shafii, I. 2017b. Erosion Charts for Selected Geomaterials. Journal of Geo­ technical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 143, No. 10, S. 04017072-1–04017072-13. Briaud, J. L., Ting, F., Chen, H. C., Cao, Y., Han, S.-W., and Kwak, K. 2001b. Erosion Function Apparatus for Scour Rate Predictions. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 2, pp. 105–113. Briaud, J. L., Ting, F. C. K., Chen, H. C., Gudavalli, R., Perugu, S., and Wei, G. 1999. SRICOS: Prediction of Scour Rate in Cohesive Soils at Bridge Piers. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 125, No. 4, pp. 237–246. CD-adapco. 2016. STAR­CCM+ 11.0 User Guide. CD-adapco, Inc. Chang, D. S., and Zhang, L. M. 2011. A Stress-Controlled Erosion Apparatus for Studying Internal Erosion in Soils. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 34, No. 6. Paper ID GTJ103889. Chapuis, R. P., and Gatien, T. 1986. An Improved Rotating Cylinder Technique for Quantitative Measurements of the Scour Resistance of Clays. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 83–87. Chedid, M., Shafii, I., and Briaud, J. L. 2018. Erosion Tests on the Teton Dam Soils. Presented at 9th International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Taipei, Taiwan. Chen, C., Liu, W., Li, F., Lin, C.-H., Liu, J., Pei, J., and Chen, Q. 2013. A Hybrid Model for Investigating Transient Particle Transport in Enclosed Environments. Building and Environment, Vol. 62, pp. 45–54. Chen, H. C., Patel, V. C., and Ju, S. 1990. Solutions of Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations for Three- Dimensional Incompressible Flows. Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 305–336. Chen, Y.-H., and Anderson, B. A. 1987. Methodology for Estimating Embankment Damage Caused by Flood Overtopping. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1151, pp. 1–15. Chow, V. T. 1959. Open­Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York. Clark, L. A., and Wynn, T. M. 2007. 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322 Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils Fleshman, M. S., and Rice, J. D. 2013. Constant Gradient Piping Test Apparatus for Evaluation of Critical Hydraulic Conditions for the Initiation of Piping. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 36, No. 6. DOI 10.1520/GTJ20130066. Gabr, M., Caruso, C., Key, A., and Kayser, M. 2013. Assessment of In Situ Scour Profile in Sand Using a Jet Probe. Geotechnical Testing Journal, Vol. 36, No. 2, pp. 264–274. Ghebreiyessus, Y. T., Gantzer, C. J., Alberts, E. E., and Lentz, R. W. 1994. Soil Erosion by Concentrated Flow: Shear Stress and Bulk Density. Transactions of the ASAE. Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 1791–1797. Gibbs, H. J. 1962. A Study of Erosion and Tractive Force Characteristics in Relation to Soil Mechanics Proper- ties: Earth Research Program. Report No. EM-643. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Division of Engineering Laboratories, Denver, Colo. Hanson, G. J. 1990a. 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Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils Get This Book
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Analysis of the erodibility of geomaterials is important for the study of problems related to soil erosion such as bridge scour, embankment overtopping erosion, and stream stability. Erodibility is the relationship between the soil erosion rate and fluid velocity or hydraulic shear stress. Since different soils have different geotechnical properties, their erosion rates vary.

The TRB National Cooperative Highway Research Program's NCHRP Research Report 915: Relationship Between Erodibility and Properties of Soils provides reliable and simple equations quantifying the erodibility of soils on the basis of soil properties.

The report presents a detailed analysis of the issue. In addition, the project that developed the report also produced a searchable spreadsheet that uses statistical techniques to relate geotechnical properties to soil erodibility. The spreadsheet, NCHRP Erosion, includes a searchable database that includes compiled erosion data from the literature review and a plethora of erosion tests. It contains equations that may be used to estimate the erosion resistance of soil and determine whether erosion tests are needed.

The following appendices to NCHRP Report 915 were published online in a single Appendices Report:

Appendix 1 – Erosion Test Results Spreadsheets

Appendix 2 – Geotechnical Properties Spreadsheets

Appendix 3 – First and Second Order Statistical Analysis Results

Appendix 4 – Deterministic Frequentist Regression Analysis

Appendix 5 – Probabilistic Calibration Results

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