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Suggested Citation:"8 Appendices." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Strategic Communications Toolkit to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25506.
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TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 54 8 Appendices

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 55 APPENDIX A Transit Agency / City Contact List

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 56 Transit Agency / City Location Survey Date8 Interview Date Project(s) 1 Capital Metro Transportation Authority (CapMetro) Austin, TX 8/2/18 No response  MLK/Lavaca Queue Jump 2 Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) Columbus, OH 9/6/18 10/11/18  CMAX Cleveland Avenue Bus RapidTransit/Enhanced Bus Service 3 Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) Chicago, IL No response -  The Loop Link Project 4 City and County of Denver Denver, CO 9/12/18 No response  Colfax BRT - Dedicated Lanes 5 Cleveland RTA Cleveland, OH No response -  Healthline BRT 6 District Department of Transportation (DDOT) Washington, D.C 8/13/18 10/23/18  16th Street NW Bus Lanes Project 7 GO Boulder Boulder, CO No response -  State Highway 119 BRT 8 Jacksonville Transportation Authority Florida 8/2/18 No response  First Coast Flyer 9 Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA Metro) LA, CA No response -  Signal Priority System  Wilshire BRT Dedicated Bus Lane or Orange Line 10 Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) Boston, MA 8/20/18 No response  Better Bus Project 11 Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT) Boston, MA No response -  Commonwealth Ave Phase 2A 12 Mountain Line Transit Flagstaff, AZ No response -  Mountain Link Rapid Route 13 New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) New York City, New York No response -  Select Bus Service 14 Pace Cook County, IL No response -  Harvey Transit Signal Priority Project 15 Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT) Portland, OR No response -  Central City In Motion (Bus Priority Lane) 16 Portland Street Car, Inc. Portland, OR 8/2/18 10/11/18  NE Grand Ave Transit Lane 17 Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) Chicago, IL 8/23/18 10/9/18  Regional Transit Signal Priority ImplementationProgram 8 The survey was originally set to open and close on August 2018, however the close date was extended to September 2018 to capture more responses.

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 57 Transit Agency / City Location Survey Date8 Interview Date Project(s) 18 Regional Transportation District (RTD) Denver-Boulder, CO No response -  Flatiron Flyer 19 San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG) San Diego, CA 8/17/18 No response  Rapid BRT 20 San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) San Francisco, CA 8/1/18 10/15/18  L Taraval Rapid Project (Muni Forward) 21 Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) San Jose, CA 8/22/18 11/5/18  Alum Rock/Santa Clara BRT 22 Seattle Department of Transportation (SDOT) Seattle, WA No response -  Seattle Streetcar Center City Connector  Madison Avenue BRT 23 Sound Transit Puget Sound Region, WA 9/17/289 No response  East Extension  I-405 BRT  SR 522 BRT 24 TransLink Metro Vancouver, BC, CA 8/2/1810 No response  B Lines  Surrey Light Rail Project 9 Survey completed for the East Extension only. 10 Survey completed for B Lines only.

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 58 APPENDIX B Transit Agency Survey

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 59 Survey Introduction Thank you for participating in the TRB Strategic Communications Survey! The goal of this survey is to gather information to help develop practical guidance on communication strategies for transit agencies implementing transit-priority projects.  Communication strategies include channels like social media posts, project websites, project branding, etc.  Transit-priority projects may include physical, service, and/or policy changes that prioritize high-quality and predictable service over other road users. Examples include: dedicated transit lanes, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail, signal priority, bus bulb-outs, and policy changes such as allowing ride-hailing services to use bus lanes. This survey will take approximately 20 minutes to complete. The research team may follow up with you to ensure we have a firm understanding of your communications approach and results. If someone else within your agency is more appropriate to respond, please forward this to them and copy us at apaz@nelsonnygaard.com. Thank you for taking the time to complete this survey. If you have any questions or have more information to send, please contact us at apaz@nelsonnygaard.com or (415) 281-6938. Survey Questions Basic Agency Information 1. What types of transit-priority services does your transit agency offer? (Select all that apply) − Light rail − Bus rapid transit (BRT) − Fixed-route local bus with priority features − Fixed-route local streetcar with priority features − Commuter rail − Express bus − Demand-response service that receive priority (Lyft, Uber, Chariot, etc.) − Other (please specify) 2. What channels of communication does your agency typically use to communicate information to the public? − E-blasts − Formal in-person outreach (e.g. public workshops, meetings, focus groups) − Informal in-person outreach (e.g. community events – festivals, farmers markets, sporting events) − In-person surveys − Local news media − Notifications on existing fixed routes/bus stops/train stations

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 60 − Online Surveys − Printed mailers − Social media − Transit agency smartphone app − Website − Other (please specify) Project Specifics Please answer the following questions in regards to the communications strategy employed for one of your agency’s transit-priority project or communication campaigns. If your agency has implemented more than one project/campaign, you will have the opportunity to provide feedback for one additional project later in this survey. 3. What was the name of the transit-priority project or communication campaign? 4. Was communication tested for this campaign prior to releasing it to the public? − Yes − No 5. What type(s) of transit-priority improvements did your agency implement as part of the project/campaign? (Select all that apply) − Dedicated running ways (e.g. transit only lane, busway, transitway) for transit − Dedicated bus lanes − New or expanded light rail − New or expanded streetcar − Bus bulb-outs − Transit signal priority − Transit signal preemption − Queue jump − Transit mall/gallery − Policy changes (e.g. allowing TNCs and bicycles to use bus lanes) − Other (please specify) 6. Where does your agency’s transit-priority project operate? (Select all that apply) − General travel lanes on urban surface streets − General travel lanes on suburban surface streets − Parking lanes in urban areas − Parking lanes in suburban areas − High-occupancy vehicle (lanes) on freeways − General purpose lanes on freeways − On a dedicated roadway − On Highway Shoulder − Other (please specify)

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 61 7. If the project operates on a dedicated roadway, how is priority designated? (Select all that apply) − Striping − Grade-separation − Barrier-separation − The project does not operate on a dedicated roadway − Other (please specify) 8. Does the transit-priority project operate under any of the following conditions? (Select all that apply) − Peak-hour only − In mixed traffic − None of the above Communication Strategy Initiation and Intent 9. What department(s) in your agency led the development and implementation of the communications? Please specify below. 10. Did your agency have a public-facing project champion(s)? (Select all that apply) − Yes, transit agency staff − Yes, transit agency board support and/or champion − Yes, political support from elected officials − Yes, political support from Chamber of Commerce or other business group − Other (please specify) − No 11. What were the primary goals of the communication strategy? (Select all that apply) − Comply with local, state, and/or federal guidelines for public involvement − Create consistent branding/messaging − Develop a planned communication approach − Disseminate relevant information at appropriate times and through appropriate channels − Educate the public − Ensure representation from all communities served − Ensure that the public is meaningfully involved − Garner public support for changes − Garner political support for changes − Gather community feedback on design − Notify riders of service changes during and after project − Solicit community input to design of project − Other (please specify)

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 62 12. What techniques did you use to determine the content and format, and dissemination of media for each type of communication? (Select all that apply) − Content determined in-house without external output − Consulted with an external outreach/public relations firm − Consulted with other transit agencies − Consulted with riders (e.g. focus groups, surveys) − Used information from passenger complaints − Consulting with other transit agencies − Consulted with other departments − Other (please specify) 13. Did this campaign specifically set aside funding to develop and implement the communications strategy? − No − Yes (please specify budget) Outreach Methods 14. What methods were used to work with external stakeholders to identify local values and goals? (Select all that apply) − In-person stakeholder meetings/focus groups − Individual stakeholder interviews − Did not work with stakeholders − Other (please specify) 15. Who were the target audiences of your communication efforts? (Select all that apply) − General public − Regular commuters/transit riders − Potential transit riders − People in areas affected by the project(s) − Elderly − Persons with disabilities − K-12 students − College students − Tourists − Other (please specify) 16. Was communication tailored for different audiences or segments of the community? − No − Yes (please specify) 17. Did you hire a third party consultant/outreach firm to assist with outreach? − No

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 63 − Yes (please specify their name and role ) 18. Did you partner with any outside groups to conduct the campaign, parts of the campaign, and/or specific outreach events? − No − Yes (please specify their name and role ) 19. What channels of communication did you use to disseminate information for this communication effort? (Select all that apply) − E-blasts − Formal in-person outreach (e.g. public workshops, meetings, focus groups) − Informal in-person outreach (e.g. community events – festivals, farmers markets, sporting events) − In-person surveys − Local news media − Notifications on existing fixed routes/bus stops/train stations − Online surveys − Printed mailers − Social media − Transit agency smartphone app − Website − Other (please specify) Channels of Communication 20. [Carry forward responses from Question #19] Please indicate how often information was communicated through the following channels: − Daily − Weekly − Monthly − Quarterly − Periodically − One-time 21. [Carry forward responses from Question #19] Please indicate when you employed the following channels of communication: − Before project start − Project launch − During construction − Project completion − After project completion

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 64 Strategy Evaluation 22. Did your transit agency develop a formal evaluation process for the communications strategy? − Yes, and it’s complete − We are in the process of developing or conducting an evaluation − We do not have plans to do a formal evaluation <If selected “No”, then skip to #25 Strategy Evaluation 23. Which of the following metrics did/will you use to evaluate your communications strategy? (Select all that apply) − Cost of marketing/outreach − Customer awareness of the project − Customer satisfaction − Mode shift among participants − Social media reach − Traditional media reach − Website hits − Other (please specify) 24. What methods did you use to collect information to evaluate the communications strategy? (Select all that apply) − Online survey marketed within the affected service area − In-person/intercept survey − Word-of-mouth − Focus groups − Other (please specify) Successes/Challenges 25. [Carry forward responses from Question #19] How successful have the following channels of communications been in achieving the agency’s intended outcome? − Very successful − Somewhat successful − Neither successful not unsuccessful − Somewhat unsuccessful − Not successful 26. What role did technology (social media, online engagement tools, data aggregators, etc.) play in your successful communication? (Select all that apply) − Deploying more targeted communications − Improving cost efficiency

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 65 − Improving operational efficiency − Improving program evaluation − Improving quality of feedback − Providing real-time information − Reaching larger audiences − Other (please specify) 27. What would you consider the key(s) to your success? (Select all that apply) − Clear messaging/branding − Clearly defined goals and objectives − Strong public-facing champion − Strong relationships with local communities − Use of different communication platforms − Other (please specify) 28. Did your agency encounter any of the following barriers? (Select all that apply) − Inconsistent messaging − Insufficient funds − Lack of interest/support from other department staff − Lack of interest/support from the general public − Lack of interest/support from stakeholders − Lack of interest/support from the transit agency decision-makers − Lack of resources for prioritizing diverse target audiences − Low attendance/participation at events − Not enough time to implement communication plan − Other (please specify) Sample Documents If you are able, please upload or provide links to samples of the strategic communication documents used for the successful transit-priority project (e.g. press releases, outreach documents, project updates, social media postings, etc.). You may upload up to three (3) documents, additional documents may be emailed to apaz@nelonnygaard.com. 29. Upload 1 30. Upload 2 31. Upload 3 32. Links Additional Project Feedback 33. Would you like to provide feedback for another transit-priority project or communication campaign? − Yes [survey will allow one additional response]

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 66 − No <If selected “Yes” to #33, then repeat #3-32> End Page 34. Please provide the following details of the transit agency you represent. − Agency Name: − City/Region: − State(s): 35. Please provide your contact information for follow-up questions. − Name: − Position: − Daytime Phone Number: − Email: 36. If you know of any other agencies that we should speak to regarding best practices in communications for transit-priority projects, please provide the contact information below. 37. Please provide any additional contextual information you feel was not adequately captured in the survey.

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 67 APPENDIX C Interview Instrument

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 68 Transit Agency Interview Instrument To be implemented following survey Purpose The purpose of this interview is to follow-up with respondents to the transit agency survey on Communication Strategies for Transit-priority projects. It is meant to follow-up on survey responses and capture more nuanced information. We will take no more than 60 minutes of your time for this interview. The focus of this conversation is the strategic communications developed and implemented by your transit agency to promote the [Project Name] transit priority project that [brief project description]. Note to interviewer: prior to the call, you should review all survey responses and identify specifically which follow-up questions from this Interview Instrument are relevant. In scheduling the call, please send the relevant questions ahead of time. Transit Agency Information Note to interviewer – please complete this section prior to initiating the call. Transit Agency: Date of Interview: Contact Name: Contact Phone/Email: Contact Title and Department: Transit-Priority Project: Background Information on the Strategic Communications Effort 1. Please describe the basic elements of the strategic communications effort for the [project name] project. 2. Please describe your personal involvement in the development and/or administration of the transit-priority project and the communication strategy(s 3. In planning of the communication strategy(s), did your transit agency contact staff at a peer agency or agencies that had previously launched a similar effort? If so, which transit agency or agencies? Basic Information about the Communication Strategy for the Transit-Priority Project 4. The [project name] included a strategic communication plan. Was this the first time this type of communications plan was developed and deployed by your transit agency for a transit priority project?

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 69 5. What were the key steps and considerations to developing this strategic communication plan? o What prompted this strategic communications plan? o How did the strategic communications Team go from concept to implementation? 6. Were specific target markets (audiences) identified for outreach? o What were the target markets/audience groups? o Did you tailor communication strategies for each market/audience? o If so, how were communication strategies tailored to different markets/audiences? 7. Did you collaborate with community partners in the development and /or execution of the strategic communication plan? o How did you identify community partners? o What role did the partners play in developing and implementing the communications strategies? o What lessons did you learn about collaborating with others for strategic communications for public transit? 8. Was funding set aside to develop and implement the strategic communication plan? o If yes, what was the source? o What was the approximate cost of using the different communication strategies? o Were any adjustments made to the plan to save costs? o If no funding was set aside, how did you fund the communication strategies? Outreach Methods 9. Did your transit agency retain a third party agency to assist with the development and implementation of the strategic communication plan? o Have you used this firm previously? o Can you provide recommendations or advice to other transit agencies regarding the use of consultants in the development and implementation of strategic communications for transit-priority projects? 10. What was the process used to develop campaign language? 11. Which Media and methods did you use in your communication strategies? o Were they strategies you had used in the past or were they new to your transit agency? o Were some strategies considered more successful? If so which one(s) and why? o How many communication methods were used?

TCRP J-11/Task 29 | Final Report Strategic Communications to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Nelson\Nygaard Consulting Associates, Inc. | 70 o Were there any project identity/branding methods used to distinguish this transit priority project and its communications from your regular transit service? 12. What was the duration and frequency of your communication strategies o How often were strategies communicated? (i.e., Daily, weekly) o How long were strategies open/utilized? (i.e., in weeks or months) o Is the communications campaign still running today? 13. Did technology play a role in some or all of the communication strategies? o If so, what type of technology was used? o How easy was it for the public to use 14. What was the formal evaluation process for the communications strategy? How was it developed, and what is the timeline for the evaluation? Success and Challenges 15. Overall, do you feel the strategic communication for this transit-priority project was successful? Why? o What are the top plan elements that you think were most crucial to that success? 16. What were some of the challenges your transit agency faced while developing and/or implementing the communication strategy? What didn’t work so well? o What 2-3 things would you change in the plan if you could restart the process? 17. How do you perceive the impact of the campaign on public awareness and support? 18. Is there any additional information that you would like to share about this strategic communication effort, others that you have been a part of designing or implementing? Future Efforts 19. Is your transit agency planning for other transit-priority projects that will include a strategic communications campaign? Please describe. 20. How do you expect the planning and implementation of the campaign to differ from the effort we have been discussing?

Strategic Communications Toolkit to Improve Support for Transit-Priority Projects Get This Book
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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Research Report 208 explores the use and effectiveness of strategic communications in building public support for transit-priority projects.

Transit priority projects are efforts to improve transit service, particularly in terms of speed and reliability, by prioritizing the movement of transit vehicles over automobiles.

The report analyzes the communication approaches used by cities and transit agencies in the delivery of transit-priority projects, and the factors that make certain methods more or less effective.

The report is structured around the presentation of a toolkit and the findings of research into strategic communications for transit-priority projects transit-priority projects. The toolkit is designed to serve as a guide for cities and transit agencies to effectively implement strategic communications strategies for transit-priority projects, and is derived from the findings of project research.

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