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i PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs The Vital Federal Role in Meeting the Highway Innovation Imperative Research and Technology Coordinating Committee A Consensus Study Report of
ii PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs Transportation Research Board Special Report 331 Subscriber Categories: Policy, Research Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from the TRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.TRB.org or nationalacademies.org/trb, or by annual subscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers are eligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Business Office, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001 (telephone 202-334- 3213; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu). Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America This publication was reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the National Academy of Medicine. This study was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: Library of Congress Control Number:
iii PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
iv PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.
v PREPUBLICATION COPYâUncorrected Proofs RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY COORDINATING COMMITTEE Timothy A. Henkel, Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN, Chair Kimberly L. Avery, Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, MI Peter Capon, Rieth-Riley Construction, Goshen, IN Paul D. Degges, Tennessee Department of Transportation, Nashville, TN William Heaslet, USF Holland Inc., Holland, MI Chris T. Hendrickson (NAE), Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA Leslie Jacobson, WSP, Seattle, WA Carol Kuester, Metropolitan Transportation Commission and Bay Area Toll Authority, San Francisco, CA Christopher M. Puchalsky, City of Philadelphia, PA Rosalie Ruegg, Technology Impact Assessment Consulting, Emerald Isle, NC Theodore Zoli, HTNB Corporation, New York, NY Transportation Research Board Staff Stephen R. Godwin, Scholar Thomas R. Menzies, Jr., Director, Consensus and Advisory Studies Joseph R. Morris, Senior Program Officer