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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25524.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

ASSURING DATA QUALITY AT U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY LABORATORIES Committee to Review the U.S. Geological Survey's Laboratories: Processes, Procedures, and Best Practices to Meet National Needs Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies A Consensus Study Report of Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey under Award No. G17AC00245. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that pro- vided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: International Standard Book Number-10: Digital Object Identifier: http://doi.org/10.17226/25524 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Cover credit: Images by Shutterstock/Valerii_M/anyaivanova. Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Assuring Data Quality at U.S. Geological Survey Laboratories. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. http://doi.org/ 10.17226/25524 Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the char-ter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engi- neering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was estab- lished in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distin- guished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy deci- sions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize out- standing contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineer- ing, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Acad- emies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Med- icine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opin-ions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other partici- pants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY'S LABORATORIES: PROCESSES, PROCEDURES, AND BEST PRACTICES TO MEET NATIONAL NEEDS WILLIAM HOPKINS, Chair, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg SUSAN L. BRANTLEY, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park REBECCA DAVIES, University of Minnesota, St. Paul DON DEPAOLO, University of California, Berkeley ANDY EATON, Eurofins Eaton Analytical, LLC, Monrovia, California ROBERT FLEISCHER, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC MADELINE GOTKOWITZ, Montana Tech of The University of Montana, Butte DENNIS (CHUNQING) JIANG, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary DAMIAN SHEA, North Carolina State University WENLU ZHU, University of Maryland, College Park National Academies Staff ANNE LINN, Study Director DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Program Officer ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator v Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, Chair, University of California, Davis ESTELLA A. ATEKWANA, University of Delaware, Newark BRENDA B. BOWEN, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City CHRISTOPHER (SCOTT) CAMERON, Geological Consulting, LLC, Houston, Texas NELIA W. DUNBAR, New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources, Socorro RODNEY C. EWING (NAE), Stanford University, California CAROL P. HARDEN, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville ROBERT L. KLEINBERG (NAE), Institute for Sustainable Energy, Boston University, Massachusetts THORNE LAY (NAS), University of California, Santa Cruz ZELMA MAINE-JACKSON, Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland MICHAEL MANGA (NAS), University of California, Berkeley MARTIN W. MCCANN, Stanford University, California JEFFREY N. RUBIN, Tualatin Valley Fire & Rescue, Tigard, Oregon JAMES A. SLUTZ, National Petroleum Council, Washington, District of Columbia SHAOWEN WANG, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ELIZABETH J. WILSON, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire National Academies Staff ELIZABETH EIDE, Director ANNE LINN, Scholar DEBORAH GLICKSON, Senior Staff Officer SAMMANTHA MAGSINO, Senior Staff Officer NICHOLAS ROGERS, Financial Business Partner COURTNEY DEVANE, Administrative Coordinator ERIC EDKIN, Program Coordinator RAYMOND (REMY) CHAPPETTA, Senior Program Assistant/Research Assistant vi Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

Acknowledgments This Consensus Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspec- tives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript re- main confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Bridget Bergquist, University of Toronto Thure Cerling, University of Utah Yu-Ping Chin, University of Delaware Edward DeLong, University of Hawaii Melissa Eitzen, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Lora Johnson, Environmental Protection Agency William McDowell, University of New Hampshire Thomas Steckler, Janssen Pharmaceutica NV Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Paul Gilman, Covanta Energy Corporation, and Michael Ladisch, Purdue University. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the rappor- teur and the National Academies. The committee would like to thank the following individuals who shared their expertise with the committee through presentations and discussion: Jordan Adelson, U.S. Navy; Ana Banica, Geological Survey of Norway; Kenna Butler, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Majid El Mossaoui, French Geological Survey; Graham Hagen-Peter, Geological Survey of Norway; Lora Johnson, Environmental Protection Agency; Teresa Kirschling, USGS; Phillipe Négrel, French Geological Survey; Torkil Rohr, Geological Survey of Norway; Marcella Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Duke University Medical Center; Ken Skipper, USGS; Conrad Quinn, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Terry Wade, Texas A&M University; and vii Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

viii Acknowledgments William Werkheiser, U.S. Department of Interior. The committee also appreciates the USGS managers (particularly Kenna Butler), who provided background information and answered numerous questions, and the USGS laboratory staff, who were welcoming and candid during the committee site visits. Final- ly, the committee thanks the National Academies staff, particularly Anne Linn, who did a tremendous job steering and supporting the committee through the study. Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

Contents SUMMARY.........................................................................................................................................................1 1 INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................9 Committee Tasks and Approach, 10 U.S. Geological Survey, 13 Organization of This Report, 14 2 IMPROVING DATA QUALITY AND INTEGRITY.............................................................. 17 Introduction to Quality Assurance Programs, 17 Reasons for Implementing Quality Assurance Programs, 18 Evidence that Quality Assurance Programs Support Data Quality, 19 Approaches for Designing Laboratory Data Quality Programs, 20 Maintaining Data Quality Programs, 31 Summary and Answer to Task 4, 32 3 USGS LABORATORIES................................................................................................................ 35 Overview of USGS Laboratories, 36 Insights from Visits to USGS Laboratories, 37 Summary and Answers to Tasks 1, 2, and 3, 42 4 EXPERIENCES WITH QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS........................................ 43 Perspectives on QMS from Selected Federal Agencies, Geological Surveys, and Research Institutions, 44 Summary and Answer to Task 2, 47 ix Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

x Contents 5 RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS.................................................................... 49 Best Practices, 49 Resources, 51 Timeline, 52 Concluding Remarks, 52 REFERENCES................................................................................................................................................ 55 APPENDIXS A Acronyms and Abbreviations....................................................................................................... 61 B Biographical Sketches of Committee Members....................................................................... 63 Prepublication Version - Subject to further editorial revision

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