National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA's Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25569.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

NASA’s Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities Margaret A. Honey, Kenne A. Dibner, and Tiffany E. Taylor, Editors Committee to Assess Science Activation Board on Science Education Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education A Consensus Study Report of ADVANCE COPY NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE BEFORE Monday, November 7, 2019 11:00 a.m. EST PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NNH17CB02B/80HQTR19F0043). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25569 Library of Congress Control Number OR Cataloging-in-Publication: Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2019 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. NASA’s Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25569. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

COMMITTEE TO ASSESS SCIENCE ACTIVATION MARGARET A. HONEY (Chair), New York Hall of Science, Corona, New York NETA A. BACHALL, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey BRONWYN BEVAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington WENDY GRAM, Consultant, Boulder, Colorado ROGERS HALL, Peabody College / Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee ABIGAIL JURIST LEVY, Education Development Center, Waltham, Massachusetts CATHRYN A. MANDUCA, Carleton College, Northfield, Minneapolis RAFI SANTO, New York University, New York, New York DENNIS SCHATZ, Pacific Science Center, Seattle, Washington MARK SHOWALTER, SETI Institute, Redwood City, California SUSAN SULLIVAN, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, Colorado BRYAN KENT WALLACE, Fisk University, Nashville, Tennessee MING-YING WEI, Retiree, College Park, Maryland JULIE YU, Exploratorium, San Francisco, California KENNE .A. DIBNER, Study Director TIFFANY E. TAYLOR, Associate Program Officer JESSICA COVINGTON, Senior Program Assistant HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director, Board on Science Education v PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION ADAM GAMORAN (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation (president), New York, New York MEGAN BANG, Northwestern University VICKI L. CHANDLER, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute SUNITA V. COOKE, MiraCosta College RUSH HOLT, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC CATHRYN A. MANDUCA, Carleton College JOHN C. MATHER, Webb Space Telescope, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center TONYA MATTHEWS, Michigan Science Center, Detroit, MI WILLIAM PENUEL, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder STEPHEN L. PRUITT, Southern Regional Education Board K. RENAE PULLEN, Caddo Parish Schools K. ANN RENNINGER, Swarthmore College MARCY H. TOWNS, Purdue University HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director vi PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Preface It is an honor to be asked to direct a Consensus Study Report for the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, and to be conducting this study at the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) makes this work both personally and professionally meaningful. NASA stands at the forefront of scientific discovery and exploration, and the agency’s willingness to leverage its expertise and deploy its engaging assets to advance learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is admirable. NASA’s work in the area of education and public engagement needs to be pursued with the same level of depth and care as its scientific research. There is a great deal that we know from the fields of behavioral, cognitive, and neuro sciences about how people learn. We know, for example, that engagement is key, not just in terms of interest, but in terms that are meaningful and relevant to learners and that build on and enhance their prior knowledge and skills. We know that for educational innovations such as technologies, curricula, visualizations, and data models, etc., to be effective, they need to engage learners actively and provide easy ways for novices to get started (low floor), as well as ways for learners to work on increasingly sophisticated projects over time (high ceiling). The recent National Academies study How People Learn II contains the most up-to-date information on individual and cultural variations in learning, as well as the broad range of sociocultural factors that impact how learning takes root. In short, we have an abundance of evidence on which to draw in designing the highest-impact learning opportunities. The National Academies’ consensus studies are designed to foster a rigorous process of debate, dialogue, and collective thinking about the issues at hand. They are deeply anchored in two distinct, but related kinds of expertise—what is known from published, peer-reviewed research studies, and what is embodied in the professional wisdom and experience of committee members. The process results in a report that reflects the deliberations, contributions, and consensus of all committee members. The Committee to Assess Science Activation was comprised of an extraordinarily talented group of individuals who brought to the table deep knowledge of relevant bodies of work in fields that included planetary science, earth science, space science, education policy, teaching and learning, collective impact, and science education, along with their good humor, dedication, and willingness to roll up their sleeves and accomplish a great deal in a very short amount of time. We were fortunate to have an extraordinary group of talented colleagues with whom to work on this project, and we thank each of them for their substantial contributions. We also wish to thank the leadership and staff of NASA’s Science Activation program, along with their education partners, all of whom participated in a number of meetings designed to help the committee understand their desired outcomes and where the opportunities and challenges reside. We know we speak for the entire committee when we say we appreciate their transparency, their willingness to field endless questions, and their patience in helping us understand the important motivations behind NASA’s investments in and commitment to this work. Finally, all National Academies projects are driven and supported by a team of extraordinarily talented staff and leaders. From organizing meetings, to managing committee logistics, to tracking conversations and decisions, to pushing our collective work to ensure that it would be as rigorous and comprehensive as possible, the staff are professionals who know how to deliver with care and quality. We thank all of them for their support and wisdom. vii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

We reflect all of the voices of the committee when we say that working on this project has been inspiring. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate is full of exceptional people doing transformative work. The agency’s desire to engage its people and use its resources to further the public’s—especially young people’s—understanding and love of science is a mission that will help ensure the importance of the agency’s work for generations to come. Margaret Honey Chair, Committee to Assess Science Activation Kenne A. Dibner Study Director viii PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Acknowledgments The Committee to Assess Science Activation was charged with providing a “concise” assessment of NASA’s Science Activation program and, as such, was asked to do the work of a full National Academies consensus study on a shortened timeline. In order to achieve this task, a number of people devoted time and energy to supporting our work. We owe a sincere debt of gratitude to all involved. First, we wish to extend a thank you to this project’s sponsors: Kristen Erickson of the NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Throughout this process, Kristen, her colleague Lin Chambers, and her other coworkers at NASA were on hand to provide resources, answer committee questions, and offer insight. We are profoundly grateful for their support. Over the course of the study, we heard from many individuals who were able to shed light on the Science Activation portfolio, or relevant external issues. We appreciate all SciAct awardees who took time out of their schedules to provide the committee with insight on their projects, and we also value the contributions of the scholars who presented to the committee so that we might bring in outside expertise. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Alphonse T. DeSena, Jr., ATD Discern, LLC, Arlington, VA; Cristin Dorgelo, President and CEO, Association of Science-Technology Centers; Noah Weeth Feinstein, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Wisconsin–Madison; Jill L. Karsten, Directorate for Geosciences, National Science Foundation; Makenzie Lystrup, Civil Space, Ball Aerospace; Christopher F. McKee, Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley; Cathy Olkin, Institute Scientist, Southwest Research Institute; Rajul Pandya, Thriving Earth Exchange, American Geophysical Union; Darryl N. Williams, Science and Education, The Franklin Institute; Laurence R. Young, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; and Susan A. Yoon, Teaching Learning and Leadership Division, University of Pennsylvania. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Michael Lach, The University of Chicago, and Claude Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. The committee wishes to extend its gratitude to the staff of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (DBASSE), in particular to Heidi Schweingruber, director of the Board on Science Education, whose strategic thinking and dedication helped ensure a timely and impactful report. To Tiffany Taylor, who went above and beyond in her supportive role to draft text, edit chapters, and serve as a full partner throughout this process ix PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

To Jessica Covington, whose expert and efficient administrative leadership enabled smooth meetings and report production. Kirsten Sampson Snyder of the DBASSE staff deftly guided us through the National Academies review process, and Rona Briere and Allie Boman provided invaluable editorial assistance. Yvonne Wise of the DBASSE staff oversaw the production of the report. Finally, the committee wishes to thank Margaret Honey, study chair, for her skilled leadership and clear vision on this tight timeline. Every once in a while, this process results in an unforeseen ancillary benefit: a lifelong friendship. It has been both a pleasure and an honor to work closely with Margaret, and this assessment is truly strengthened by her expertise and wisdom. Kenne A. Dibner Study Director Committee to Assess Science Activation x PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Contents Summary Sum-1 Introduction 1-1 Vision and Objectives 2-1 Characterizing the Current Portfolio 3-1 Assessing the Science Activation Portfolio: STEM Learning and Leveraging 4-1 NASA Assets Assessing the Science Activation Portfolio: Broadening Participation and Networks 5-1 Recommendations for Science Activation 6-1 References Ref-1 APPENDIXES A Science Activation Awardees App A -1 B Kristen Erickson’s Presentation to the Committee App B-1 C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff App C-1 xi PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is one of the United States’ leading federal science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) agencies and plays an important role in the landscape of STEM education. In 2015, NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) created the Science Activation (SciAct) program to increase the overall coherence of SMD’s education efforts, to support more effective, sustainable, and efficient use of SMD science discoveries for education, and to enable NASA scientists and engineers to engage more effectively and efficiently in the STEM learning environment with learners of all ages. SciAct is now transitioning into its second round of funding, and it is beneficial to review the program’s portfolio and identify opportunities for improvement.

NASA’s Science Activation Program: Achievements and Opportunities

assesses SciAct’s efforts towards meeting its goals. The key objectives of SciAct are to enable STEM education, improve U.S. scientific literacy, advance national education goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. This report describes and assesses the history, current status, and vision of the program and its projects. It also provides recommendations to enhance NASA’s efforts through the SciAct program.

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