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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25582.
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2019 N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 907 Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems Abdeldjelil Belarbi Mina Dawood Prakash Poudel Mahmoud Reda Hamidreza Tahsiri University of HoUston Houston, Texas Bora Gencturk University of soUtH California Los Angeles, California Sami H. Rizkalla nortH Carolina state University Raleigh, North Carolina Henry G. Russell Henry G. rUssell inC. Glenview, Illinois Subscriber Categories Bridges and Other Structures • Materials Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration

NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed, and implementable research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing state departments of transportation (DOTs) administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local or regional interest and can best be studied by state DOTs individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transporta- tion results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to high- way authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniques—the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRB’s recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRB’s relationship to the National Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of special- ists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transportation departments, by committees of AASHTO, and by the Federal Highway Administration. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Special Committee on Research and Innovation (R&I), and each year R&I’s recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Direc- tors and the National Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published research reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 907 Project 12-97 ISSN 2572-3766 (Print) ISSN 2572-3774 (Online) ISBN 978-0-309-48069-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2019947685 © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 12-97 at the Structural Research Laboratory of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Houston. Abdeldjelil Belarbi, Distinguished Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Houston Cullen College of Engineering, was the principal investigator. Technical contribu- tions and document review were provided by Dr. Wagdy Wassef of Complex Bridge Group. Technical assistance was provided by post-doctoral research associate, Dr. Bora Acun, and master’s students, Barry Adkins and Faranak Forouzannia. The full-scale beams tested in this study were produced at Heldenfels Enterprises, Inc., of San Marcos, Texas; the prisms tested in this study were produced at East Texas Precast of Hempstead, Texas. The producers of the prestressing CFRP provided guidance and support during the project period. CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP RESEARCH REPORT 907 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Lori L. Sundstrom, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Amir N. Hanna, Senior Program Officer Keyara Dorn, Program Coordinator Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Natalie Barnes, Associate Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 12-97 PANEL Field of Design—Area of Bridges Paul V. Liles, Jr., Georgia DOT (retired), Atlanta, GA (Chair) Matthew J. Chynoweth, Michigan DOT, Southfield, MI Joshua Shannon Dietsche, Wisconsin DOT, Madison, WI Jim Gutierrez, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Michael B. Twiss, New York State DOT (retired), Albany, NY Berhanu Woldemichael, Alabama DOT, Montgomery, AL Abdul-Hamid Zureick, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA Fassil Beshah, FHWA Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison

This report presents design guide specifications and material specifications for concrete bridge beams prestressed with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) systems. The specifications developed in this research were reviewed by the AASHTO Committee on Bridges and Structures and subsequently published as the AASHTO Guide Specifications for the Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Systems. The report also contains a set of design examples to illustrate the use of these guide specifications for pretensioned and post-tensioned concrete beams with different types and configurations of CFRP tendons. The information contained in the report will be of immediate interest to state bridge engineers and others involved in the different aspects of bridge design and construction. Use of CFRP for prestressing concrete bridge girders has gained some acceptance in the United States because of its potential for eliminating concerns associated with the corro- sion of prestressing steel and its structural features such as high strength-to-weight and high stiffness-to-weight ratios. The limited research demonstrating the viability of CFRP as an alternative to prestressing steel in bridge girders and the lack of nationally accepted design specifications have contributed to the limited application of CFRP systems in bridge construction. Thus, research was needed to review available information, conduct analytical and experimental investigations, and develop guide specifications for the design of concrete beams prestressed with CFRP systems for bridge applications. Such guide specifications will help highway agencies consider CFRP systems among the prestressing options for concrete bridge beams. Under NCHRP Project 12-97, “Guide Specification for the Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems,” the research team led by the University of Houston worked with the objective of developing a proposed guide specification, in AASHTO LRFD format, for the design of concrete beams prestressed with CFRP systems for bridge applications. To accomplish this objective, the research team reviewed the practices for using CFRP in prestressing applications and conducted experimental and analytical investigations to evaluate the behavior of beams prestressed with CFRP tendons under static and fatigue loading as well as the effects of environmental factors on CFRP properties and durability. Using the findings of this work, the research team developed guide specifica- tions for the design of concrete beams prestressed with CFRP systems together with material specifications. Recognizing that the design of concrete beams prestressed with CFRP systems has not been addressed in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or other AASHTO publications, the material specifications were incorporated into the design specifi- cations and published as the AASHTO Guide Specifications for the Design of Concrete F O R E W O R D By Amir N. Hanna Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

Bridge Beams Prestressed with Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Systems. Also, examples for the design of pretensioned and post-tensioned concrete beams with different types and configurations of CFRP tendons were prepared to illustrate the use of these guide specifications. This report summarizes the work performed under NCHRP Project 12-97 and includes Attachments A and B as well as Appendices A through F that provide further details on the different aspects of the research. The attachments and the appendices are not reproduced herein but are available online. Attachment A, the Proposed AASHTO LRFD Bridge Guide Specifications and Material Specifications for Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems, is available from AASHTO. Attachment B, the design examples, is available online at www.trb.org and can be found by searching for “NCHRP Research Report 907.” Appendices A through F are available on the NCHRP Project 12-97 webpage at https:// apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=3410.

1 Summary 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 2 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Research Objective 3 1.3 Research Plan and Methodology 3 1.4 Organization of the Report 6 Chapter 2 Literature Review and Current Design Practices 6 2.1 Current Applications of CFRP in Prestressing 6 2.2 Field Applications 7 2.3 Existing Analytical Models 12 2.4 Experimental Investigations Reported in Literature 20 2.5 Current Codes, Guidelines, and Specifications 26 2.6 Factors Affecting the Design of CFRP Prestressed Beams 30 Chapter 3 Research Results 30 3.1 Introduction 30 3.2 Results of Experimental Investigation 46 3.3 Results of the Finite Element Analysis 49 3.4 Evaluation of Proposed Design Methods 52 3.5 Reliability Analysis 56 Chapter 4 Research Findings and Products 56 4.1 Prestressing CFRP Characteristics 56 4.2 Jacking Stress Limitations 58 4.3 Prestress Losses 60 4.4 Fexural Design 61 4.5 Minimum Reinforcement 61 4.6 Resistance Factors 62 4.7 Design Guidelines, Material Specifications, and Design Examples 63 Chapter 5 Summary of Findings and Recommendations for Future Research 63 5.1 Summary of Findings 64 5.2 Recommendations for Future Research 66 Notations 68 References C O N T E N T S

73 Attachment A Proposed AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Guide Specifications and Material Specifications for Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems 74 Attachment B Design Examples 75 Appendices A Through F Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is becoming a recognized alternative to traditional construction materials in a wide range of civil engineering applications. An example of such applications is the use of CFRP cables or bars as prestressing tendons for concrete bridge girders, especially in aggressive environments where steel prestressing strands are susceptible to corrosion.

Despite their promise, CFRP prestressing tendons have not frequently been used for bridge construction in the United States; their use has been hampered by the lack of recognized design specifications.

NCHRP (National Cooperative Highway Research Program) Research Report 907: Design of Concrete Bridge Beams Prestressed with CFRP Systems proposes guidelines and presents research findings that are expected to advance and facilitate the use of CFRP systems in bridge applications. In addition, five design examples that illustrate the step-by-step use of the proposed guide specifications are provided.

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