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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

M-1 Appendix M. Conversion 2-Layer Model for Rigid Pavements Subroutine The conversion to concrete 2-layer model was programed to determine the subgrade k-value and radius of relative stiffness, based on pavement structure subroutine that will calculate the moment of inertia of the transformed section of the concrete slab and base course, interfacial degree of bonding, and equivalent thickness of concrete. The subgrade k-value can be determined by the ANN model with inputs variables that are listed in Table M.1. The degree of bonding from the pavement structure subroutine can be fed into the ANN model of subgrade k-value. The equivalent thickness from pavement structure subroutine and subgrade k-value will be used in the equation of the radius of relative stiffness to calculate the relative stiffness of slab relative to that of the foundation. The outputs of the subroutine will be supplied as inputs to the performance prediction in the current Pavement ME Design for concrete pavements. The conversion 2-layer subroutine outputs the models including:  Modulus of subgrade reaction model.  Radius of relative stiffness. Table M.1. Input Variables into Modulus of Subgrade Reaction Model. Input variables Description Unit Modulus[0] slab modulus psi Modulus[1] base modulus psi Modulus[2] subgrade modulus psi hs layer Poisson’s Ratio (slab and base) in hb thickness of base course in degree of bonding The equation of radius of relative stiffness based on the concept of equivalent thickness and subgrade k-value is given: 12 1 (M.1) where is the modulus of subgrade reaction; Es is the elastic modulus of the PCC; is the Poisson’s ratio of the PCC; heq is the slab-base equivalent thickness; and le is the radius of relative stiffness.

R-1 References 1 Shahji, S. 2006. Sensitivity Analysis of AASHTO’s 2002 Flexible and Rigid Pavement Design Methods. Master of Sc. in the Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering—College of Engineering and Computer Science—University of Central Florida. Orlando, FL. 2 Masad, S.A., and D.N. Little. 2004. Sensitivity Analysis of Flexible Pavement Response and AASHTO 2002 Design Guide to Properties of Unbound Layers. Research Report ICAR 504-1. International Center for Aggregates Research, Austin, TX. 3 Masad, S., D. Little, and E. Masad. 2006. “Analysis of Flexible Pavement Response and Performance Using Isotropic and Anisotropic Material Properties.” Journal of Transportation Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 132, No. 4, pp. 342–349. 4 Ashtiani, R.S. 2009. “Anisotropic Characterization and Performance Prediction of Chemically and Hydraulically Bounded Pavement Foundations.” PhD diss., Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 5 Witczak, M.W., D. Andrei, and W.N. Houston. 2000. “Resilient Modulus as Function of Soil Moisture—Summary of Predictive Models.” Development of the 2002 Guide for the Development of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures. NCHRP 1-37A, Inter Team Technical Report (Seasonal 1), Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. 6 Butalia, T.S., J. Huang, D.G. Kim, and F. Croft. 2003. “Effect of Moisture Content and Pore Water Pressure Buildup on Resilient Modulus of Cohesive Soils in Ohio.” ASTM Special Technical Publication, No. 1437, pp. 70–84. 7 Wolfe, W., and T. Butalia. 2004. Continued Monitoring of SHRP Pavement Instrumentation Including Soil Suction and Relationship with Resilient Modulus. Report No. FHWA/OH- 2004/007. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. 8 Gupta, S., A. Ranaivoson, T. Edil, C. Benson, and A. Sawangsuriya. 2007. Pavement Design Using Unsaturated Soil Technology. Report No. MN/RC-2007-11. Final Research Report submitted to Minnesota Department of Transportation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. 9 Cary, C.E., and C.E. Zapata. 2011. “Resilient Modulus for Unsaturated Unbound Materials.” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 615–638. 10 Cerni, G., F. Cardone, A. Virgili, and S. Camilli. 2012. “Characterisation of Permanent Deformation Behaviour of Unbound Granular Materials under Repeated Triaxial Loading.” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 79–87. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.07.066. 11 Adu-Osei, A., D.N. Little, and R.L. Lytton. 2001. “Cross-Anisotropic Characterization of Unbound Granular Materials.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the

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R-3 24 Jung, Y.S., D.G. Zollinger, and B.M. Ehsanul. 2012. “Improved Mechanistic-Empirical Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Design Approach with Modified Punchout Model.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2305, pp. 32–42. 25 Vandenbossche, J.M., S. Nassiri, L.C. Ramirez, and J.A. Sherwood. 2012. “Evaluating the Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Performance Models of the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide.” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 235–248. 26 Rao, C., and M.I. Darter. 2013. “Enhancements to Punchout Prediction Model in Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Procedure.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2367, pp. 132–141. 27 Jeong, J.H., and D.G. Zollinger. 2001. “Characterization of Stiffness Parameters in Design of Continuously Reinforced and Jointed Pavements.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1778, pp. 54–63. 28 Jung, Y.S., D.G. Zollinger, M. Won, and A.J. Wimsatt. 2009. Subbase and Subgrade Performance Investigation for Concrete Pavement. Research Report 6037-1. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 29 Cleveland, G.S., J.W. Button, and R.L. Lytton. 2002. Geosynthetics in Flexible and Rigid Pavement Overlay Systems to Reduce Reflection Cracking. Research Report 1777-1. Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX. 30 Lytton, R. L., F.-L. Tsai, S. I. Lee, R. Luo, S. Hu, and F. Zhou. 2010. NCHRP Report 669: Models for Predicting Reflection Cracking of Hot-Mix Asphalt Overlays. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C. 31 Byrum, C.R., and R.W. Perera. 2005. “The Effect of Faulting on IRI Values for Jointed Concrete Pavements.” Paper presented at the Proc. 8th International Conference on Concrete Pavements, International Society for Concrete Pavements, Bridgeville, PA, and Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 32 Bakhsh, K.N. 2014. Design Methodology for Subgrades and Bases under Concrete Roads and Parking Lots. PhD diss., Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 33 Ren, D.Y., L. Houben, and L. Rens. 2013. “Cracking Behavior of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements in Belgium Characterization of Current Design Concept.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board ,No. 2367, pp. 97–106. 34 Jung, Y.S., D.G. Zollinger, and A.J. Wimsatt. 2010. “Test Method and Model Development of Subbase Erosion for Concrete Pavement Design.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, Vol. 2154, pp. 22–31. 35 Jung, Y., D.G. Zollinger, B.H. Cho, M. Won, and A.J. Wimsatt. 2010. Subbase and Subgrade Performance Investigation and Design Guidelines for Concrete Pavement. Research Report No. FHWA/TX-12/0-6037-2. Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System,

R-4 College Station, TX. 36 Bakhsh, K.N., and D. Zollinger. 2014. “Faulting Prediction Model for Design of Concrete Pavement Structures.” Pavement Materials, Structures, and Performance, pp. 327–342. doi: 10.1061/9780784413418.033 37 Schwartz, C.W., R. Li, S. Kim, H. Ceylan, and K. Gopalakrishnan. 2011. Sensitivity Evaluation of MEPDG Performance Prediction. Final Report of NCHRP Project 1-47, University of Maryland and Iowa State University. Available at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP01-47_FR.pdf. 38 Vaillancourt, M., L. Houy, D. Perraton, and D. Breysse. 2014. “Variability of Subgrade Soil Rigidity and its Effects on the Roughness of Flexible Pavements: A Probabilistic Approach.” Materials and Structures, pp. 1–10. 39 Yu, S.Y., and P. Dakoulas. 1993. “General Stress-Dependent Elastic-Moduli for Cross- Anisotropic Soils.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 10, pp. 1568– 1586. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1993)119:10(1568) 40 Oh, J.H., R.L. Lytton, and E.G. Fernando. 2006. “Modeling of Pavement Response Using Nonlinear Cross-Anisotropy Approach.” Journal of Transportation Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 132, No. 6, pp. 458–468. 41 Khoury, N.N., and M.M. Zaman. 2004. “Correlation Between Resilient Modulus, Moisture Variation, and Soil Suction for Subgrade Soils.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1874, pp. 99–107. 42 Yang, S.-R., W.-H. Huang, and Y.-T. Tai. 2005. “Variation of Resilient Modulus with Soil Suction for Compacted Subgrade Soils.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1913, pp. 99–106. 43 Sawangsuriya, A., T.B. Edil, and P.J. Bosscher. 2008. “Modulus-Suction-Moisture Relationship for Compacted Soils.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 45, No. 7, pp. 973– 983. 44 Sawangsuriya, A., T.B. Edil, and C.H. Benson. 2009. “Effect of Suction on Resilient Modulus of Compacted Fine-Grained Subgrade Soils.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2101, pp. 82–87. Doi 10.3141/2101-10 45 Khoury, C., G.A. Miller, and Y.N. Abousleiman. 2010. “Effect of Suction Hysteresis on Resilient Modulus of Fine-grained Cohesionless Soil.” 8th Int. Conf. Bearing Capacity Roads, Railways, and Airfields, Univ. of Illinois–Urbana Champaign, Champaign, IL, pp. 71–78. 46 Vanapalli, S.K., and Z. Han. 2013. “Prediction of the Resilient Modulus of Unsaturated Fine Grained Soils.” Paper presented at the Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering, AETACE. 47 Li, Q., H.J. Lee, and S.Y. Lee. 2011. “Permanent Deformation Model Based on Shear

R-5 Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Development and Calibration.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2210, pp. 81–89. 48 Oh, J., E.G. Fernando, and R.L. Lytton. 2007. “Evaluation of Damage Potential for Pavements Due to Overweight Truck Traffic.” Journal of Transportation Engineering-ASCE, Vol.133, No. 5, pp. 308–317. 49 Velasquez, R., K. Hoegh, I. Yut, N. Funk, G. Cochran, M. Marasteanu, and L. Khazanovich. 2009. “Implementation of the MEPDG for New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures for Design of Concrete and Asphalt Pavements in Minnesota.” MnDOT Report No. MN/RC 2009- 06. University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, St. Paul. 50 Huang, Y.H. 1993. Pavement Analysis and Design: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 51 Seed, H.B., F.G. Mitry, C.L. Monismith, and C.K. Chan. 1967. NCHRP Report 35: Prediction of Flexible Pavement Deflections from Laboratory Repeated-Load Tests. HRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 52 Hicks, R.G., and C.L. Monismith. 1971. “Factors Influencing the Resilient Properties of Granular Materials.” In Highway Research Record 345, pp. 15–31. 53 Thompson, M.R., and R.L. Robnett. 1979. “Resilient Properties of Subgrade Soils.” Transportation Engineering Journal, ASCE, Vol. 105, No. TE1, pp. 71–89. 54 Drumm, E.C. 1990. “Estimation of Subgrade Resilient Modulus from Standard Tests.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 116, No 5, pp. 774–789. 55 Uzan, J. 1985. “Characterization of Granular Material.” In Transportation Research Record 1022, pp. 52–59. 56 Witczak, M.W. and J. Uzan. 1988. The University Airport Pavement Design System Report I of V: Granular Material Characterization. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Maryland, Silver Spring, MD. 57 Witczak, M.W. 2003. Harmonized Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Resilient Modulus for Flexible Pavement Design. Final Report of NCHRP Project 1-28A, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 58 Lade, P.V., and R.D. Nelson. 1987. “Modeling the Elastic Behavior of Granular Materials.” International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, Volume II, pp. 521–542. 59 Oloo, S.Y., and D.G. Fredlund. 1998. “The Application of Unsaturated Soil Mechanics Theory to the Design of Pavements.” In Proc. 5th Intl. Conf. on the Bearing Capacity of Roads and Airfields, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 1419–1428. 60 Lytton, R.L., J. Uzan, E.G. Fernando, R. Roque, D. Hiltunen, and S.M. Stoffels. 1993.

R-6 SHRP A-357: Development and Validation of Performance Prediction Models and Specifications for Asphalt Binders and Paving Mixes. National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 61 Lytton, R.L. 1995. “Foundations and Pavements on Unsaturated Soils.” Paper presented at the Proceedings of the First International Conference on Unsaturated Soil, Paris. 62 Liang, R. Y., S. Rabab’ah, and M. Khasawneh. 2008. “Predicting moisture-dependent resilient modulus of cohesive soils using soil suction concept.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 134, No. 1, pp. 34–40. 63 Oh, J.H., and E.G. Fernando. 2008. Develop of Thickness Design Tables Based on the M-E PDG. Research Report No. BDH10-1. Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX. 64 Al-Qadi, I.L., H. Wang, and E. Tutumluer. 2010. “Dynamic Analysis of Thin Asphalt Pavements by Using Cross-Anisotropic Stress-Dependent Properties for Granular Layer.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2154, pp. 156–163. 65 Tutumluer, E., and M.R. Thompson. 1997. “Anisotropic Modelling of Granular Bases in Flexible Pavements.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1577, pp. 18–26. 66 Gu, F., X. Luo, Y. Zhang, H. Sahin, and R.L. Lytton. 2015. “Modeling of Moisture-Sensitive and Stress-Dependent Nonlinear Cross-Anisotropic Behavior of Unbound Aggregates.” 67 Yau, A., and H.L. Von Quintus. 2002. Study of LTPP Laboratory Resilient Modulus Test Data and Response Characteristics. Report No. FHWA-RD-02-051. Federal Highway Administration Research, U.S. Department of Transportation. 68 ARA, Inc, 2004. Guide for Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New and Rehabilitated Pavement Structures. Final Report of NCHRP Project 1-37A: Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 69 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). 1993. Guide for Design of Pavement Structure, Volume I & II. Highway Sub-committee on Design, Washington, DC. 70 Kenis, W.J. 1977. Predictive Design Procedures, VESYS User’s Manual. Final Report, No. FHWA-RD-77-154. Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA. 71 Uzan, J. 2004. “Permanent Deformation in Flexible Pavements.” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 1, pp. 6–13. 72 Tseng, K.H., and R.L. Lytton. 1989. “Prediction of Permanent Deformation in Flexible Pavement Materials.” In Implication of Aggregates in the Design, Construction, and

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The performance of flexible and rigid pavements is known to be closely related to properties of the base, subbase, and/or subgrade. However, some recent research studies indicate that the performance predicted by this methodology shows a low sensitivity to the properties of underlying layers and does not always reflect the extent of the anticipated effect, so the procedures contained in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ (AASHTO’s) design guidance need to be evaluated.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 264: Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance proposes and develops enhancements to AASHTO's Pavement ME Design procedures for both flexible and rigid pavements, which will better reflect the influence of subgrade and unbound layers (properties and thicknesses) on the pavement performance.

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