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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25583.
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132 14. Sahin, H., F. Gu, Y. Tong, R. Luo, and R.L. Lytton. 2013. “Unsaturated Soil Mechanics in the Design and Performance of Pavements.” Advances in Unsaturated Soils, pp. 87–99. 15. Witczak, M.W. 2003. Harmonized Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Resilient Modulus for Flexible Pavement Design. Final Report of NCHRP Project 1-28A, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C. 16. Butalia, T.S., J. Huang, D.G. Kim, and F. Croft. 2003. “Effect of Moisture Content and Pore Water Pressure Buildup on Resilient Modulus of Cohesive Soils in Ohio.” ASTM Special Technical Publication, No. 1437, pp. 70–84. 17. Wolfe, W., and T. Butalia. 2004. Continued Monitoring of SHRP Pavement Instrumentation Including Soil Suction and Relationship with Resilient Modulus. Report No. FHWA/ OH-2004/007. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. 18. Gupta, S., A. Ranaivoson, T. Edil, C. Benson, and A. Sawangsuriya. 2007. Pavement Design Using Unsaturated Soil Technology. Report No. MN/RC-2007-11. Final Research Report submitted to Minnesota Department of Transportation, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. 19. Cary, C.E., and C.E. Zapata. 2011. “Resilient Modulus for Unsaturated Unbound Materials.” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 615–638. 20. Carpenter, S.H., and R.L. Lytton. 1977. Thermal Pavement Cracking in West Texas: Final Report. Research Report 18-4F. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 21. Hansen, W., and E.A. Jensen. 2001. Transverse Crack Propagation of JPCP as Related to PCC Toughness. Research Report: RC-1404. Michigan Department of Transportation, Lansing, MI. 22. Cleveland, G.S., J.W. Button, and R.L. Lytton. 2002. Geosynthetics in Flexible and Rigid Pavement Overlay Systems to Reduce Reflection Cracking. Research Report 1777-1. Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX. 23. Lytton, R.L., F.L. Tsai, S.I. Lee, R. Luo, S. Hu, and F. Zhou. 2010. NCHRP Report 669: Models for Predicting Reflection Cracking of Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC. 24. Jung, Y.S., and D.G. Zollinger. 2011. “New Laboratory-Based Mechanistic-Empirical Model for Faulting in Jointed Concrete Pavement.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2226, pp. 60–70. 25. Jeong, J.H., and D.G. Zollinger. 2001. “Characterization of Stiffness Parameters in Design of Continuously Reinforced and Jointed Pavements.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1778, pp. 54–63. 26. Jung, Y.S., and D.G. Zollinger. 2010. Advancement of Erosion Testing, Modeling, and Design of Concrete Pavement Subbase Layers. PhD diss., Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-08-8415. 27. Bakhsh, K.N., and D. Zollinger. 2014. “Faulting Prediction Model for Design of Concrete Pavement Structures.” Pavement Materials, Structures, and Performance, pp. 327–342. doi: 10.1061/9780784413418.033 28. Jung, Y.S., D.G. Zollinger, and B.M. Ehsanul. 2012. “Improved Mechanistic-Empirical Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Design Approach with Modified Punchout Model.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2305, pp. 32–42.

133 29. Vandenbossche, J.M., S. Nassiri, L.C. Ramirez, and J.A. Sherwood. 2012. “Evaluating the Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement Performance Models of the Mechanistic- Empirical Pavement Design Guide.” Road Materials and Pavement Design, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 235–248. 30. Rao, C., and M.I. Darter. 2013. “Enhancements to Punchout Prediction Model in Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide Procedure.” In Transportation Research Record, No. 2367, pp. 132–141. 31. Gu, F., X. Luo, Y. Zhang, H. Sahin, and R.L. Lytton. 2015. “Modeling of Moisture- Sensitive and Stress-Dependent Nonlinear Cross-Anisotropic Behavior of Unbound Aggregates.” 32. Ren, D.Y., L. Houben, and L. Rens. 2013. “Cracking Behavior of Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavements in Belgium Characterization of Current Design Concept.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2367, pp. 97–106. 33. Jung, Y.S., D.G. Zollinger, M. Won, and A.J. Wimsatt. 2009. Subbase and Subgrade Performance Investigation for Concrete Pavement. Research Report 6037-1. Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 34. Jung, Y.S., D.G. Zollinger, and A.J. Wimsatt. 2010. “Test Method and Model Development of Subbase Erosion for Concrete Pavement Design.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2154, pp. 22–31. 35. Byrum, C.R., and R.W. Perera. 2005. “The Effect of Faulting on IRI Values for Jointed Concrete Pavements.” Paper presented at the Proc. 8th International Conference on Concrete Pavements, International Society for Concrete Pavements, Bridgeville, PA, and Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 36. Bakhsh, K.N. 2014. Design Methodology for Subgrades and Bases under Concrete Roads and Parking Lots. PhD diss., Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 37. Jung, Y., D.G. Zollinger, B.H. Cho, M. Won, and A.J. Wimsatt. 2010. Subbase and Subgrade Performance Investigation and Design Guidelines for Concrete Pavement. Research Report No. FHWA/TX-12/0-6037-2. Texas Transportation Institute, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, TX. 38. Yu, S.Y., and P. Dakoulas. 1993. “General Stress-Dependent Elastic-Moduli for Cross- Anisotropic Soils.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 10, pp. 1568–1586. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9410(1993)119:10(1568) 39. Oh, J.H., R.L. Lytton, and E.G. Fernando. 2006. “Modeling of Pavement Response Using Nonlinear Cross-Anisotropy Approach.” Journal of Transportation Engineering-ASCE, Vol. 132, No. 6, pp. 458–468. 40. Khoury, N.N., and M.M. Zaman. 2004. “Correlation between Resilient Modulus, Moisture Variation, and Soil Suction for Subgrade Soils.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1874, pp. 99–107. 41. Yang, S.-R., W.-H. Huang, and Y.-T. Tai. 2005. “Variation of Resilient Modulus with Soil Suction for Compacted Subgrade Soils.” In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1913, No. 1, pp. 99–106. 42. Sawangsuriya, A., T.B. Edil, and P.J. Bosscher. 2008. “Modulus-Suction-Moisture Relationship for Compacted Soils.” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 45, No. 7, pp. 973–983.

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Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance Get This Book
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The performance of flexible and rigid pavements is known to be closely related to properties of the base, subbase, and/or subgrade. However, some recent research studies indicate that the performance predicted by this methodology shows a low sensitivity to the properties of underlying layers and does not always reflect the extent of the anticipated effect, so the procedures contained in the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials’ (AASHTO’s) design guidance need to be evaluated.

NCHRP Web-Only Document 264: Proposed Enhancements to Pavement ME Design: Improved Consideration of the Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Layers on Pavement Performance proposes and develops enhancements to AASHTO's Pavement ME Design procedures for both flexible and rigid pavements, which will better reflect the influence of subgrade and unbound layers (properties and thicknesses) on the pavement performance.

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