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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Changing Expectations for the K–12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace Committee on Understanding the Changing Structure of the K–12 Teacher Workforce Robert Floden, Amy Stephens, Layne Scherer, Editors Policy and Global Affairs Board on Higher Education and Workforce Division of Behavioral and Social Science and Education Board on Science Education A Consensus Study Report of PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (2018-7446). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-XXXXX-X International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-XXXXX-X Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25603 Library of Congress Control Number OR Cataloging-in-Publication: Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Changing Expectations for the K–12 Teachers: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25603. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS

Committee on Understanding the Changing Structure of the K–12 Teacher Workforce Robert E. Floden (Chair), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Anne Marie Bergen, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA Malcolm Butler, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL Marcy Garza Davis, John F. Kennedy Elementary School, Corpus Christi, TX Dan Goldhaber, American Institutes for Research and University of Washington, Seattle, WA Susan Gomez-Zwiep, California State University, Long Beach, CA Jason Grissom, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN Anne-Lise Halvorsen, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI Kara Jackson, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Bruce Johnson, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ Deena Khalil, Howard University, Washington, DC Judith Warren Little, University of California, Berkeley, CA Tiffany Neill, Oklahoma State Department of Education, Oklahoma City, OK Layne Scherer, Co-Study Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce Amy Stephens, Co-Study Director, Board on Science Education Kenne Dibner, Senior Program Officer, Board on Science Education Austen Applegate, Research Associate, Board on Higher Education and Workforce John Veras, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (since January 2019) Thomas Rudin, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce Heidi Schweingruber, Director, Board on Science Education PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS v

BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE Kumble R. Subbaswamy (Chair), University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA Angela Byars-Winston, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI Jaime Curtis-Fisk, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI Marielena DeSanctis, Broward College, Fort Lauderdale, FL Aprille J. Ericsson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD Joan Ferrini-Mundy, University of Maine, Orono, ME Gabriela Gonzalez, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA Tasha R. Inniss, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA Sally F. Mason, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA Douglas S. Massey, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ Richard K. Miller, Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA Kate Stoll, MIT Washington Office, Washington, DC Meghna Tare, University of Texas-Arlington, TX Mary Woolley, Research! America, Arlington, VA Thomas Rudin, Director PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS vi

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION Adam Gamoran (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation (president), New York, New York Megan Bang, Learning Sciences, Northwestern University Vicki L. Chandler, Dean of Faculty, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute Sunita V. Cooke, Superintendent/President, MiraCosta College Rush Holt, former Chief Executive Officer, American Association for the Advancement of Science Cathy Manduca, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tonya Matthews, STEM Learning Innovation, Wayne State University William Penuel, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder Stephen L. Pruitt, President, Southern Regional Education Board K. Renae Pullen, K-6 Science Curriculum-Instructional Specialist, Caddo Parish Schools, Louisiana K. Ann Renninger, Social Theory and Social Action, Swarthmore College Marcy H. Towns, Department of Chemistry, Purdue University Heidi Schweingruber, Director PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS vii

Acknowledgments This report would not have been possible without the many individuals who provided their expertise, including those who served on the committee as well as those who participated in discussions with the committee. We recognize their invaluable contributions to our work. The first thanks are to the committee members, for their passion, deep knowledge, and contributions to the study. This report was made possible by the important contributions of the Hewlett Foundation. We particularly thank Kent McGuire (Program Director, Education) and Charmaine Mercer (Program Officer, Education). Members of the committee benefited from discussion and presentation by many individuals who participated in our fact-finding meetings. • At the first meeting, we had the opportunity to talk with our contacts at the Hewlett Foundation, Kent McGuire and Charmaine Mercer, to get further clarity on the statement of task. We also heard from Chad Alderman (Bellweather Education Partners), Heather Hill (Harvard Graduate School of Education), and Elena Silva (New America Foundation) who spoke to the varied perspectives on the K-12 teacher and school leader workforce. • At the second meeting, the following topics were explored: o Overview of the Landscape by States Focused on Licensure, Mobility, and Reciprocity. Presenters included Stephanie Aragon (Education Commission of the States) and Elizabeth Ross (National Council on Teacher Quality). o Preparing Teachers in Light of Changing Expectations. Presenters included Keffrelyn Brown (University of Texas at Austin), Marybeth Gasman (University of Pennsylvania), and Cassandra Herring (Branch Alliance for Educator Diversity). o Workforce Trends in the Professionalization of Teaching. Presenters included Mary Dilworth (Editor, Millennial Teachers of Color) and James Wyckoff (University of Virginia). • The third meeting included two panels: o Panel 1 discussed Innovation in Teacher Education, including Charles Hughes (University of Central Florida) and Elizabeth van Es (University of California, Irvine). o Panel 2 described New Models and Evaluation. Panelists included Dan Coleman (Woodrow Wilson Academy of Teaching and Learning) and Kevin Bastian (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill). • At the last face-to-face meeting, the committee spoke with Marilyn Cochran-Smith (Boston College) and Leslie Fenwick (Howard University). The committee is very grateful for additional discussions with experts to include Richard Ingersoll (University of Pennsylvania), Lisa Dieker (University of Central Florida), and Peter Laipson (Woodrow Wilson Graduate School of Teaching & Learning). The committee is also appreciative of the efforts of Rebecca Morgan, senior librarian for the Resource Center at the National Academies who assisted the committee in pulling together the relevant bodies of PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS ix

literature for review. This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert Q. Berry, Department of Mathematics, University of Virginia; Lisa Dieker, TeachLivE and Lockheed Martin Academy, University of Central Florida; Dessynie Edwards, Department of Educational Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi; Michael J. Feuer, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University; Susan Moore Johnson, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Sarah S. Kavanagh, Teaching, Learning, and Leadership Division, University of Pennsylvania; David Monk, College of Education, The Pennsylvania State University; and Kenneth Ziechner, Teacher Education emeritus, University of Washington. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alan M. Lesgold, School of Education, University of Pittsburgh and Bruce Alberts, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. Thanks are also due to the project staff. Layne Scherer, senior program officer with the Board on Higher Education and Workforce, directed the study along with Amy Stephens, senior program officer for the Board on Science Education. Expert guidance was provided throughout the study by Kenne Dibner, senior program officer for the Board on Science Education. Alison Berger, senior program assistant with the Board on Higher Education and Workforce, managed the administrative tasks associated with getting the project started as well as the first meeting’s logistical and administrative needs. John Veras, senior program assistant with the Board on Higher Education and Workforce, managed the rest of the study’s logistical and administrative needs, along with helping to see the report through publication. Tom Rudin (Director of the Board on Higher Education and Workforce) and Heidi Schweingruber (Director of the Board on Science Education) provided thoughtful advice and many helpful suggestions throughout the entire study. Staff of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education also provided help: Laura Elisabeth Yoder substantially improved the readability of the report; Kirsten Sampson Snyder expertly guided the report through the report review process; and Yvonne Wise masterfully guided the report through production. PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS x

Table of Contents Summary S-1 Chapter 1. Introduction 1-1 Charge to the Committee, 1-1 Study Approach, 1-2 Study Process, 1-2 Assumptions, Key Concepts, and Challenges, 1-4 Major Data Sources, 1-5 Schools and Staffing Survey, 1-6 National Teacher and Principal Survey, 1-6 Civil Rights Data Collection, OSEP Annual Report to Congress, and Common Core of Data, 1-6 Report Organization, 1-7 References, 1-8 Chapter 2. Contextual Factors that Shape the Current Teacher Workforce 2-1 Demographics of the Teacher Workforce, 2-1 Changes Over Time, 2-3 Race and Ethnicity, 2-3 Gender and Age, 2-5 The Importance of a Diverse Teacher Workforce, 2-5 Student Diversity in the Classroom, 2-6 Race/Ethnicity, 2-6 Native Language and Country of Origin, 2-7 Socioeconomic Status, 2-8 Individuals with Disabilities, 2-9 Summary, 2-10 Federal Education Policy, 2-10 No Child Left Behind Act, 2-11 Race to the Top Program, 2-12 Every Students Succeeds Act, 2-12 Content Area Standards, 2-13 Summary, 2-13 References, 2-15 Chapter 3. Changing Expectations for Teaching and Learning 3-1 Increasing Emphasis on Deeper Learning, 3-2 Progression of Science Practices, 3-3 Progression of Mathematical Practices, 3-6 Progression of Literacy Practices, 3-8 Progression of Social Studies Practices, 3-10 Lack of Aligned Instructional Materials for Deeper Learning 3-12 Increasing Emphasis on the Role of Culture in Learning, 3-13 Advances in Technology and Family Communication, 315 PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS xi

Summary, 3-16 References, 3-18 Chapter 4. Trends and Developments in the Teacher Labor Market 4-1 Teacher Supply and Demand and Long-Standing Labor Market Misalignment, 4-2 Evidence of Changes to Prospective Teacher Labor Supply Over Time, 4-2 Factors that Contribute to Staffing Challenges, 4-4 Pathways into the Profession and the Localness of Teacher Labor Markets, 4-6 Teacher Supply and Traditional and Alternative Routes, 4-6 The Localness of Teacher Labor Markets, 4-7 Teacher Turnover, 4-8 Variation in Teacher Turnover by School Type, 4-9 Variation in Teacher Turnover by Teacher Characteristics, 4-10 Equity of Teacher Distribution, 4-11 The Desirability of the Teaching Profession, 4-12 Compensation, 4-12 Working Conditions, 4-14 Summary, 4-15 References, 4-16 Chapter 5. Preparing Teachers to Meet New Expectations: Preservice Teacher Education 5-1 A Sprawling Landscape, 5-2 The Scale and Variability of Preservice Teacher Education, 5-2 The Visions of Teaching and Teachers Conveyed by Programs, 5-5 Program Coherence and Integration, 5-7 Characteristics of Teacher Candidates, 5-8 Preparing Teachers to Engage Students in Deeper Learning, 5-9 Practice-Based Teacher Education, 5-10 The Field Experience, 5-15 Innovations in Teacher Preparation, 5-17 Clinical Experiences, 5-17 Technological Innovations, 5-18 Preparing Teacher Candidates to Work with Diverse Populations, 5-19 Mechanisms for Influencing Preservice Teacher Education, 5-22 Summary, 5-25 References, 5-26 Chapter 6. Opportunities for Learning Through In-service Professional Development 6-1 The Growth of Professional Development Opportunities, 6-2 Patterns of Teacher Participation, 6-3 Teachers’ Participation in PD, 6-3 Mathematics, Science, and Computer Science Teachers’ Participation in PD, 6-4 Emerging Forms of Professional Development, 6-5 Online Program and Platforms, 6-5 PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS xii

Learning in and from Practice Through Artifacts of Teaching and Learning, 6-7 Lesson Study, 6-7 Video-Based Collaborative Professional Development, 6-9 Professional Development that Supports Teachers to Meet Changes in Expectations and in Student Populations, 6-11 Impact of Content-Focused Professional Development, 6-12 Impact of Professional Development Targeted at Increasing Teachers’ Capacity to Work with a Diverse Student Population, 6-15 Summary, 6-18 References, 6-20 Chapter 7. Opportunities for Teacher Learning in the Workplace 7-1 Job-Embedded Professional Learning Opportunities in the Workplace, 7-2 Induction and Mentoring for Beginning Teachers, 7-2 Opportunities for Learning with and from Colleagues, 7-4 Instructional Coaching, 7-10 Building the Capacity of Teachers and Schools to Respond to New Expectations, 7-12 Synergies Between the Workplace and Structured Professional Development, 7- 13 The Significance of the School System, 7-15 Summary, 7-16 References, 7-17 Chapter 8. Conclusions, High Priority Issues Requiring Immediate Action, and Research Agenda 8-1 Conclusions, 8-1 Today’s Classrooms and Expectations for Teachers, 8-1 The Teacher Workforce, 8-2 Teacher Education in Response to Changing Expectations, 8-3 High Priority Issues Requiring Immediate Action, 8-6 Preparing Teachers to Meet Changing Expectations, 8-7 Diversifying the Teacher Workforce, 8-7 Ensuring the Equitable Distribution of Teachers, 8-8 Mapping Teacher Preparation to Teacher and Student Outcomes, 8-8 Research Agenda, 8-9 References, 8-13 Appendix Committee and Staff Biographies A-1 PREPUBLICATION COPY – UNCORRECTED PROOFS xiii

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Teachers play a critical role in the success of their students, both academically and in regard to long term outcomes such as higher education participation and economic attainment. Expectations for teachers are increasing due to changing learning standards and a rapidly diversifying student population. At the same time, there are perceptions that the teaching workforce may be shifting toward a younger and less experienced demographic. These actual and perceived changes raise important questions about the ways teacher education may need to evolve in order to ensure that educators are able to meet the needs of students and provide them with classroom experiences that will put them on the path to future success.

Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace explores the impact of the changing landscape of K-12 education and the potential for expansion of effective models, programs, and practices for teacher education. This report explores factors that contribute to understanding the current teacher workforce, changing expectations for teaching and learning, trends and developments in the teacher labor market, preservice teacher education, and opportunities for learning in the workplace and in-service professional development.

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