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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Changing Expectations
for the K–12 Teacher
Workforce

Policies, Preservice Education,
Professional Development, and
the Workplace

Committee on Understanding the Changing Structure
of the K–12 Teacher Workforce

Robert Floden, Amy Stephens, Layne Scherer, Editors

Policy and Global Affairs

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Board on Science Education

A Consensus Study Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation (2018-7446). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-49903-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-49903-8
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25603
Library of Congress Control Number: 2020934597

Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2020). Changing Expectations for the K–12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25603.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.

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Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

Image

Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.

Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.

For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

COMMITTEE ON UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF THE K–12 TEACHER WORKFORCE

ROBERT E. FLODEN (Chair), Michigan State University, East Lansing

ANNE MARIE BERGEN, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

MALCOLM BUTLER, University of Central Florida, Orlando

MARCY GARZA DAVIS, John F. Kennedy Elementary School, Corpus Christi, TX

DAN GOLDHABER, American Institutes for Research and University of Washington, Seattle

SUSAN GOMEZ-ZWIEP, California State University, Long Beach

JASON GRISSOM, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN

ANNE-LISE HALVORSEN, Michigan State University, East Lansing

KARA JACKSON, University of Washington, Seattle

BRUCE JOHNSON, University of Arizona, Tucson

DEENA KHALIL, Howard University, Washington, DC

JUDITH WARREN LITTLE, University of California, Berkeley

TIFFANY NEILL, Oklahoma State Department of Education, Oklahoma City

LAYNE SCHERER, Costudy Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

AMY STEPHENS, Costudy Director, Board on Science Education

KENNE DIBNER, Senior Program Officer, Board on Science Education

AUSTEN APPLEGATE, Research Associate, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

JOHN VERAS, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (since January 2019)

THOMAS RUDIN, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce

HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director, Board on Science Education

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE

KUMBLE R. SUBBASWAMY (Chair), University of Massachusetts, Amherst

ANGELA BYARS-WINSTON, University of Wisconsin–Madison

JAIME CURTIS-FISK, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI

MARIELENA DESANCTIS, Broward College, Fort Lauderdale, FL

APRILLE J. ERICSSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

JOAN FERRINI-MUNDY, University of Maine, Orono

GABRIELA GONZALEZ, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge

TASHA R. INNISS, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA

SALLY F. MASON, University of Iowa, Iowa City

DOUGLAS S. MASSEY, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ

RICHARD K. MILLER, Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA

KATE STOLL, MIT Washington DC Office

MEGHNA TARE, University of Texas at Arlington

MARY WOOLLEY, Research! America, Arlington, VA

THOMAS RUDIN, Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

BOARD ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

ADAM GAMORAN (Chair), William T. Grant Foundation, New York, NY

MEGAN BANG, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

VICKI L. CHANDLER, Minerva Schools at Keck Graduate Institute, San Francisco, CA

SUNITA V. COOKE, MiraCosta College, San Diego, CA

RUSH HOLT, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC

CATHY MANDUCA, Carleton College, Northfield, MN

JOHN MATHER, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD

TONYA MATTHEWS, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

WILLIAM PENUEL, School of Education, University of Colorado Boulder

STEPHEN L. PRUITT, Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA

K. RENAE PULLEN, Caddo Parish Schools, Shreveport, LA

K. ANN RENNINGER, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA

MARCY H. TOWNS, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

HEIDI SCHWEINGRUBER, Director

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

Acknowledgments

This report would not have been possible without the many individuals who provided their expertise, including those who served on the committee as well as those who participated in discussions with the committee. We recognize their invaluable contributions to our work. The first thanks are to the committee members, for their passion, deep knowledge, and contributions to the study.

This report was made possible with support from the Hewlett Foundation. We particularly thank Kent McGuire (program director, Education) and Charmaine Mercer (program officer, Education).

Members of the committee benefited from discussion and presentation by many individuals who participated in our fact-finding meetings.

  • At the first meeting, we had the opportunity to talk with our contacts at the Hewlett Foundation, Kent McGuire and Charmaine Mercer, to get further clarity on the statement of task. We also heard from Chad Alderman (Bellweather Education Partners), Heather Hill (Harvard Graduate School of Education), and Elena Silva (New America Foundation) who spoke to the varied perspectives on the K–12 teacher and school leader workforce.
  • At the second meeting, the following topics were explored:
    • Overview of the Landscape by States Focused on Licensure, Mobility, and Reciprocity. Presenters included Stephanie Aragon (Education Commission of the States) and Elizabeth Ross (National Council on Teacher Quality).
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×
    • Preparing Teachers in Light of Changing Expectations. Presenters included Keffrelyn Brown (University of Texas at Austin), Marybeth Gasman (University of Pennsylvania), and Cassandra Herring (Branch Alliance for Educator Diversity).
    • Workforce Trends in the Professionalization of Teaching. Presenters included Mary Dilworth (Editor, Millennial Teachers of Color) and James Wyckoff (University of Virginia).
  • The third meeting included two panels:
    • Panel 1 discussed Innovation in Teacher Education, including Charles Hughes (University of Central Florida) and Elizabeth van Es (University of California, Irvine).
    • Panel 2 described New Models and Evaluation. Panelists included Dan Coleman (Woodrow Wilson Academy of Teaching and Learning) and Kevin Bastian (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill).
  • At the last face-to-face meeting, the committee spoke with Marilyn Cochran-Smith (Boston College) and Leslie Fenwick (Howard University).

The committee is grateful for additional discussions with experts to include Richard Ingersoll (University of Pennsylvania), Lisa Dieker (University of Central Florida), and Peter Laipson (Woodrow Wilson Graduate School of Teaching & Learning). The committee is also appreciative of the efforts of Rebecca Morgan, senior librarian for the Resource Center at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, who assisted the committee in pulling together the relevant bodies of literature for review.

This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Deborah Lowenberg Ball, School of Education, University of Michigan; Robert Q. Berry, Department of Mathematics, University of Virginia; Lisa Dieker, TeachLivE™ and Lockheed Martin Mathematics and Science Academy/University of Central Florida; Dessynie Edwards, Department of Educational Leadership, Curriculum and Instruction, Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi; Michael J. Feuer, Graduate School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University; Susan Moore Johnson, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University; Sarah S. Kavanagh,

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×

Teaching, Learning, and Leadership Division, University of Pennsylvania; David Monk, College of Education, The Pennsylvania State University; and Kenneth Ziechner, Teacher Education (emeritus), University of Washington.

Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alan M. Lesgold, School of Education, University of Pittsburgh, and Bruce Alberts, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.

Thanks are also due to the project staff. Kenne Dibner, senior program officer, Board on Science Education (BOSE), provided expert guidance throughout the study. Alison Berger, senior program assistant, Board on Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW), managed the administrative tasks associated with getting the project started, as well as the first meeting’s logistical and administrative needs. John Veras, senior program assistant with BHEW, managed the rest of the study’s logistical and administrative needs, along with helping to see the report through publication. Tom Rudin, director, BHEW, and Heidi Schweingruber, director, BOSE, provided thoughtful advice and many helpful suggestions throughout the entire study.

Staff of the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education also provided help: Laura Elisabeth Yoder substantially improved the readability of the report; Kirsten Sampson Snyder expertly guided the report through the report review process; and Yvonne Wise masterfully guided the report through production.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25603.
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Teachers play a critical role in the success of their students, both academically and in regard to long term outcomes such as higher education participation and economic attainment. Expectations for teachers are increasing due to changing learning standards and a rapidly diversifying student population. At the same time, there are perceptions that the teaching workforce may be shifting toward a younger and less experienced demographic. These actual and perceived changes raise important questions about the ways teacher education may need to evolve in order to ensure that educators are able to meet the needs of students and provide them with classroom experiences that will put them on the path to future success.

Changing Expectations for the K-12 Teacher Workforce: Policies, Preservice Education, Professional Development, and the Workplace explores the impact of the changing landscape of K-12 education and the potential for expansion of effective models, programs, and practices for teacher education. This report explores factors that contribute to understanding the current teacher workforce, changing expectations for teaching and learning, trends and developments in the teacher labor market, preservice teacher education, and opportunities for learning in the workplace and in-service professional development.

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