National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 7 Framework for Improving Birth Outcomes Across Birth Settings
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 204
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 205
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 206
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 207
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 208
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 210
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 214
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 215
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 216
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 217
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 218
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 219
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 220
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 221
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 222
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 223
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 224
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 225
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 226
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 227
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 228
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 229
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 230
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 231
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 232
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 233
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 234
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 235
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 236
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 237
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 238
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 239
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 240
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 241
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 242
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 243
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 244
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 245
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25636.
×
Page 246

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS References Abuya, T., Warren, C.E., Miller, N., Njuki, R., Ndwiga, C., Maranga, A., Mbehero, F., Njeru, A., and Bellows, B. (2015). Exploring the prevalence of disrespect and abuse during childbirth in Kenya. PLOS One, 10(4), p. e0123606. Acevedo-Garcia, D., Soobader, M.J., and Berkman, L.F. (2007). Low birthweight among US Hispanic/Latino subgroups: the effect of maternal foreign-born status and education. Social science and medicine, 65(12), pp. 2503–2516. Acevedo-Garcia, D., and Stone, L.C. (2008). State variation in health insurance coverage for U.S. citizen children of immigrants. Health Affairs, 27(2), pp. 434–446. Admon, L.K., Bart, G., Kozhimannil, K.B., Richardson, C.R., Dalton, V.K., and Winkelman, T.N. (2019). Amphetamine- and opioid-affected births: incidence, outcomes, and costs, United States, 2004–2015. American Journal of Public Health, 109(1), pp. 148–154. Aetna. (2019). Home Births. Available: http://www.aetna.com/cpb/medical/data/300_399/0329.html. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2011). TeamSTEPPS©: National Implementation. Available: http://teamstepps.ahrq.gov. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2016). Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Available: https://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/inpatient. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2018). National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report. Available: https://www.ahrq.gov/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/research/findings/nhqrdr/2018qdr-final.pdf. Aiken, L.H., Sermeus, W., Van den Heede, K., Sloane, D.M., Busse, R., McKee, M., Bruyneel, L., Rafferty, A.M., Griffiths, P., Moreno-Casbas, M.T., and Tishelman, C. (2012). Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: Cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States. The BMJ, 344, p. e1717. Aizer, A. (2011). Poverty, violence, and health the impact of domestic violence during pregnancy on newborn health. Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), pp. 518–538. Aizer, A., and Currie, J. (2014). The intergenerational transmission of inequality: Maternal disadvantage and health at birth. Science, 344(6186), pp. 856–861. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. (2019). Annual Alaskan Births (2014–2018 Average). Available: https://alaska- dhss.maps.arcgis.com/apps/MapSeries/index.html?appid=6b6e14aa8c764e21ae96e94b25d0ad de. Alcalay, R., Ghee, A., and Scrimshaw, S. (1993). Designing prenatal care messages for low- income Mexican women. Public Health Reports, 108(3), p. 354. Alderdice, F., Henderson, J., Opondo, C., Lobel, M., Quigley, M., and Redshaw, M. (2019). Psychosocial factors that mediate the association between mode of birth and maternal postnatal adjustment: Findings from a population-based survey. BMC Women’s Health, 19(1), p. 42. Alhusen, J.L., Ray, E., Sharps, P., and Bullock, L. (2015). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: Maternal and neonatal outcomes. Journal of Women’s Health, 24(1), pp. 100–106. Alhusen, J.L., Bower, K.M., Epstein, E., and Sharps, P. (2016). Racial Discrimination and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Integrative Review. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 61(6), pp. 707–720. Alliman, J., and Phillippi, J.C. (2016). Maternal outcomes in birth centers: An integrative review R-1

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS of the literature. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 61(1), pp. 21–51. Alliman, J., Stapleton, S.R., Wright, J., Bauer, K., Slider, K., and Jolles, D. (2019). Strong Start in birth centers: Sociodemographic characteristics, care processes, and outcomes for mothers and newborns. Birth, 46(2), pp. 234–243. Alston, C., Berger, Z., Bownlee, S., Elwyn, G, Fowler, F. Jr., Hall, L.K, Montori, V.M., Moulton, B., Paget, L., Haviland-Shebel, B., Singerman, R., Walker, J., Wynia, M.K., and Henderson, D. (2014). Shared Decision-Making Strategies for Best Care: Patient Decision Aids. Available: https://nam.edu/perspectives-2014-shared-decision-making-strategies-for-best- care-patient-decision-aids. American Academy of Physicians Assistants. (2019). Become a PA. Available: https://www.aapa.org/career-central/become-a-pa. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017). Guidelines for Perinatal Care (8th ed.). American Academy of Pediatrics: Elk Grove Village, IL. American Association of Birth Centers. (2016a). Birth Center Definitions. Available: https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.birthcenters.org/resource/resmgr/about_aabc_- _documents/Birth_Center_Definitions-12.pdf. American Association of Birth Centers. (2016b). The Birth Center Experience. Available: https://www.birthcenters.org/page/bc_experience. American Association of Birth Centers. (2016c). What is a Birth Center? Available: https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.birthcenters.org/resource/resmgr/About_AABC_- _Documents/aabc_press_kit.pdf. American Association of Birth Centers. (2016d). Birth Center Regulations. Available: https://www.birthcenters.org/page/bc_regulations. American Association of Birth Centers. (2016e). Will My Insurance Pay for Birth Center Care? Available: https://www.birthcenters.org/page/insurance_coverage. American Association of Birth Centers. (2017). Standards for Birth Centers. Available: https://cdn.ymaws.com/www.birthcenters.org/resource/resmgr/AABC-STANDARDS- RV2017.pdf. American Association of Birth Centers. (2019). What Does Accreditation Mean? Available: https://www.birthcenteraccreditation.org/find-accredited-birth-centers/accreditation-is-the- mark-of-quality. American Association of Nurse Practitioners. (2019). Nurse Practitioners: Improving Patient Outcomes for Opioid Use Disorder. Available: https://storage.aanp.org/www/documents/advocacy/NPs-Improving-Patient-Outcomes-for- OUD.pdf. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (n.d.a). Pathways to Midwifery Education. Available: https://portal.midwife.org/education/education-pathway?reload=timezone. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (n.d.b). Midwives and Medicare after Health Care Reform. Available: http://www.midwife.org/Midwives-and-Medicare-after-Health-Care- Reform. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (n.d.c). ACME Accredited Programs. Available: https://portal.midwife.org/education/accredited-programs?reload=timezone. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2009). ACOG Endorses Full Equity for CNM and CM Reimbursement under Medicare. Available: https://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000006564/ACOG- R-2

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS SupportofACNM061209.pdf. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2011). Definition of Midwifery and Scope of Practice of Certified Nurse-Midwives and Certified Midwives. Available: https://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000007043/Definition-of- Midwifery-and-Scope-of-Practice-of-CNMs-and-CMs-Feb-2012.pdf. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2015). ACNM Department of Advocacy and Government Affairs: Grassroots Advocacy Resources. Available: http://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/cclibraryfiles/filename/000000005600/acnmstatefactsheet s8-21-15.pdf. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2016). Shared Decision Making in Midwifery Care. Available: http://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ACNMLibraryData/UPLOADFILENAME/00000000030 5/Shared-Decision-Making-in-Midwifery-Care-10-13-17.pdf. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2017a). Comparison of Certified Nurse-Midwives, Certified Midwives, Certified Professional Midwives Clarifying the Distinctions Among Professional Midwifery Credentials in the U.S. Available: https://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ccLibraryFiles/FILENAME/000000006807/FINAL- ComparisonChart-Oct2017.pdf. American College of Nurse Midwives. (2017b). The American College of Nurse-Midwives Reducing Primary Cesareans Project Welcomes Three New Hospitals. Available: https://www.midwife.org/RPC-welcomes-new-hospitals. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2018). Quick Reference: Practice Environments for Certified Nurse-Midwives as of June 2018. Available: https://campaignforaction.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/08/Quick-Reference-Practice-Environment-as-of-June-2018.jpg. American College of Nurse-Midwives. (2019). Essential Facts about Midwives. Available: http://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/cclibraryfiles/filename/000000007486/EssentialFactsAbo utMidwives-UPDATED.pdf. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (n.d.). How ACOG is Combating Maternal Mortality. Available: https://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/ACOG-on-the- Record/Eliminate-Preventable-Maternal-Mortality/How-ACOG-is-Combating-Maternal- Mortality?IsMobileSet=false. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Intimate partner violence. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion, 518. Available: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee- on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Intimate-Partner-Violence?IsMobileSet=false. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Health disparities in rural women. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee Opinion, 586, pp. 384–388. Available: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Committee- Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Health-Disparities-in-Rural- Women?IsMobileSet=false. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016a). Refusal of medically recommended treatment during pregnancy: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists committee opinion, 664. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(6), pp. e175–182. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2016b). ACOG Statement on the U.S. MERA Bridge Certificate. Available: https://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News- Room/Statements/2016/ACOG-Statement-on-the-US-MERA-Bridge-Certificate. R-3

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017a). Emergent therapy for acute-onset, severe hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period: ACOG committee opinion, 692. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 129(4), p. e90. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017b). Opioid use and opioid use disorder in pregnancy. ACOG Committee Opinion, 711. Available: https://www.acog.org/- /media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric-Practice/co711.pdf?dmc=1. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017c). CPM Licensure Legislation: Education Standards. Available: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Departments/State- Legislative-Activities/2017CPMLicensureLaws-EducationStandards.pdf. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018a). Presidential task force on redefining the postpartum visit. ACOG Committee Opinion, 736. Available: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric- Practice/co736.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20190222T1814547421. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018b). AIM Program Awarded Millions to Expand Efforts to Reduce Maternal Mortality and Morbidity. Available: https://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/News-Releases/2018/AIM-Program- Maternal-Mortality-and-Morbidity?IsMobileSet=false. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2018c). Gestational diabetes mellitus: ACOG practice bulletin, 190. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(2), pp. e49–e64. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2018d). Mode of term singleton breech delivery: ACOG committee opinion, 745. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(2), pp. e60–e63. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2018e). Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia: ACOG practice bulletin, 202. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 133(1), pp. e1–e25. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019a). Obstetric Care Consensus: Safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery, reaffirmed 2019. Available: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Obstetric-Care-Consensus- Series/Safe-Prevention-of-the-Primary-Cesarean-Delivery. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019b). Levels of Maternal Care. Available: https://www.acog.org/Clinical-Guidance-and-Publications/Obstetric-Care- Consensus-Series/Levels-of-Maternal-Care?IsMobileSet=false. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019c). American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Release Updated Guidance to Help Hospitals Provide Risk Appropriate Maternal Care. Available: https://www.acog.org/About-ACOG/News-Room/News-Releases/2019/ACOG-and-SMFM- Release-Updated-Guidance-to-Help-Hospitals-Provide-Risk-Appropriate-Maternal- Care?IsMobileSet=false. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019d). Emergent therapy for acute-onset, severe hypertension during pregnancy and the postpartum period: ACOG committee opinion, 767. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 133(2), pp. e174–80. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019e). Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: ACOG practice bulletin, 205. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 133(2), pp. e110–e127. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2019f). Approaches to Limit Intervention During Labor and Birth: ACOG Committee Opinion, 766. Available: https://www.acog.org/- /media/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Obstetric- Practice/co766.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20190204T2356061672. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. R-4

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS (2014). Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery: Obstetric care consensus 1. Available: https://www.acog.org/-/media/Obstetric-Care-Consensus-Series/oc001.pdf. American Diabetes Association. (2019). Management of diabetes in pregnancy: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2019. Diabetes Care, 42(1), pp. S165–S172. American Medical Association. (2017). State law chart: Nurse practitioner prescriptive authority. Available: https://www.ama-assn.org/media/14406/download. American Public Health Association. (1982). Guidelines for Licensing and Regulating Birth Centers. Available: https://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy- statements/policy-database/2014/07/10/13/29/guidelines-for-licensing-and-regulating-birth- centers. American Public Health Association. (2019). Community Health Workers. Available: https://www.apha.org/apha-communities/member-sections/community-health-workers. Ananth, C.V. (2005). Perinatal epidemiologic research with vital statistics data: Validity is the essential quality. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 193(1), pp. 5–6. Anderson, L.M., Scrimshaw, S.C., Fullilove, M.T., and Fielding, J.E. (2003). The Community Guide’s model for linking the social environment to health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(3), 12–20. Andreyeva, T., Puhl, R.M., and Brownell, K.D. (2008). Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, 1995–1996 through 2004–2006. Obesity, 16(5), pp. 1129– 1134. Angelini, D., and Howard, E. (2014). Obstetric triage: A systematic review of the past fifteen years 1998–2013. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 39(5), pp. 284–297. Arabin, B., and Baschat, A.A. (2017). Pregnancy: An underutilized window of opportunity to improve long-term maternal and infant health: An appeal for continuous family care and interdisciplinary communication. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 5, p. 69. Artiga, S. and Diaz, M. (2019). Health Coverage and Care of Undocumented Immigrants. Available: https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/health-coverage-and-care-of- undocumented-immigrants. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2015). From the Bottom to the Top: How Alaska Became a Leader in Perinatal Regionalization. Available: http://www.astho.org/Programs/Maternal-and-Child-Health/Documents/From-the-Bottom-to- the-Top--How-Alaska-Became-a-Leader-in-Perinatal-Regionalization. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. (2018). State Policy Approaches to Incorporating Doula Services into Maternal Care. Available: https://www.astho.org/StatePublicHealth/State-Policy-Approaches-to-Incorporating-Doula- Services-into-Maternal-Care/08-09-18. Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2010). Guidelines for professional registered nurse staffing for perinatal units. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 40(1), pp. 131–134. Available: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552- 6909.2010.01214.x Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2015). Maternal Fetal Triage Index. Available: https://www.awhonn.org/page/MFTI. Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. (2018). Continuous labor support for every woman. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 47(1), pp. 73–74. Austin, A., Langer, A., Salam, R.A., Lassi, Z.S., Das, J.K., and Bhutta, Z.A. (2014). Approaches to improve the quality of maternal and newborn health care: An overview of the R-5

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS evidence. Reproductive Health, 11(2), p. S1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2019). Australia’s Mothers and Babies. Available: https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/2a0c22a2-ba27-4ba0-ad47-ebbe51854cd6/aihw-per-100- in-brief.pdf.aspx?inline=true. Avery, M.D., Bell, A.D., Bingham, D., Corry, M.P., Delbanco, S., Gullo, S.L., Ivory, C.H., Jennings, J.C., Kennedy, H.P., Kozhimannil, K.B., Leeman, L., Lothian, J.A., Miller, H.D., Ogburn, T., Romano, A., Sakala, C., and Shah, N.T. (2018). Blueprint for Advancing High- Value Maternity Care Through Physiologic Childbearing. Washington, DC: National Partnership for Women and Families. Available: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/blueprint. Bachilova, S., Czuzoj-Shulman, N., and Abenhaim, H.A. (2018). Effect of maternal and pregnancy risk factors on early neonatal death in planned home births delivering at home. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, 40(5), pp. 540–546. Bailey, J. (2017). Birth outcomes for women using freestanding birth centers in Aukland, New Zealand. Birth, 44(3), pp. 246–251. Ball, C., Hauck, Y., Kuliukas, L., Lewis, L., and Doherty, D. (2016). Under scrutiny: Midwives’ experience of intrapartum transfer from home to hospital within the context of a planned homebirth in Western Australia. Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare, 8, pp. 88–93. Ball, J.E., Bruyneel, L., Aiken, L.H., Sermeus, W., Sloane, D.M., Rafferty, A.M., Lindqvist, R., Tishelman, C., Griffiths, P. and RN4Cast Consortium. (2018). Post-operative mortality, missed care and nurse staffing in nine countries: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 78, pp. 10–15. Barclay, L., Kornelsen, J., Longman, J., Robin, S., Kruske, S., Kildea, S., Pilcher, J., Martin, T., Grzybowski, S., Donoghue, D. and Rolfe, M. (2016). Reconceptualising risk: Perceptions of risk in rural and remote maternity service planning. Midwifery, 38, pp. 63–70. Bateman, B.T., Shaw, K.M., Kuklina, E.V., Callaghan, W.M., Seely, E.W., and Hernández-Díaz, S. (2012). Hypertension in women of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES 1999– 2008. PLOS One, 7(4), p. e36171 Bauer, K., Bushman, J.S., and Lawlor, M. (n.d). Letter to CMS on Birth Center Regulation. Available: https://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000005105/AABC-ACNM- NACPM-LettertoCMSonBirthCenterRegulation.pdf. Becker, M., Weinberger, T., Chandy, A., and Schmukler, S. (2016). Depression during pregnancy and postpartum. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(3), p. 32. Bell, A.F. and Andersson, E. (2016). The birth experience and women’s postnatal depression: A systematic review. Midwifery, 39, pp. 112–123. Bell, A.D., Joy, S., Gullo, S., Higgins, R., and Stevenson, E. (2017). Implementing a systematic approach to reduce cesarean birth rates in nulliparous women. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 130(5), pp. 1082–1089. Benatar, S., Garrett, A.B., Howell, E., and Palmer, A. (2013). Midwifery care at a freestanding birth center: A safe and effective alternative to conventional maternity care. Health Services Research, 48(5), pp. 1750–1768. Benedetti, T.J., Baldwin, L.M., Skillman, S.M., Andrilla, C.H.A., Bowditch, E., Carr, K.C., and Myers, S.J. (2006). Professional liability issues and practice patterns of obstetric providers in Washington State. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 107(6), pp. 1238–1246. Bennett, H.A., Einarson, A., Taddio, A., Koren, G., and Einarson, T.R. (2004). Prevalence of R-6

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS depression during pregnancy: Systematic review. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 103(4), pp. 698–709. Berhan, Y., and Haileamlak, A. (2016). The risks of planned vaginal breech delivery versus planned caesarean section for term breech birth: A meta-analysis including observational studies. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 123(1), pp. 49–57. Berwick, D.M. (2002). A user’s manual for the IOM’s ‘Quality Chasm’ report. Health Affairs, 21(3), pp. 80–90. Birthplace in England Collaborative Group. (2011). Perinatal and maternal outcomes by planned place of birth for healthy women with low risk pregnancies: The Birthplace in England national prospective cohort study. The BMJ, 343, p. d7400. Blix, E., Huitfeldt, A. S., Øian, P., Straume, B., and Kumle, M. (2012). Outcomes of planned home births and planned hospital births in low-risk women in Norway between 1990 and 2007: A retrospective cohort study. Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare, 3(4), pp. 147–153. Blix, E., Kumle, M., Kjærgaard, H., Øian, P., and Lindgren, H.E. (2014). Transfer to hospital in planned home births: A systematic review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14(1), p. 179 Blix, E., Kumle, M.H., Ingversen, K., Huitfeldt, A.S., Hegaard, H.K., Ólafsdóttir, Ó.Á., Øian, P., and Lindgren, H. (2016). Transfers to hospital in planned home birth in four Nordic countries: A prospective cohort study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 95(4), pp. 420– 428. Bloom, K.C., Bednarzyk, M.S., Devitt, D.L., Renault, R.A., Teaman, V., and Van Loock, D.M. (2004). Barriers to prenatal care for homeless pregnant women. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(4), pp. 428–435. Blumenshine, P., Egerter, S., Barclay, C.J., Cubbin, C., and Braveman, P. (2010). Socioeconomic disparities in adverse birth outcomes: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 39(3), pp. 263–272. Bohren, M.A., Hofmeyr, G.J., Sakala, C., Fukuzawa, R.K., and Cuthbert, A. (2017). Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7. Bohren, M.A., Berger, B.O., Munthe‐Kaas, H., and Tunçalp, Ö. (2019). Perceptions and experiences of labour companionship: A qualitative evidence synthesis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3. Bolten, N., De Jonge, A., Zwagerman, E., Zwagerman, P., Klomp, T., Zwart, J.J., and Geerts, C.C. (2016). Effect of planned place of birth on obstetric interventions and maternal outcomes among low-risk women: A cohort study in the Netherlands. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16(1), p. 329. Bossano, C.M., Townsend, K.M., Walton, A.C., Blomquist, J.L., and Handa, V.L. (2017). The maternal childbirth experience more than a decade after delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 217(3), p. 342e1. Boucher, D., Bennett, C., McFarlin, B., and Freeze, R. (2009). Staying home to give birth: Why women in the United States choose home birth. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 54(2), pp. 119–126. Bovbjerg, M.L., Cheyney, M., Brown, J., Cox, K.J., and Leeman, L. (2017). Perspectives on risk: Assessment of risk profiles and outcomes among women planning community birth in the United States. Birth, 44(3), pp. 209–221. Boyko, E. (2013). Observational Research Opportunities and Limitations. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 27(6), pp. 642–648. Braveman, P., and Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: It’s time to consider the R-7

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS causes of the causes. Public Health Reports, 129(1, suppl2), pp. 19–31. Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Chideya, S., Marchi, K.S., Metzler, M., and Posner, S. (2005). Socioeconomic status in health research: One size does not fit all. Journal of the American Medical Association, 294(22), pp. 2879–2888. Braveman, P., Marchi, K., Egerter, S., Kim, S., Metzler, M., Stancil, T., and Libet., M. (2010). Poverty, near-poverty, and hardship around the time of pregnancy. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(1), pp. 20–35. Braveman, P.A., Egerter, S.A., Woolf, S.H., and Marks, J.S. (2011). When do we know enough to recommend action on the social determinants of health? American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(1), pp. S5–S66. Brody, D.J., Pratt, LA, and Hughes, J.P. (2018). Prevalence of Depression among Adults Aged 20 and over: United States, 2013–2016. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db303.htm#ref1. Brown, J.B., Beckhoff, C., Bickford, J., Stewart, M., Freeman, T.R., and Kasperski, M.J. (2009). Women and their partners’ perceptions of the key roles of the labor and delivery nurse. Clinical Nursing Research, 18(4), pp. 323–335. Brownridge, D.A., Taillieu, T.L., Tyler, K.A., Tiwari, A., Chan, K.L., and Santos, S.C. (2011). Pregnancy and intimate partner violence: Risk factors, severity, and health effects. Violence Against Women, 17(7), pp. 858–881. Buckley, S.J. (2015). Hormonal Physiology of Childbearing: Evidence and Implications for Women, Babies and Maternity Care. Washington, DC: National Partnership for Women and Families. Available: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/health- care/maternity/hormonal-physiology-of-childbearing.pdf. Buerhaus, P. (2018). Nurse practitioners: A solution to America’s primary care crisis. In American Enterprise Institute. Available: https://www.aei.org/research- products/report/nurse-practitioners-a-solution-to-americas-primary-care-crisis. Burcher, P., Cheyney, M.J., Li, K.N., Hushmendy, S., and Kiley, K.C. (2016). Cesarean birth regret and dissatisfaction: A qualitative approach. Birth, 43(4), pp. 346–352. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2019). Employee Benefits in the United States–March 2019. Available: https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/ebs2.pdf. Bushman, J.S. (2015). The Role of Certified Nurse-Midwives and Certified Midwives in Ensuring Women’s Access to Skilled Maternity Care. Available: https://www.midwife.org/acnm/files/ccLibraryFiles/Filename/000000005794/MaternityCare Workforce-11-18-15.pptx. Cahill, H. A. (2001). Male appropriation and medicalization of childbirth: An historical analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(3), pp. 334–342. Cahill, A.G. and Macones, G.A. (2006). Vital considerations for the use of vital statistics in obstetrical research. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 194(4), pp. 909–910. Cai, C., Vandermeer, B., Khurana, R., Nerenberg, K., Featherstone, R., Sebastianski, M., and Davenport, M.H. (2019). The impact of occupational shift work and working hours during pregnancy on health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 221(6), pp. 563–576. California Health Care Foundation. (2014). A Tale of Two Births: High-and Low-Performing Hospitals on Maternity Measures in California. Available: https://www.chcf.org/publication/a-tale-of-two-births-high-and-low-performing-hospitals-on- maternity-measures-in-california. R-8

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative. (n.d.). Early Elective Deliveries. Available: https://www.cmqcc.org/qi-initiatives/early-elective-deliveries. Calvin, S. (2019). The Minnesota Birth Center and the BirthBundle. Presentation to the Committee. April 9, 2019. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Canadian Association of Midwives. (2019). Midwifery-Led Births Per Province and Territory. Available: https://canadianmidwives.org/2018/08/08/midwifery-assisted-births. Carlson, N.S., Neal, J.L., Tilden, E.L., Smith, D.C., Breman, R.B., Lowe, N.K., Dietrich, M.S., and Phillippi, J.C. (2019). Influence of midwifery presence in United States centers on labor care and outcomes of low‐risk parous women: A Consortium on Safe Labor study. Birth, 46(3), pp. 487–499. Carmichael, S.L., and Snowden, J.M. (2019). The ARRIVE Trial: Interpretation from an Epidemiologic Perspective. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 64(5), pp. 657–663. Carrion, B.V., Earnshaw, V.A., Kershaw, T., Lewis, J.B., Stasko, E.C., Tobin, J.N., and Ickovics, J.R. (2015). Housing instability and birth weight among young urban mothers. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 92(1), pp. 1–9. Catalano, P.M., and Shankar, K. (2017). Obesity and pregnancy: Mechanisms of short term and long-term adverse consequences for mother and child. The BMJ, 356, p. j1. Catling‐Paull, C., Coddington, R.L., Foureur, M.J., and Homer, C.S. (2013). Publicly funded homebirth in Australia: A review of maternal and neonatal outcomes over 6 years. Medical Journal of Australia, 198(11), pp. 616–620. Caughey, A.B., and Cheyney, M. (2019). Home and birth center birth in the United States: Time for greater collaboration across models of care. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 133(5), pp. 1033– 1050. Cavazos-Rehg, P.A., Krauss, M.J., Spitznagel, E.L., Bommarito, K., Madden, T., Olsen, M.A., Subramaniam, H., Peipert., J.F., and Bierut, L.J. (2015). Maternal age and risk of labor and delivery complications. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(6), pp. 1202–1211. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). New York State Perinatal Quality Collaborative Increases the Proportion of Babies Born Full-Term. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pdf/New-York-Success- Story_508tagged.pdf. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Developing and Sustaining Perinatal Quality Collaboratives: A Resource Guide for States. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pdf/Best-Practices-for- Developing-and-Sustaining-Perinatal-Quality-Collaboratives_tagged508.pdf. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017a). Severe Maternal Morbidity in the United States. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/severematernalmorbidity.html. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017b). User Guide to the 2017 Natality Public-Use File. Available at: http://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/Dataset_Documentation/DVS/natality/UserGui de2017.pdf. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017c). Illinois Perinatal Quality Collaborative Improves the Accuracy of Birth Certificate Data. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pdf/Illinois-success- story_508tagged.pdf. R-9

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017d). North Carolina PQC Leads a National Project to Reduce Infections in the NICU. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pdf/North-Carolina- PQC_TAGGED508.pdf. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/pregnancy/diabetes-types.html. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019a). Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-mortality- surveillance-system.htm. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019b). Pregnancy-Related Deaths. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-relatedmortality.htm. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019c). Data on Selected Pregnancy Complications in the United States. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pregnancy-complications- data.htm#hyper. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019d). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Data and Statistics. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/data.html. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019e). Perinatal Quality Collaboratives. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pqc.htm. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019f). State Perinatal Quality Collaboratives. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/maternalinfanthealth/pqc-states.html. Center for Healthcare Quality and Payment Reform. (2018). An Alternative Payment Model for Maternity Care. Available: http://www.chqpr.org/downloads/MaternityCare_APM.pdf. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (n.d.). Newborns’ and Mothers’ Health Protection Act (NMHPA). Available: https://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Programs-and-Initiatives/Other- Insurance-Protections/nmhpa_factsheet.html. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2011). Recent Developments in Medicaid and CHIP Policy. Available: https://downloads.cms.gov/cmsgov/archived- downloads/CMCSBulletins/downloads/CMCS-Info-Bulletin-March-2011-Final.pdf. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2012). Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTLA). Available: https://www.cms.gov/regulations-and-guidance/legislation/emtala. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2013). Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: Crosswalk Between Current and Planned CMCS Activities and Expert Panel Identified Strategies. Available: https://www.medicaid.gov/Medicaid-CHIP-Program- Information/By-Topics/Quality-of-Care/Downloads/Crosswalk-of-Activities.pdf. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2016). Beneficiary Engagement and Incentives Models: Direct Decision Support Model. Available: https://www.cms.gov/newsroom/fact- sheets/beneficiary-engagement-and-incentives-models-direct-decision-support- model#_ftnref10 [May 2019]. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2019). Improving Access to Maternal Health Care in Rural Communities. Available: https://www.cms.gov/About-CMS/Agency- Information/OMH/equity-initiatives/rural-health/09032019-Maternal-Health-Care-in-Rural- Communities.pdf. Chamberlain, M., and Barclay, K. (2000). Psychosocial costs of transferring indigenous women from their community for birth. Midwifery, 16(2), pp. 116–122. Chantry, C.J., Eglash, A., and Labbok, M. (2015). ABM Position on Breastfeeding—Revised R-10

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 2015. Available: https://www.bfmed.org/assets/DOCUMENTS/abm-position- breastfeeding.pdf. Chapple, W., Gilliland, A., Li, D., Shier, E., and Wright, E. (2013). An economic model of the benefits of professional doula labor support in Wisconsin births. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 112(2), pp. 58–64. Charles, C., Gafni, A., and Whelan, T. (1997). Shared decision-making in the medical encounter: What does it mean? (Or it takes at least two to tango). Social Science and Medicine, 44(5), pp. 681–692. Charles, C., Gafni, A., and Whelan, T. (1999). Decision-making in the physician–patient encounter: Revisiting the shared treatment decision-making model. Social Science and Medicine, 49(5), pp. 651–661. Chawanpaiboon, S., Vogel, J.P., Moller, A.B., Lumbiganon, P., Petzold, M., Hogan, D., Landoulsi, S., Jampathong, N., Kongwattanakul, K., Laopaiboon, M., Lewis, C., Rattanakanokchai, S., Teng, D.N., Thinkhamrop, J., Watananirun, K., Zhang, J., Zhou, W., and Gülmezoglu, A.M. (2019). Global, regional, and national estimates of levels of preterm birth in 2014: A systematic review and modelling analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 7(1), pp. e37–e46. Cheng, Y.W., Snowden, J.M., King, T.I., and Caughey, A.B. (2013). Selected perinatal outcomes associated with planned home births in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(4), pp. 325.e1–e8. Cheshire Medical Center. (2019). Departments and Services: Midwifery. Available: https://www.cheshire-med.com/pregnancy_birth/midwifery.html. Cheyney, Melissa. (2010). Born at home: The biological, cultural and political dimensions of maternity care in the United States. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. Cheyney, M., Bovbjerg, M., Everson, C., Gordon, W., Hannibal, D., and Vedam, S. (2014a). Outcomes of care for 16,924 planned home births in the United States: The Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004 to 2009. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 59(1), pp. 17–27. Cheyney, M., Bovbjerg, M., Everson, C., Gordon, W., Hannibal, D., and Vedam, S. (2014b). Development and validation of a national data registry for midwife‐led births: The Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics project 2.0 dataset. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 59(1), pp. 8–16. Cheyney, M., Everson, C., and Burcher, P. (2014c). Homebirth transfers in the United States: Narratives of risk, fear, and mutual accommodation. Qualitative Health Research, 24(4), pp. 443–456. Cheyney, M., Olsen, C., Bovbjerg, M., Everson, C., Darragh, I., and Potter, B. (2015). Practitioner and practice characteristics of certified professional midwives in the United States: Results of the 2011 North American Registry of Midwives Survey. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 60(5), pp. 534–545. Cheyney, M.M., Bovbjerg, M.L., Leeman, L., and Vedam, S. (2019). Community Versus Out-of- Hospital Birth: What’s in a Name? Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 64(1). Childbirth Connections. (2013). How Do Childbearing Experiences Differ across Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States? A Listening to Mothers III Data Brief. Available: https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/health/maternity. Chisholm, C.A., Bullock, L., and Ferguson, J., 2nd. (2017). Intimate partner violence and pregnancy: Epidemiology and impact. American Journal of Obstetrics and R-11

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Gynecology, 217(2), pp. 141–144. Christensen, L.F., and Overgaard, C. (2017). Are freestanding midwifery units a safe alternative to obstetric units for low-risk, primiparous childbirth? An analysis of effect differences by parity in a matched cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1), p. 14. Christiaens, W., and Bracke, P. (2009). Place of birth and satisfaction with childbirth in Belgium and the Netherlands. Midwifery, 25(2), pp. e11–e19. Citizens for Midwifery. (2008). The Midwives Model of Care. Available: http://cfmidwifery.org/mmoc/define.aspx. Collins, J.W. and Hammond, N.A. (1996). Relation of maternal race to the risk of preterm, non- low birth weight infants: A population study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 143(4), pp. 333–337. Collins, N.L., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Lobel, M., and Scrimshaw, S.C. (1993). Social support in pregnancy: Psychosocial correlates of birth outcomes and postpartum depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), p. 1243. Collins, J.W., Wu, S.Y., and David, R.J. (2002). Differing intergenerational birth weights among the descendants of U.S.-born and foreign-born Whites and African Americans in Illinois. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(3), pp. 210–216. Comeau, A., Hutton, E.K., Simioni, J., Anvari, E., Bowen, M., Kruegar, S., and Darling, E.K. (2018). Home birth integration into the health care systems of eleven international jurisdictions. Birth, 45(3), pp. 311–321. Commission for the Accreditation of Birth Centers. (2019). Find CABC Accredited Alongside Maternity Centers. Available: https://www.birthcenteraccreditation.org/find-cabc-accredited- alongside-maternity-centers. Commonwealth Fund. (2018). A Community-Based Approach to Reducing Disparities in Maternal Health Outcomes. Available: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/newsletter-article/2018/sep/community- based-approach-reducing-disparities-maternal. Cooper, L.A., Roter, D.L., Johnson, R.L., Ford, D.E., Steinwachs, D.M., and Powe, N.R. (2003). Patient-centered communication, ratings of care, and concordance of patient and physician race. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139(11), pp. 907–915. Corbett, C.A. and Callister, L.C. (2000). Nursing support during labor. Clinical Nursing Research, 9(1), pp. 70–83. Cornthwaite, K., Edwards, S., and Siassakos, D. (2013). Reducing risk in maternity by optimising teamwork and leadership: An evidence-based approach to save mothers and babies. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 27(4), pp. 571–581. Council on Patient Safety in Women’s Health Care. (2019). Patient Safety Bundles. Available: https://safehealthcareforeverywoman.org/patient-safety-bundles. Cox, K.J., Bovbjerg, M.L., Cheyney, M., and Leeman, L.M. (2015). Planned home vaginal birth after cesarean in the United States, 2004–2009: Outcomes, maternity care practices, and implications for shared decision making. Birth, 42(4), pp. 299–308. Coxon, K., Homer, C., Bisits, A., Sandall, J., and Bick, D. (2016). Reconceptualising risk in childbirth. Midwifery, 38, pp. 1–5. Cuellar, A., Simmons, A., and Finegold, K. (2012). The Affordable Care Act and Women. Available: https://aspe.hhs.gov/report/affordable-care-act-and-women. Dahlen, H.G., Kennedy, H.P., Anderson, C.M., Bell, A.F., Clark, A., Foureur, M., Ohm, J.E., Shearman, A.M., Taylor, J.Y., Wright, M.L., and Downe, S. (2013). The EPIIC hypothesis: R-12

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Intrapartum effects on the neonatal epigenome and consequent health outcomes. Medical Hypotheses, 80(5), pp. 656–662. David, R.J., and Collins, J.W. (1997). Differing birth weight among infants of U.S.-born blacks, African-born blacks, and U.S.-born whites. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337(17), pp. 1209–1214. Davis, D. A. (2018). Obstetric Racism: The Racial Politics of Pregnancy, Labor, and Birthing. Medical Anthropology, pp. 1–14. Davis, D., Baddock, S., Pairman, S., Hunter, M., Benn, C., Wilson, D., Dixon, L., and Herbison, P. (2011). Planned place of birth in New Zealand: Does it affect mode of birth and intervention rates among low‐risk women? Birth, 38(2), pp. 111–119. Davis, D., Baddock, S., Pairman, S., Hunter, M., Benn, C., Anderson, J., Dixon, L. and Herbison, P. (2012). Risk of severe postpartum hemorrhage in low‐risk childbearing women in New Zealand: Exploring the effect of place of birth and comparing third stage management of labor. Birth, 39(2), pp. 98–105. Davis-Floyd, R. (2018). Ways of Knowing About Birth: Mothers, Midwives, Medicine and Birth Activism. Prospect Heights IL: Waveland Press. Davis-Floyd, R., and Johnson, C.B. (Eds.). (2006). Mainstreaming Midwives: The Politics of Change. Routledge: New York, NY. Daw, J.R., Hatfield, L.A., Swartz, K., and Sommers, B.D. (2017). Women in the United States experience high rates of coverage ‘churn’ in months before and after childbirth. Health Affairs, 36(4), pp. 598–606. Daysal, N.M., Trandafir, M., and Van Ewijk, R. (2015). Saving lives at birth: The impact of home births on infant outcomes. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 7(3), pp. 28–50. de Jonge, A., van der Goes, B.Y., Ravelli, A.C., Amelink‐Verburg, M.P., Mol, B.W., Nijhuis, J.G., Gravenhorst, J.B., and Buitendijk, S.E. (2009). Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low‐risk planned home and hospital births. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116(9), pp. 1177–1184. de Jonge, A., Mesman, J.A., Manniën, J., Zwart, J.J., van Dillen, J., and van Roosmalen, J. (2013). Severe adverse maternal outcomes among low-risk women with planned home versus hospital births in the Netherlands: Nationwide cohort study. The BMJ, 346, p. f3263. de Jonge, A., Geerts, C.C., Van Der Goes, B.Y., Mol, B.W., Buitendijk, S.E., and Nijhuis, J.G. (2015). Perinatal mortality and morbidity up to 28 days after birth among 743,070 low‐risk planned home and hospital births: A cohort study based on three merged national perinatal databases. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 122(5), pp. 720–728. de Jonge, A., Peters, L., Geerts, C.C., Van Roosmalen, J.J., Twisk, J.W., Brocklehurst, P., and Hollowell, J. (2017). Mode of birth and medical interventions among women at low risk of complications: A cross-national comparison of birth settings in England and the Netherlands. PLOS One, 12(7), p. e0180846. de Sousa Soares, R., Albuquerque, A., Anjos, U.U., Vianna, R.P.T., Gomes, L.B., Freitas, W.D.M.F., Araújo, J.S.S., Sampaio, J., Palhano, D.B., de Rocco Guimarães, A. and Neto, A.J.M. (2016). Analysis on the doula’s influence in childbirth care at a maternity. International Archives of Medicine, 9. Declercq, E., and Stotland, N.E. (2017). Planned home birth. UpToDate. Available: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/planned-home-birth. Declercq, E.R., Sakala, C., Corry, M.P., Applebaum, S. (2006). Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences. Available: R-13

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/health-care/maternity/listening-to- mothers-ii-2006.pdf. Declercq, E.R., Sakala, C., Corry, M.P., and Applebaum, S. (2007). Listening to Mothers II: Report of the Second National Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(4), p. 9. Declercq, E.R., Sakala, C., Corry, M.P., Applebaum, S., and Herrlich, A. (2013). Listening to Mothers III. Available: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/health- care/maternity/listening-to-mothers-iii-new-mothers-speak-out-2013.pdf. Declercq, E., MacDorman, M., Cabral, H., and Stotland, N. (2016). Prepregnancy body mass index and infant mortality in 38 U.S. States, 2012–2013. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(2), pp. 279–287. Deering, S., Rosen, M.A., Salas, E., and King, H.B. (2009). Building team and technical competency for obstetric emergencies: the mobile obstetric emergencies simulator (MOES) system. Simulation in Healthcare, 4(3), pp. 166–173. Defense Health Agency. (2019). Processes and Procedures for Implementation of Standardized Perinatal Training. Washington, DC: Defense Health Agency. Deitz, P.J., Bombard, J., Mulready-Ward, C., Gauthier, J., Sackoff, J., Brozicevic, P., Gambatese, M., Nyland-Funke, M., England, L., Harrison, L., and Farr, S. (2015). Validation of selected items on the 2003 U.S. Standard Certificate of Live Birth: New York City and Vermont. Public Health Reports, 130(1), pp. 60–70. Deputy, N.P., Dub, B., and Sharma, A.J. (2018). Prevalence and Trends in Prepregnancy Normal Weight: 48 States, New York City, and District of Columbia, 2011–2015. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm665152a3.htm. DeSisto, C.L., Kim, S.Y., and Sharma, A.J. (2014). Peer reviewed: Prevalence estimates of gestational diabetes mellitus in the United States, pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), 2007–2010. Preventing Chronic Disease, 11. Devereaux, Y., and Sullivan, H. (2013). Doula support while laboring: Does it help achieve a more natural birth? International Journal of Childbirth Education, 28(2), pp. 54–61. DiGuiseppe, D.L., Aron, D.C., Ranbom, L., Harper, D.L., and Rosenthal, G.E. (2002). Reliability of birth certificate information: A multi-hospital comparison to medical records information. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 6(3), pp. 169–179. Dominguez, T.P., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Glynn, L.M., Hobel, C., and Sandman, C. A. (2008). Racial differences in birth outcomes: The role of general, pregnancy, and racism stress. Health Psychology, 27(2), pp. 194–203. Dumont, D.M., Wildeman, C., Lee, H., Gjelsvik, A., Valera, P., and Clarke, J.G. (2014). Incarceration, maternal hardship, and perinatal health behaviors. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(9), pp. 2179–2187. Dunkel Schetter, C., and Tanner, L. (2012). Anxiety, depression and stress in pregnancy: Implications for mothers, children, research, and practice. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 25(2), pp. 141–148. East, C.E., Biro, M.A., Fredericks, S., and Lau, R. (2019). Support during pregnancy for women at increased risk of low birthweight babies. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4. Eden, A.R., and Peterson, L.E. (2018). Challenges faced by family physicians providing advanced maternity care. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 22(6), pp. 932–940. Edmonds, J.K., and Jones, E.J. (2013). Intrapartum nurses’ perceived influence on delivery mode decisions and outcomes. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 42(1), pp. R-14

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 3–11. Edmonds, J.K., O’Hara, M., Clarke, S.P., and Shah, N.T. (2017). Variation in cesarean birth rates by labor and delivery nurses. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 46(4), pp. 486–493. Edwards, R.C., Thullen, M.J., Korfmacher, J., Lantos, J.D., Henson, L.G., and Hans, S.L. (2013). Breastfeeding and complementary food: Randomized trial of community doula home visiting. Pediatrics, 132(2), pp. S160–S166. Ely, D.M, and Driscoll, A.K. (2019). Infant mortality in the United States, 2017: Data from the period linked birth/infant death file. National Vital Statistics Reports, 68(10). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr68/nvsr68_10-508.pdf. Ely, D. M., Driscoll, A. K., and Matthews, T.J. (2017). Infant Mortality Rates in Rural and Urban Areas in the United States, 2014. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db285.pdf. Evans, W.N., and Lien, D.S. (2005). The benefits of prenatal care: Evidence from the PAT bus strike. Journal of Econometrics, 125(1–2), pp. 207–239. Evers, A.C., Brouwers, H.A., Hukkelhoven, C.W., Nikkels, P.G., Boon, J., van Egmond-Linden, A., Hillegersberg, J., Snuif, Y.S., Sterken-Hooisma, S., Bruinse, H.W. and Kwee, A. (2010). Perinatal mortality and severe morbidity in low and high-risk term pregnancies in the Netherlands: Prospective cohort study. The BMJ, 341, p. c5639. Fagerlund, K., and Germano, E. (2009). The costs and benefits of nurse-midwifery education: Model and application. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 54(5), pp. 341–350. Ferré, C., Callaghan, W., Olson, C., Sharma, A., and Barfield, W. (2016). Effects of maternal age and age-specific preterm birth rates on overall preterm birth rates—United States, 2007 and 2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65(43), pp. 1181–1184. Fine, A., and Kotelchuck, M. (2010). Rethinking MCH: The life course model as an organizing framework. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, 1–20. Fingar, K.R., Hambrick, M.M., Heslin, K.C., and Moore, J.E. (2018). Trends and disparities in delivery hospitalizations involving severe maternal morbidity, 2006–2015. H-CUP Statistical Brief, 243. Available: https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb243-Severe- Maternal-Morbidity-Delivery-Trends-Disparities.jsp. Firoz, T., Chou, D., von Dadelszen, P., Agrawal, P., Vanderkruik, R., Tunçalp, O., Magee, L.A., van Den Broek, N. and Say, L. (2013). Measuring maternal health: Focus on maternal morbidity. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 91, pp. 794–796. Fiscella, K., and Sanders, M.R. (2016). Racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of health care. Annual Review of Public Health, 37, pp. 375–394. Fisch, D. M. (2012). Baby steps: The changing relationship between Michigan obstetricians and certified professional midwives. Marquette Elder’s Adviser, 14, p. 87. Flay, B.R., Biglan, A., Boruch, R.F., Castro, F.G., Gottfredson, D., Kellam, S., Moscicki, E.K., Schinke, S., Valentine, J.C., and Ji, P. (2005). Standards of evidence: Criteria for efficacy, effectiveness and dissemination. Prevention Science, 6(3), pp. 151–175. Fleming, S.E., Donovan-Batson, C., Burduli, E., Barbosa-Leiker, C., Martin, C.J.H., and Martin, C.R. (2016). Birth satisfaction scale/birth satisfaction scale-revised (BSS/BSS-R): A large scale United States planned home birth and birth centre survey. Midwifery, 41, pp. 9–15. Ford, C.L., Griffith, D.M., Bruce, M.A., and Gilbert, K.L. (2019). Racism: Science and Tools for R-15

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS the Public Health Professional. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association Press. Forray A. (2016). Substance use during pregnancy. F1000 Research, 5, F1000 Faculty Rev-887. Forray, A., and Foster, D. (2015). Substance Use in the Perinatal Period. Current Psychiatry Reports, 17(11), p. 91. Fox, D., Sheehan, A., and Homer, C. (2014). Experiences of women planning a home birth who require intrapartum transfer to hospital: A metasynthesis of the qualitative literature. International Journal of Childbirth, 4(2), pp. 103–119. Fox, D., Sheehan, A., and Homer, C.S. (2018a). Birthplace in Australia: Antenatal preparation for the possibility of transfer from planned home birth. Midwifery, 66, pp. 134–140. Fox, D., Sheehan, A., and Homer, C. (2018b). Birthplace in Australia: Processes and interactions during the intrapartum transfer of women from planned homebirth to hospital. Midwifery, 57, pp. 18–25. Freedman, L.P., and Kruk, M.E. (2014). Disrespect and abuse of women in childbirth: Challenging the global quality and accountability agendas. The Lancet, 384 (9948), pp. e42– e44. Frohlich, K.L., and Potvin, L. (2008). Transcending the known in public health practice: The inequality paradox: The population approach and vulnerable populations. American Journal of Public Health, 98(2), pp. 216–221. Fruscalzo, A., Londero, A.P., Salvador, S., Bertozzi, S., Biasioli, A., Della Martina, M., Driul, L., and Marchesoni, D. (2014). New and old predictive factors for breech presentation: Our experience in 14,433 singleton pregnancies and a literature review. The Journal of Maternal- Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 27(2), pp. 167–172. Fuentes-Afflick, E., Hessol, N.A., Bauer, T., O'Sullivan, M.J., Gomez-Lobo, V., Holman, S., Wilson, T., and Minkoff, H. (2006). Use of prenatal care by Hispanic women after welfare reform. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 107(1), pp. 151–160. Furber, C.M., and McGowan, L. (2011). A qualitative study of the experiences of women who are obese and pregnant in the UK. Midwifery, 27(4), pp. 437–444. Gadson, A., Akpovi, E., and Mehta, P.K. (2017). Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome. Seminars in Perinatology, 41(5), pp. 308–317. Gagnon, A.J., Waghorn, K., and Covell, C. (1997). A randomized trial of one-to-one nurse support of women in labor. Birth, 24(2), pp. 71–77. Gagnon, A.J., Meier, K.M., and Waghorn, K. (2007). Continuity of nursing care and its link to cesarean birth rate. Birth, 34(1), pp. 26–31. Gams, B., Neerland, C., and Kennedy, S. (2019). Reducing primary cesareans: An innovative multipronged approach to supporting physiologic labor and vaginal birth. The Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 33(1), pp. 52–60. Garfield, R., Orgera, K., and Damico, A. (2019). The Coverage Gap: Uninsured Poor Adults in States that Do Not Expand Medicaid. Available: https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/the- coverage-gap-uninsured-poor-adults-in-states-that-do-not-expand-medicaid. Geller, S.E., Koch, A., Pellettieri, B., and Carnes, M. (2011). Inclusion, analysis, and reporting of sex and race/ethnicity in clinical trials: Have we made progress? Journal of Women’s Health, 20(3), pp. 315–320. Geller, S.E., Koch, A.R., Garland, C.E., MacDonald, E.J., Storey, F., and Lawton, B. (2018). A global view of severe maternal morbidity: Moving beyond maternal mortality. Reproductive Health, 15(1), p. 98. R-16

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Germano, E., Schorn, M.N., Phillippi, J.C., and Schuiling, K. (2014). Factors that influence midwives to serve as preceptors: An American College of Nurse‐Midwives survey. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 59(2), pp. 167–175. Geronimus, A.T. (1992). The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: evidence and speculations. Ethnicity and disease, 2(3), pp. 207–221. Geronimus, A.T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., and Bound, J. (2006). “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 96(5), pp. 826–833. Giscombé, C.L., and Lobel, M. (2005). Explaining disproportionately high rates of adverse birth outcomes among African Americans: The impact of stress, racism, and related factors in pregnancy. Psychological Bulletin, 131(5), pp. 662–683. Giuntella, O. (2016). The Hispanic health paradox: New evidence from longitudinal data on second and third-generation birth outcomes. SSM Population Health, 2, pp. 84–89. Giurgescu, C., and Misra, D.P. (2018). Psychosocial factors and preterm birth among black mothers and fathers. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 43(5), pp. 245– 251. Glantz, J.C. (2012). Obstetric variation, intervention, and outcomes: Doing more but accomplishing less. Birth, 39(4), pp. 286–290. Goldstein, J.T., Hartman, S.G., Meunier, M.R., Panchal, B., Pecci, C.C., Zink, N.M., and Shields, S.G. (2018). Supporting family physician maternity care providers. Family Medicine, 50(9), pp. 662–671. González Burchard, E., Borrell, L.N., Choudhry, S., Naqvi, M., Tsai, H.J., Rodriguez-Santana, J.R., Chapela, R., Rogers, S.D., Mei, R., Rodriguez-Cintron, W. and Arena, J.F., Kittles, R., Perez-Stable. E.J., Ziv, E., and Risch, N. (2005). Latino populations: A unique opportunity for the study of race, genetics, and social environment in epidemiological research. American Journal of Public Health, 95(12), pp. 2161–2168. Goodwin, C. J. (2005). Research in Psychology Method and Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Son, Inc. Greene, N.H., Kilcoyne, J., Grey, A., Hawkes, S.G., Edmonds, J.K., and Gregory, K.D. (2019). Nurse-specific cesarean rates: Why and how. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 220(1), p. S45. Gregory, K.D., Jackson, S., Korst, L., and Fridman, M. (2012). Cesarean versus vaginal delivery: Whose risks? Whose benefits? American Journal of Perinatology, 29(01), pp. 7–18. Greiner, K.S., Hersh, A.R., Hersh, S.R., Gallagher, A.C., Caughey, A.B., and Tilden, E.L. (2019). Cost-effectiveness of continuous support from a layperson during a woman’s first two births. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 48(5), pp. 538–551. Griffiths, P., Recio‐Saucedo, A., Dall’Ora, C., Briggs, J., Maruotti, A., Meredith, P., Smith, G.B., Ball, J. and Missed Care Study Group. (2018). The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: A systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(7), pp. 1474–1487. Grigg, C.P., Tracy, S.K., Tracy, M., Daellenbach, R., Kensington, M., Monk, A., and Schmied, V. (2017). Evaluating maternity units: A prospective cohort study of freestanding midwife-led primary maternity units in New Zealand—Clinical outcomes. The BMJ Open, 7(8), p. e016288. Grimshaw, J., Campbell, M., Eccles, M., and Steen, N. (2000). Experimental and quasi- experimental designs for evaluating guideline implementation strategies. Family Practice, R-17

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 17(1), pp. S11–S16. Grote, N.K., Bridge, J.A., Gavin, A.R., Melville, J.L., Iyengar, S., and Katon, W.J. (2010). A meta-analysis of depression during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(10), pp. 1012–1024. Gruber, K.J., Cupito, S.H., and Dobson, C.F. (2013). Impact of doulas on healthy birth outcomes. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 22(1), pp. 49–58. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Sapra, K.J., Brent, R.L., Levene, M.I., Arabin, B., and Chervenak, F.A. (2013). Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 209(4), pp. 323–e1. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Sapra, K.J., Brent, R.L., Levene, M.I., Arabin, B., and Chervenak, F.A. (2014). Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006–2009. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 211(4), pp. 390– e1. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Brent, R.L., Arabin, B., Levene, M.I., and Chervenak, F. A. (2015a). Justified skepticism about Apgar scoring in out-of-hospital birth settings. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 43(4), pp. 455–460. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Brent, R.L., Arabin, B., Levene, M.I., and Chervenak, F.A. (2015b). Perinatal risks of planned home births in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 212(3), pp. 350–e1. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Arabin, B., Brent, R.L., Levene, M.I., and Chervenak, F.A. (2016). Neonatal mortality of planned home birth in the United States in relation to professional certification of birth attendants. PLOS One, 11(5), p. e0155721. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Sapra, K.J., Arabin, B., and Chervenak, F.A. (2017a). Planned home births: The need for additional contraindications. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 216(4), pp. 401–e1. Grünebaum, A., McCullough, L.B., Arabin, B., Dudenhausen, J., Orosz, B., and Chervenak, F.A. (2017b). Underlying causes of neonatal deaths in term singleton pregnancies: Home births versus hospital births in the United States. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 45(3), pp. 349–357. Grzybowski, S., Stoll, K., and Kornelsen, J. (2011). Distance matters: A population-based study examining access to maternity services for rural women. BMC Health Services Research, 11, p. 147. Guise, J.M. and Segel, S. (2008). Teamwork in obstetric critical care. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 22(5), pp. 937–951. Guyatt, G.H., Oxman, A.D., Vist, G.E., Kunz, R., Falck-Ytter, Y., Alonso-Coello, P., and Schünemann, H.J. (2008). GRADE: An emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. The BMJ, 336, pp. 924–926. Haight, S.C., Ko, J.Y., Tong, V.T., Bohm, M.K., and Callaghan, W.M. (2018). Opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization—United States, 1999–2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(31), pp. 845–849. Halbreich, U., and Karkun, S. (2006). Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms. Journal of Affective Disorders, 91(2–3), pp. 97–111. Hale, R.W. (2006). Legal issues impacting women’s access to care in the United States: The malpractice insurance crisis. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 94(3), pp. 382–385. R-18

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Hales, C.M., Carroll, M.D., Fryar, C.D., and Ogden, C.L. (2017). Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2015–2016. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 288. Halfon, N., Forrest, C.B., Lerner, R.M., and Faustman, E.M. (2018). Health Disparities: A Life Course Health Development Perspective and Future Research Directions--Handbook of Life Course Health Development. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Press. Hall, J., Hundley, V., Collins, B., and Ireland, J. (2018). Dignity and respect during pregnancy and childbirth: A survey of the experience of disabled women. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 18(1), p. 328. Hamilton, B.E., Rossen, L.M., and Branum, A.M. (2016). Teen birth rates for urban and rural areas in the United States, 2007–2015. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 264, 1–8. Hamilton, B.E., Martin, J.A, Osterman, M.J.K., and Rossen, L.M. (2019). Births: Provisional Data for 2018. Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/vsrr/vsrr-007-508.pdf. Han, Z., Mulla, S., Beyene, J., Liao, G., and McDonald, S.D. (2011). Maternal underweight and the risk of preterm birth and low birth weight: A systematic review and meta- analyses. International Journal of Epidemiology, 40(1), pp. 65–101. Haney, K. (2017). Medicaid Coverage During Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery. Available: https://www.growingfamilybenefits.com/medicaid-coverage-during-pregnancy. Hannah, M.E., Hannah, W.J., Hewson, S.A., Hodnett, E.D., Saigal, S., Willan, A.R., and Collaborative, T.B.T. (2000). Planned caesarean section versus planned vaginal birth for breech presentation at term: A randomised multicentre trial. The Lancet, 356(9239), pp. 1375– 1383. Hanson, M.A., and Gluckman, P.D. (2014). Early developmental conditional of later health and disease: Physiology or pathophysiology? Physiological Reviews, 94(4), pp. 1027–1076. Hardeman, R.R., and Kozhimannil, K.B. (2016). Motivations for entering the doula profession: Perspectives from women of color. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 61(6), pp. 773–780. Hardeman, R.R., Murphy, K.A., Karbeah, J M., and Kozhimannil, K.B. (2018). Naming institutionalized racism in the public health literature: A systematic literature review. Public Health Reports, 133(3), pp. 240–249. Hardeman, R.R., Karbeah, J., Almanza, J., and Kozhimannil, K.B. (2019). Roots Community Birth Center: A Culturally-Centered Care Model for Improving Value and Equity in Childbirth. Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hjdsi.2019.100367.  Hardin, A. M., and Buckner, E. B. (2004). Characteristics of a positive experience for women who have unmedicated childbirth. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 13(4), pp. 10–16. Harris, A.D., McGregor, J.C., Perencevich, E.N., Furuno, J.P., Zhu, J., Peterson, D.E., and Finkelstein, J. (2006). The use and interpretation of quasi-experimental studies in medical informatics. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 13(1), pp. 16–23. Health Care Payment Learning and Action Network. (n.d.). Maternity Episode Payment Model Online Resource Bank. Available: https://hcp-lan.org/maternity-resource-bank. Health Care Payment Learning and Action Network. (2016). Maternity care. Accelerating and aligning clinical episode payment models: Maternity care. MITRE Corporation. Available: https://hcp-lan.org/clinical-episode-payment. Health Management Associates. (2007). Midwifery Licensure and Discipline Program in Washington State: Economic Costs and Benefits. Available: R-19

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS https://www.nacpm.org/documents/Midwifery_Cost_Study_10‐31‐07.pdf. Health Resources and Services Administration. (2016). National and regional projections of supply and demand for women’s health service providers: 2013-2025. Available: https://bhw.hrsa.gov/sites/default/files/bhw/health‐workforce‐ analysis/research/projections/womens‐health‐report.pdf Health Resources and Services Administration. (2018). Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Networks (CoIINs). Available: https://mchb.hrsa.gov/maternal-child-health- initiatives/collaborative-improvement-innovation-networks-coiins. Healy, S., Humphreys, E., and Kennedy, C. (2016). Midwives’ and obstetricians’ perceptions of risk and its impact on clinical practice and decision-making in labour: An integrative review. Women and Birth, 29(2), pp. 107–116. Heaman, M.I., Sword, W., Elliott, L., Moffatt, M., Helewa, M. E., Morris, H., Gregory, P., Tjaden, L., and Cook, C. (2015). Barriers and facilitators related to use of prenatal care by inner-city women: Perceptions of health care providers. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 15(1), p. 2. Henderson, Z.T., Ernst, K., Simpson, K.R., Berns, S., Suchdev, D.B., Main, E., McCaffrey, M., Lee, K., Rouse, T.B., and Olson, C.K. (2018). The national network of state perinatal quality collaboratives: A growing movement to improve maternal and infant health. Journal of Women’s Health, 27(3), pp. 221–226 Hendrix, M., Van Horck, M., Moreta, D., Nieman, F., Nieuwenhuijze, M., Severens, J., and Nijhuis, J. (2009). Why women do not accept randomisation for place of birth: Feasibility of an RCT in the Netherlands. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 116(4), pp. 537– 544. Hennegan, J., Redshaw, M., and Miller, Y. (2014). Born in another country: Women’s experience of labour and birth in Queensland, Australia. Women and Birth, 27(2), pp. 91–97. Hermus, M.A., Hitzert, M., Boesveld, I.C., van den Akker-van, M.E., van Dommelen, P., Franx, A., de Graaf, J.P., van Lith, J.M., Luurssen-Masurel, N., Steegers, E.A., and Wiegers, T.A., (2017). Differences in optimality index between planned place of birth in a birth centre and alternative planned places of birth: A nationwide prospective cohort study in The Netherlands: Results of the Dutch Birth Centre Study. BMJ Open, 7(11), p. e016958. Hickman, A. (2009). Born (not so) free: Legal limits on the practice of unassisted childbirth or freebirthing in the United States. Minnesota Law Review, 94, p. 1651. Hill, I., Dubay, L., Courtot, B., Benatar, S., Garrett, B., Blavin, F., Howell, E., Johnston, E., Allen, E., Thornburgh, S., Markell, J., Morgan, J., Silow-Carroll, S., Bitterman, J., Rodin, D., Odendahl, R., Paez, K., Thompson, L., Lucado, J., Firminger, K., Sinnarajah, B., Paquin, L., and Rouse, M. (2018). Strong Start for Mothers and Newborns Evaluation: Year 5 Project Synthesis, Vol 1. Available: https://downloads.cms.gov/files/cmmi/strongstart-prenatal- finalevalrpt-v1.pdf. Hodnett, E.D. (2002). Pain and women’s satisfaction with the experience of childbirth: A systematic review. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 186(5), pp. S160–S172. Hodnett, E.D., Lowe, N.K., Hannah, M.E., Willan, A.R., Stevens, B., Weston, J.A., Ohlsson, A., Gafni, A., Muir, H.A., Myhr, T.L, and Stremler, R. (2002). Effectiveness of nurses as providers of birth labor support in North American hospitals: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(11), pp. 1373–1381. Hodnett, E.D., Gates, S., Hofmeyr, G.J., and Sakala, C. (2013). Continuous support for women during childbirth. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, 7. R-20

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Hogue, C.J., and Bremner, J.D. (2005). Stress model for research into preterm delivery among black women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 192(5), pp. S47–S55. Holgash, K. and Heberlein, M. (2019). Physician Acceptance of New Medicaid Patients. Available: https://www.macpac.gov/wp-contet/uploads/2019/01/Physician-Acceptance-of- New-Medicaid-Patients.pdf. Hollander, M.H., van Hastenberg, E., van Dillen, J., Van Pampus, M.G., de Miranda, E., and Stramrood, C.A.I. (2017). Preventing traumatic childbirth experiences: 2192 women’s perceptions and views. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 20(4), pp. 515–523. Hollowell, J., Li, Y., Bunch, K., and Brocklehurst, P. (2017). A comparison of intrapartum interventions and adverse outcomes by parity in planned freestanding midwifery unit and alongside midwifery unit births: Secondary analysis of “low risk” births in the Birthplace in England cohort. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1), p. 95. Holten, L., and de Miranda, E. (2016). Women’s motivations for having unassisted childbirth or high-risk homebirth: An exploration of the literature on “birthing outside the system.” Midwifery, 38, pp. 55–62. Holzman, C., Eyster, J., Kleyn, M., Messer, L.C., Kaufman, J.S., Laraia, B.A., O’Campo, P., Burke, J.G., Culhane, J. and Elo, I.T. (2009). Maternal weathering and risk of preterm delivery. American Journal of Public Health, 99(10), pp. 1864–1871. Home Birth Summit. (n.d.). Best Practice Guidelines: Transfer from Planned Home Birth to Hospital. Available: https://www.homebirthsummit.org/wp- content/uploads/2014/03/HomeBirthSummit_BestPracticeTransferGuidelines.pdf. Homer, C.S., Thornton, C., Scarf, V.L., Ellwood, D.A., Oats, J.J., Foureur, M.J., Sibbritt, D., McLachlan, H.L., Forster, D.A. and Dahlen, H.G. (2014). Birthplace in New South Wales, Australia: An analysis of perinatal outcomes using routinely collected data. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14(1), p. 206. Howell, E.A. (2018). Reducing disparities in severe maternal morbidity and mortality. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 61(2), pp. 387–399. Howell, E., Palmer, A., Benatar, S., and Garrett, B. (2014). Potential Medicaid cost savings from maternity care based at a freestanding birth center. Medicare and Medicaid Research Review, 4(3). Howell, E.A., Egorova, N., Balbierz, A., Zeitlin, J., and Hebert, P.L. (2016). Black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity and site of care. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 214(1), pp. 122–e1. Howell, E.A., and Zeitlin, J. (2017). Quality of care and disparities in obstetrics. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 44(1), pp. 13–25. Hung, P., Kozhimannil, K.B., Casey, M.M., and Moscovice, I.S. (2016). Why are obstetric units in rural hospitals closing their doors? Health Services Research, 51(4), pp. 1546–1560. Hutton, E.K., Reitsma, A.H., and Kaufman, K. (2009). Outcomes associated with planned home and planned hospital births in low-risk women attended by midwives in Ontario, Canada, 2003–2006: A retrospective cohort study. Birth, 36(3), pp. 180–189. Hutton, E.K., Cappelletti, A., Reitsma, A.H., Simioni, J., Horne, J., McGregor, C., and Ahmed, R.J. (2016). Outcomes associated with planned place of birth among women with low-risk pregnancies. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 188(5), pp. e80–90. Huynh, M. (2014). Provider type and preterm birth in New York City births, 2009–2010. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 25(4), pp. 1520–1529. Ickovics, J.R., Reed, E., Magriples, U., Westdahl, C., Schindler Rising, S., and Kershaw, T.S. R-21

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS (2011). Effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial risk in pregnancy: Results from a randomised controlled trial. Psychology and Health, 26(2), pp. 235–250. Illuzzi, J., Stapleton, S. and Rathbun, L. (2015). Early and total neonatal mortality in relation to birth setting in the United States, 2006–2009. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 212(2), p. 250. Institute of Medicine. (1985). Preventing Low Birth Weight. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (1988). Prenatal Care: Reaching Mothers, Reaching Infants (Vol. 926). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2004). In the Nation’s Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the Health-Care Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2007). Preterm birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2008). Knowing What Works in Health Care: A Roadmap for the Nation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2010). Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention: A Framework to Inform Decision Making. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine. (2013). Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course for a System in Crisis. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (1982). Research Issues in the Assessment of Birth Settings: Report of a Study. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2009). Weight Gain During Pregnancy: Reexamining the Guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. (2013). An Update on Research Issues in the Assessment of Birth Settings: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. International Confederation of Midwives, White Ribbon Alliance, International Pediatric Association, and World Health Organization. (2015). Mother−baby friendly birthing facilities. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 128(2), pp. 95–99. International Federation of Health Plans. (2015). 2015 Comparative Price Report: Variation in Medical and Hospital Prices by Country. Available: https://fortunedotcom.files.wordpress.com/2018/04/66c7d-2015comparativepricereport09-09- 16.pdf. Ireland, S., Montgomery-Andersen, R., and Geraghty, S. (2019). Indigenous doulas: A literature review exploring their role and practice in western maternity care. Midwifery, 75, pp. 52–58 Isbey. C. and Martin, H. (2017). Achieving Perinatal Care Certification and Lessons learned from 2016. Available: https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/PNC_03-29-17.pdf. Ishola, F., Owolabi, O., and Filippi, V. (2017). Disrespect and abuse of women during childbirth in Nigeria: A systematic review. PLOS One, 12(3), p. e0174084. Itkowitz, C. (2017). Closure of two D.C. maternity wards hurts low-income women most. The Washington Post, October 28. Available: https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/closure-of- two-dc-maternity-wards-hurts-low-income-women-most/2017/10/28/753e4dee-ad06-11e7- R-22

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 9e58-e6288544af98_story.html?noredirect=on. Jadad, A.R., and Enkin, M.W. (2008). Randomized Controlled Trials: Questions, Answers and Musings. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, Inc. James, D.C., Simpson, K.R., and Knox, G.E. (2003). How do expert labor nurses view their role? Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 32(6), pp. 814–823. Jankowski, J. and Burcher, P. (2015). Home birth of infants with anticipated congenital anomalies: A case study and ethical analysis of careproviders’ obligations. The Journal of Clinical Ethics, 26(1), pp. 27–35. Janssen, P.A., Carty, E.A., and Reime, B. (2006). Satisfaction with planned place of birth among midwifery clients in British Columbia. The Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 51(2), pp. 91–97. Janssen, P.A., Saxell, L., Page, L.A., Klein, M.C., Liston, R.M., and Lee, S.K. (2009). Outcomes of planned home birth with registered midwife versus planned hospital birth with midwife or physician. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 181(6–7), pp. 377–383. Janssen, P.A., Mitton, C., and Aghajanian, J. (2015). Costs of planned home vs. hospital birth in British Columbia attended by registered midwives and physicians. PLOS One, 10(7), p. e0133524. Jennings, J., Nielsen, P., Buck, M.L., Collins-Fulea, C., Corry, M., Cutler, C., Faucher, M.A., Kendig, S., Kraft, C., McGinnity, J. and Miller, K.P. (2016). Collaboration in practice: Implementing team-based care: Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Collaborative Practice. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 127(3), pp. 612–617. Johnson, K.C. and Daviss, B.A. (2005). Outcomes of planned home births with certified professional midwives: Large prospective study in North America. The BMJ, 330(7505), p. 1416. Johnson, R.B., and Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), pp. 14–26. Jolles, D.R., Langford, R., Stapleton, S., Cesario, S., Koci, A., and Alliman, J. (2017). Outcomes of childbearing Medicaid beneficiaries engaged in care at Strong Start Birth Center sites between 2012 and 2014. Birth, 44(4), pp. 298–305. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2007). Maternity Care and Consumer-Driven Health Plans. Available: https://www.kff.org/health-costs/report/maternity-care-and-consumer-driven- health-plans. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2017). Medicaid Coverage of Pregnancy and Perinatal Benefits: Results from a State Survey. Available: http://files.kff.org/attachment/Report-Medicaid- Coverage-of-Pregnancy-and-Perinatal-Benefits. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2019a). Status of State Action on the Medicaid Expansion Decision. Available: https://www.kff.org/medicaid/issue-brief/status-of-state-medicaid-expansion- decisions-interactive-map. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2019b). Medicaid Benefits: Freestanding Birth Center Services. Available: https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/medicaid-benefits-freestanding-birth- center- services/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Benefit%20Covered%22, %22sort%22:%22desc%22%7D. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2019c). Total Medicaid MCOs. Available: https://www.kff.org/medicaid/state-indicator/total-medicaid- R-23

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS mcos/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22: %22asc%22%7D. Kane, R.L., Shamliyan, T., Mueller, C., Duval, S., and Wilt, T. (2007). Nursing staffing and quality of patient care. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, 151(1), p. 115. Kaplan, L., Skillman, S.M., Fordyce, M.A., McMenamin, P.D., and Doescher, M.P. (2012). Understanding APRN distribution in the United States using NPI data. The Journal of Nurse Practitioners, 8(8), pp. 626–635. Karbeah, J.M., Hardeman, R., Almanza, J., and Kozhimannil, K.B. (2019). Identifying the key elements of racially concordant care in a freestanding birth center. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health. Available: https://doi.org/10.1111/jmwh.13018.  Kataoka, Y., Eto, H., and Iida, M. (2013). Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: A retrospective cohort study in Japan. Midwifery, 29(8), pp. 965–972. Kennare, R.M., Keirse, M.J., Tucker, G. R., and Chan, A. C. (2010). Planned home and hospital births in South Australia, 1991–2006: Differences in outcomes. Medical Journal of Australia, 192(2), pp. 76–80. Kennedy, H.P., Cheyney, M., Dahlen, H.G., Downe, S., Foureur, M.J., Homer, C.S., Jefford, E., McFadden, A., Michel-Schuldt, M., Sandall, J., and Soltani, H. (2018). Asking different questions: A call to action for research to improve the quality of care for every woman, every child. Birth, 45(3), pp. 222–231. Kennedy, H.P., Balaam, M.C., Dahlen, H., Declercq, E., de Jong, A., Downe, S., Ellwood, D., Homer, C.S.E., Sandall, J., Vedam, S., and Wolfe, I. (2019). Report for SOW on Assessing Health Outcomes by Birth Settings, and, in Particular, on International Insights for Maternity Care in the United States. Commissioned by the Committee on Assessing Health Outcomes by Birth Settings. Washington, DC: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Kentoffio, K., Berkowitz, S.A., Atlas, S.J., Oo, S.A., and Percac-Lima, S. (2016). Use of maternal health services: Comparing refugee, immigrant and U.S.-born populations. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(12), pp. 2494–2501. Khan, K. (2019). The CROWN Initiative: Journal editors invite researchers to develop core outcomes in women’s health. Best Practice and Research: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 57, pp. e1–e4. Kim, H., and Xie, B. (2017). Health literacy in the eHealth era: A systematic review of the literature. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(6), pp. 1073–1082. Kim, S.Y., England, L., Wilson, H.G., Bish, C., Satten, G.A., and Dietz, P. (2010). Percentage of gestational diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 100(6), pp. 1047–1052. Ko, J.Y., Rockhill, K.M., Tong, V.T., and Morrow, B. (2017). Trends in postpartum depressive symptoms: 27 states, 2004, 2008, and 2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 66, pp. 153–158. Koblinsky, M., Moyer, C. A., Calvert, C., Campbell, J., Campbell, O. M., Feigl, A. B., Graham, W.J., Hatt, L., Hodgins. S., Matthews, Z., McDougal, L., Moran, A., Nandakumar, A.K. and McDougall, L. (2016). Quality maternity care for every woman, everywhere: A call to action. The Lancet, 388(10057), pp. 2307–2320. Kontos, E., Blake, K.D., Wen-Ying, S.C., and Prestin, A. (2014). Predictors of ehealth usage: Insights on the digital divide from the health information national trends survey 2012. Journal R-24

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS of Medical Internet Research, 16(7), p. e172. Kornelsen, J., Kotaska, A., Waterfall, P., Willie, L., and Wilson, D. (2010). The geography of belonging: The experience of birthing at home for First Nations women. Health and Place, 16(4), pp. 638–645. Kozhimannil, K. (2014). Rural-urban differences in childbirth care, 2002–2010, and implications for the future. Medical Care, 52(1), pp. 4–9. Kozhimannil, K.B., Pereira, M.A., and Harlow, B.L. (2009). Association between diabetes and perinatal depression among low-income mothers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(8), pp. 842–847. Kozhimannil, K.B., Hardeman, R.R., Attanasio, L.B., Blauer-Peterson, C., and O’Brien, M. (2013). Doula care, birth outcomes, and costs among Medicaid beneficiaries. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4), pp. e113–e121. Kozhimannil, K.B., Vogelsang, C.A., and Hardeman, R.R. (2015). Medicaid coverage of doula services in Minnesota: Preliminary findings from the first year. Interim Report to the Minnesota Department of Human Services. Available: https://static1.squarespace.com/static/577d7562ff7c5018d6ea200a/t/5840c791cd0f683f84779 20a/1480640403710/FullReport.pdf. Kozhimannil, K.B., Hardeman, R.R., Alarid-Escudero, F., Vogelsang, C.A., Blauer-Peterson, C., and Howell, E.A. (2016). Modeling the cost-effectiveness of doula care associated with reductions in preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Birth, 43(1), pp. 20–27. Kozhimannil, K.B., Hung, P., Henning-Smith, C., Casey, M.M., and Prasad, S. (2018a). Association between loss of hospital-based obstetric services and birth outcomes in rural counties in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(12), pp. 1239–1247. Kozhimannil, K.B., Graves, A.J., Ecklund, A.M., Shah, N., Aggarwal, R., and Snowden, J.M. (2018b). Cesarean delivery rates and costs of childbirth in a state Medicaid program after implementation of a blended payment policy. Medical Care, 56(8), pp. 658–664. Kozhimannil, K.B., Muoto, I., Darney, B.G., Caughey, A.B., and Snowden, J.M. (2018c). Early elective delivery disparities between non-Hispanic black and white women after statewide policy implementation. Women’s Health Issues, 28(3), 224–231. Krieger, N., Kosheleva, A., Waterman, P.D., Chen, J.T., Beckfield, J., and Kiang, M. V. (2014). 50-year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: U.S.-born Black and White Americans, 1959–2008. International Journal of Epidemiology, 43(4), pp. 1294–1313. Krolikowski-Ulmer, K., Watson, T.J., Westhoff, E.M., Ashmore, S.L., Thompson, P.A., and Landeen, L.B. (2018). The Collaborative Laborist and Midwifery Model: An accepted and sustainable model. South Dakota Medicine, 71(12), pp. 534–537. Kurki, T., Hiilesmaa, V., Raitasalo, R., Mattila, H., and Ylikorkala, O. (2000). Depression and anxiety in early pregnancy and risk for preeclampsia. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 95(4), pp. 487–490. Kushel, M.B., Gupta, R., Gee, L., and Haas, J.S. (2006). Housing instability and food insecurity as barriers to health care among low-income Americans. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(1), pp. 71–77. Lagrew, D.C., Kane Low, L., Brennan, R., Corry, M.P., Edmonds, J.K., Gilpin, B.G, Frost, J., Pinger, W., Reisner, D.P. and Jaffer, S. (2018). National Partnership for Maternal Safety: Consensus bundle on safe reduction of primary cesarean births-supporting intended vaginal births. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 47(2), pp. 214–226. R-25

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Lantz, P.M., Low, L.K., Varkey, S., and Watson, R.L. (2005). Doulas as childbirth paraprofessionals: Results from a national survey. Women’s Health Issues, 15(3), pp. 109– 116. Laura and John Arnold Foundation. (2017). Social Programs That Work Review: Evidence Summary for the Nurse Family Partnership. Available: https://evidencebasedprograms.org/document/nurse-family-partnership-nfp-evidence- summary. Laws, P.J., Xu, F., Welsh, A., Tracy, S.K., and Sullivan, E.A. (2014). Maternal morbidity of women receiving birth center care in New South Wales: A matched‐pair analysis using linked health data. Birth, 41(3), pp. 268–275. Leeman, L., Dresang, L.T., and Fontaine, P. (2016). Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. American Family Physician, 93(2). Leighton, C., Conroy, M., Bilderback, A., Kalocay, W., Henderson, J.K., and Simhan, H.N. (2019). Implementation and impact of a maternal–fetal medicine telemedicine program. American Journal of Perinatology, 36(07), pp. 751–758. Lemelle, A J., Reed, W., and Taylor, S. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of African American Health: Social and Behavioral Interventions. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. Leone, J., Mostow, J., Hackney, D., Gokhale, P., Janata, J., and Greenfield, M. (2016). Obstetrician attitudes, experience, and knowledge of planned home birth: An exploratory study. Birth, 43(3), pp. 220–225. Li, Q., Jenkins, D.D., and Kinsman, S.L. (2017). Birth settings and the validation of neonatal seizures recorded in birth certificates compared to Medicaid claims and hospital discharge abstracts among live births in South Carolina, 1996–2013. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(5), pp. 1047–1054. Likis, F.E., King, T.L., Murphy, P.A., and Swett, B. (2018). Intentional inconsistency as gender‐ neutral language evolves. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 63(2), pp. 155–156. Lima, S.A.M., El Dib, R.P., Rodrigues, M.R.K., Ferraz, G.A.R., Molina, A.C., Neto, C.A.P., Ferraz de Lima, M.A., and Rudge, M.V.C. (2018). Is the risk of low birth weight or preterm labor greater when maternal stress is experienced during pregnancy? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. PLOS One, 13(7), p. e0200594. Lindgren, H. and Erlandsson, K. (2010). Women’s experiences of empowerment in a planned home birth: A Swedish population‐based study. Birth, 37(4), pp. 309–317. Lindgren, H.E., Rådestad, I.J., Christensson, K., and Hildingsson, I.M. (2008). Outcome of planned home births compared to hospital births in Sweden between 1992 and 2004: A population‐based register study. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 87(7), pp. 751–759. Lipkind, H.S., Zuckerwise, L.C., Bragan Turner, E., Collins, J.J., Campbell, K.H., Reddy, U.M., Illuzi, J.L. and Merriam, A.A. (2019). Severe maternal morbidity during delivery hospitalization in a large international administrative database, 2008–2013: A retrospective cohort. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 126(10), pp. 1223–1230. Little, M., Shah, R., Vermeulen, M.J., Gorman, A., Dzendoletas, D., and Ray, J.G. (2005). Adverse perinatal outcomes associated with homelessness and substance use in pregnancy. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 173(6), pp. 615–618. Livingston, G. (2016). Births Outside Marriage Decline for Immigrant Women. Pew Research Center. Available: https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2016/10/26/births-outside-of-marriage- decline-for-immigrant-women. R-26

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Lobel, M., Dunkel-Schetter, C., and Scrimshaw, S. C. (1992). Prenatal maternal stress and prematurity: A prospective study of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Health Psychology, 11(1), p. 32. Lothian, J.A. (2013). Being safe: making the decision to have a planned home birth in the United States. The Journal of Clinical Ethics, 24(3), 266–275. Lu, M.C., and Halfon, N. (2003). Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes: A life-course perspective. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 7(1), pp. 13–30. Lucero, R.J., Lake, E.T., and Aiken, L.H. (2010). Nursing care quality and adverse events in U.S. hospitals. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(15–16), pp. 2185–2195. Lundeen, E.A., Park, S., Pan, L., O’Toole, T., Matthews, K., and Blanck, H.M. (2018). Obesity prevalence among adults living in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties—United States, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67, pp. 653–658. Lundsberg, L.S., Illuzzi, J.L., Gariepy, A.M., Sheth, S.S., Pettker, C.M., Lee, H.C., Lipkind, H.S., and Xu, X. (2017). Variation in hospital intrapartum practices and association with cesarean rate. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 46(1), pp. 5–17. Luntz, F. (2007). Words that Work: It’s Not What You Say, It’s What People Hear. New York: Hyperion Books. Lyerly, A. (2013). A Good Birth: Finding the Positive and Profound in Your Childbirth Experience. New York, NY: Penguin Random House. Lyndon, A., Johnson, M.C., Bingham, D., Napolitano, P.G., Joseph, G., Maxfield, D.G., and O’Keeffe, D.F. (2015). Transforming communication and safety culture in intrapartum care: A multi‐organization blueprint. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 44(3), pp. 341–349. Lyndon, A., Simpson, K.R., and Spetz, J. (2017). Thematic analysis of U.S. stakeholder views on the influence of labour nurses’ care on birth outcomes. BMJ Quality and Safety, 26(10), pp. 824–831. Lyndon, A., Malana, J., Hedli, L. C., Sherman, J., and Lee, H. C. (2018). Thematic analysis of women’s perspectives on the meaning of safety during hospital-based birth. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 47(3), pp. 324–332. MacDorman, M.F., and Declercq, E. (2016). Trends and characteristics of United States out-of- hospital births 2004–2014: New information on risk status and access to care. Birth, 43(2), pp. 116–24. MacDorman, M.F. and Declercq, E. (2019). Trends and state variations in out-of-hospital births in the United States, 2004–2017. Birth, 46(2), pp. 279–288. MacKinnon, D.P. (2008). An Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Macpherson, I., Roqué-Sánchez, M.V., Legget, F.O., Fuertes, F., and Segarra, I. (2016). A systematic review of the relationship factor between women and health professionals within the multivariant analysis of maternal satisfaction. Midwifery, 41, pp. 68–78. Main, E.K., Morton, C.H., Hopkins, D., Giuliani, G., Melsop, K., and Gould, J.B. (2011). Cesarean deliveries, outcomes, and opportunities for change in California: Toward a public agenda for maternity care safety and quality. California Medical Quality Care Collaborative White Paper. Available: https://www.cmqcc.org/resource/cesarean-deliveries-outcomes-and- opportunities-change-california-toward-public-agenda. Main, E.K., Cape, V., Abreo, A., Vasher, J., Woods, A., Carpenter, A., and Gould, J.B. (2017). Reduction of severe maternal morbidity from hemorrhage using a state perinatal quality R-27

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS collaborative. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 216(3), pp. 298–e1. Main, E.K., Markow, C., and Gould, J. (2018). Addressing maternal mortality and morbidity in California through public-private partnerships. Health Affairs, 37(9), pp. 1484–1493. Main, E.K., Chang, S.C., Cape, V., Sakowski, C., Smith, H., and Vasher, J. (2019). Safety assessment of a large-scale improvement collaborative to reduce nulliparous cesarean delivery rates. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 133(4), pp. 613–623. Malloy, M.H. (2010). Infant outcomes of certified nurse midwife attended home births: United States 2000 to 2004. Journal of Perinatology, 30(9), pp. 622–627. Manojlovich, M., Kerr, M., Davies, B., Squires, J., Mallick, R., and Rodger, G.L. (2014). Achieving a climate for patient safety by focusing on relationships. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 26(6), pp. 579–584. Maqbool, N., Ault, M., and Viveiros, J. (2015). The Impacts of Affordable Housing on Health: A Research Summary. Center for Housing Policy. Available: https://www.rupco.org/wp- content/uploads/pdfs/The-Impacts-of-Affordable-Housing-on-Health- CenterforHousingPolicy-Maqbool.etal.pdf. March of Dimes. (2018a). Nowhere to Go: Maternity Care Deserts Across the U.S. Available: https://www.marchofdimes.org/materials/Nowhere_to_Go_Final.pdf. March of Dimes. (2018b). Low Birthweight. Available: https://www.marchofdimes.org/complications/low-birthweight.aspx. Markow, C., and Main, E.K. (2019). Creating change at scale: Quality improvement strategies used by the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 46(2), pp. 317–328. Marmot, M., Allen, J., and Goldblatt, P. (2010). A social movement, based on evidence, to reduce inequalities in health. Social Science and Medicine, 71(7), pp. 1254–1258. Martin, J.A., Wilson, E.C., Osterman, M.J., Saadi, E.W., Sutton, S.R., and Hamilton, B.E. (2013). Assessing the quality of medical and health data from the 2003 birth certificate revision: Results from two states. National Vital Statistics Reports, 62(3). Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Osterman, M.J., Driscoll, A.K., and Drake, P. (2018a). Births: Final data for 2016. National Vital Statistics Reports, 67(1). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_01.pdf. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Osterman, M.J., and Driscoll, A.K. (2018b). Births: Final data for 2017. National Vital Statistics Reports, 67 (8). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr67/nvsr67_08-508.pdf. Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Osterman, M.J., and Driscoll, A.K. (2019). Births: Final data for 2018. National Vital Statistics Reports, 68 (13). Available: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr68/nvsr68_13-508.pdf. Mathews, T.J., and Hamilton, B.E. (2016). Mean age of mothers is on the rise: United States, 2000–2014. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief, 232. Matthews, R., and Callister, L.C. (2004). Childbearing women’s perceptions of nursing care that promotes dignity. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 33(4), pp. 498– 507. Mazul, M.C., Ward, T.C.S., and Ngui, E.M. (2017). Anatomy of good prenatal care: Perspectives of low income African-American women on barriers and facilitators to prenatal care. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 4(1), pp. 79–86. McCormack, S.A., and Best, B.M. (2014). Obstetric pharmacokinetic dosing studies are urgently needed. Frontiers in Pediatrics, 2, p. 9. R-28

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS McCullough, L.B., and Chervenak, F.A. (1994). Ethics in Obstetrics and Gynecology. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. McEwen, B.S., and Seeman, T. (1999). Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 896(1), pp. 30–47. McLaren, L. (2007). Socioeconomic status and obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews, 29(1), pp. 29–48. McLemore, M.R. (2019). To Prevent Women from Dying in Childbirth, First Stop Blaming Them. Available: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/to-prevent-women-from-dying-in- childbirth-first-stop-blaming-them. McLemore, M.R., Altman, M.R., Cooper, N., Williams, S., Rand, L., and Franck, L. (2018). Health care experiences of pregnant, birthing and postnatal women of color at risk for preterm birth. Social Science and Medicine (1982), 201, pp. 127–135. Meader, N., King, K., Llewellyn, A., Norman, G., Brown, J., Rodgers, M., Moe-Byrne, T., Higgins, J.P., Snowden, A., and Stewart, G. (2014). A checklist designed to aid consistency and reproducibility of GRADE assessments: Development and pilot validation. Systematic Review, 3(82) Menard, M.K., Main, E.K., and Currigan, S.M. (2014). Executive summary of the reVITALize initiative: Standardizing obstetric data definitions. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 124(1), p. 150– 153. Menard, M.K., Kilpatrick, S., Saade, G., Hollier, L.M., Joseph Jr, G.F., Barfield, W., Callaghan, W., Jennings, J., Conry, J. and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Levels of maternal care. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 212(3), p. 259–271. Mercer, S. L., DeVinney, B.J., Fine, L.J, Green, L.W., and Dougherty, D. (2007). Study designs for effectiveness and translation research: Identifying trade-offs. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 33(2), pp. 139–154. Meyerson, C. (2019). Every Black Woman Deserves a Doula. New York Intelligencer, March 5. Available: https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2019/03/new-yorks-medicaid-reimbursement- plan-for-doulas.html. Midwifery Education Accreditation Council. (2019). School Directory. Available: http://meacschools.org/member-school-directory. Miller, S., and Lalonde, A. (2015). The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: History, evidence, interventions, and FIGO’s mother−baby friendly birthing facilities initiative. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 131, pp. S49–S52. Miller, A.C., and Shriver, T.E. (2012). Women’s childbirth preferences and practices in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, 75(4), pp. 709–716. Miller, S., Abalos, E., Chamillard, M., Ciapponi, A., Colaci, D., Comandé, D., Diaz, V., Geller, S., Hanson, C., Langer, A. and Manuelli, V. (2016). Beyond too little, too late and too much, too soon: A pathway towards evidence-based, respectful maternity care worldwide. The Lancet, 388(10056), pp. 2176–2192. Milliman, Inc. (2019). Patient-Centered Medical Home: Developing the Business Case from a Practice Perspective. Available: https://www.ncqa.org/wp- content/uploads/2019/06/06142019_WhitePaper_Milliman_BusinessCasePCMH_Final.pdf. Moaddab, A., Dildy, G.A., Brown, H.L., Bateni, Z.H., Belfort, M.A., Sangi-Haghpeykar, H., and Clark, S.L. (2018). Health care disparity and pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 2005–2014. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(4), pp. 707–712. Morris, T., and Schulman, M. (2014). Race inequality in epidural use and regional anesthesia R-29

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS failure in labor and birth: An examination of women’s experience. Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare, 5(4), pp. 188–194. Mueller, N.T., Bakacs, E., Combellick, J., Grigoryan, Z., and Dominguez-Bello, M.G. (2015). The infant microbiome development: Mom matters. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 21(2), pp. 109–117. Mulherin, K., Miller, Y.D., Barlow, F.K., Diedrichs, P.C., and Thompson, R. (2013). Weight stigma in maternity care: Women’s experiences and care providers’ attitudes. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 13, p. 19. Mullings, L., and Wali, A. (2001). Stress and Resilience: The Social Context of Reproduction in Central Harlem. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2015). Health Literacy: Past, Present, and Future: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/21714. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24624. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Advancing Obesity Solutions Through Investments in the Built Environment: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25074. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2019). Vibrant and Healthy Kids: Aligning Science, Practice, and Policy to Advance Health Equity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25466. National Association of Certified Professional Midwives. (2014). Who are CPMs. Available: https://nacpm.org/about-cpms/who-are-cpms. National Association of Certified Professional Midwives. (2019). Legal Recognition of CPMs. Available: https://nacpm.org/about-cpms/who-are-cpms/legal-recognition-of-cpms. National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2019). How NCQA Patient-Centered Medical Homes Address Disparities. Available: https://www.ncqa.org/white-papers/how-ncqa-patient- centered-medical-homes-address-disparities. National Immigration Law Center. (2010). Facts about Federal Funding for States to Provide Health to Immigrant Children and Pregnant Women. Available: https://www.nilc.org/issues/health‐care/federal‐funding‐for‐states‐to‐provide‐health‐coverage. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2017). Intrapartum care for heathy women and babies. Available: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg190. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2016). Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes. Available: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/risk- factors-type-2-diabetes. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2017). Type 1 Diabetes. Available: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is- diabetes/type-1-diabetes. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2018). Substance Use While Pregnant and Breastfeeding. Available: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/substance-use-in-women/substance-use- while-pregnant-breastfeeding. National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). Sex and Gender. Available: https://orwh.od.nih.gov/sex- gender. National Institutes of Health. (2019). Genetics Home Reference: Preeclampsia. Available: R-30

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/preeclampsia#sourcesforpage. National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Panel (2010). Vaginal birth after cesarean: New insights March 8–10, 2010. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 115(6), pp. 1279–1295. National Partnership for Women and Families. (2018a). Raising Expectations: A State-by-State Analysis of Laws that Help Working Family Caregivers. Available: https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/economic-justice/raising- expectations-2018.pdf. National Partnership for Women and Families. (2018b). Meeting the Promise of Paid Leave: Best Practices in State Paid Leave Implementation. Available: https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/economic-justice/paid-leave/new- and-expanded-employer-paid-family-leave- policies.pdfhttps://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/economic-justice/paid- leave/meeting-the-promise-of-paid-leave.pdf. National Partnership for Women and Families. (2018c). Paid Family and Medical Leave: A Racial Justice Issue—And Opportunity. Available: https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our- work/resources/economic-justice/paid-leave/paid-family-and-medical-leave-racial-justice- issue-and-opportunity.pdf. National Partnership for Women and Families. (2019a). Tackling Maternal Health Disparities: A Look at Four Local Organizations with Innovative Approaches. Available: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/health-care/maternity/tackling- maternal-health-disparities-a-look-at-four-local-organizations-with-innovative- approaches.pdf. National Partnership for Women and Families. (2019b). America’s Women and the Wage Gap. Available: https://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/economic-justice/fair- pay/americas-women-and-the-wage-gap.pdf. National Research Council. (2006). Letter Report to Sir Michael Marmot on the Social Determinants of Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. National Research Council. (2014). The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Neal, J.L., Carlson, N.S., Phillippi, J.C., Tilden, E.L., Smith, D.C., Breman, R.B., Dietrich, M.S. and Lowe, N.K. (2019). Midwifery presence in United States medical centers and labor care and birth outcomes among low‐risk nulliparous women: A Consortium on Safe Labor study. Birth, 46(3), pp. 475–486. Nebraska Legislature. (2007). Nebraska Revised Statute 38-613. Available: https://nebraskalegislature.gov/laws/statutes.php?statute=38-613. New York State. (2019). New York State Doula Pilot Program. Available: https://www.health.ny.gov/health_care/medicaid/redesign/doulapilot/pilot.htm#enrollment. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Classification of Overweight and Obesity by BMI, Waist Circumference, and Associated Disease Risks. Available: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_dis.htm. Nielsen-Bohlman, L., Panzer, A.M., Kindig, D.A., Scrimshaw, S.C. (2018). Cultural influences: The bottom line. Teaching Strategies for Health Education and Health Promotion: The Art of Teaching Patients, Families and Communities. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. Nijagal, M.A., Shah, N.T., and Levin-Scherz, J. (2018). Both patients and maternity care providers can benefit from payment reform: Four steps to prepare. American Journal of R-31

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Obstetrics and Gynecology, 218(4), pp. 411–e1. North American Registry of Midwives. (n.d.). History of the Development of the CPM. Available: http://narm.org/certification/history-of-the- development-of-the-cpm. North American Registry of Midwives. (2019). Certified Professional Midwife (CPM): Candidate Information Booklet (CIB). Available: http://narm.org/pdffiles/CIB.pdf. Notah Begay III Foundation. (2015). Native Strong: The Social Determinants of Health of Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Available: http://www.nb3foundation.org/assets/docs/2015-10-20- SDOH%20Full%20Summary%20FINAL.pdf. Novak, N.L., Geronimus, A.T., and Martinez-Cardoso, A.M. (2017). Change in birth outcomes among infants born to Latina mothers after a major immigration raid. International Journal of Epidemiology, 46(3), pp. 839–849. Nurse-Family Partnership. (2019). Nurse-Family Partnership: Reduces Maternal and Child Mortality. Available: https://www.nursefamilypartnership.org/wp- content/uploads/2019/01/Maternal-and-Child-Mortality.pdf. Nuru‐Jeter, A., Williams, C.T., and LaVeist, T.A. (2008). A methodological note on modeling the effects of race: The case of psychological distress. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 24(5), pp. 337–350. O’Cathian, A. (2009). Mixed methods research in the health sciences: A quiet revolution. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(1), pp. 3–6. O’Connor, A. (2001). Using patient decision aids to promote evidence-based decision making. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, 6(4), pp.100–102. O’Connor, A.M., Rostom, A., Fiset, V., Tetroe, J., Entwistle, V., Llewellyn-Thomas, H., Holmes- Rovner, M., Barry, M., and Jones, J. (1999). Decision aids for patients facing health treatment or screening decisions: Systematic review. The BMJ, 319(7212), pp. 731–734. Office for National Statistics. (2019). Live Births and Stillbirths by Area of Usual Residence of Mother, Numbers, Total Fertility Rates and Stillbirths Rates, 2017. Available: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/livebirths/ bulletins/birthcharacteristicsinenglandandwales/2017. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2019). MICH-7: Reduce cesarean births among low-risk women with no prior cesarean births. Available: https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/maternal-infant-and-child- health/objectives. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2014). Work-Family Supports for Low-Income Families: Key Research Findings and Policy Trends. Available: https://aspe.hhs.gov/pdf-report/work-family-supports-low-income-families-key-research- findings-and-policy-trends. Office of the Secretary of Defense. (2019). Maternal and Infant Mortality Rates in the Military Health System. Requested by: Conference Report 115-874, Page 861 to Accompany the John S. McCain National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2019 (Public Law 115-232). Ogburn, J.A.T., Espey, E., Pierce-Bulger, M., Waxman, A., Allee, L., Haffner, W.H., and Howe, J. (2012). Midwives and obstetrician-gynecologists collaborating for Native American women’s health. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 39(3), pp. 359–366. Øian, P., Askeland, O.M., Engelund, I.E., Roland, B., and Ebbing, M. (2018). Births in Norwegian midwife-led birth units 2008–10: A population-based study. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Raekke, 138(10). Okafor, I.I., Ugwu, E.O., and Obi, S.N. (2015). Disrespect and abuse during facility‐based R-32

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS childbirth in a low‐income country. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 128(2), pp. 110–113. Oliveira, F.C., Surita, F.G., e Silva, J.L.P., Cecatti, J.G., Parpinelli, M.A., Haddad, S.M., Costa, M.L., Pacagnella, R.C., Sousa, M.H., and Souza, J.P. (2014). Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross-sectional multicenter study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14(1), p. 77. Olson, R., Garite, T.J., Fishman, A., and Andress, I.F. (2012). Obstetrician/gynecologist hospitalists: Can we improve safety and outcomes for patients and hospitals and improve lifestyle for physicians? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 207(2), pp. 81–86. Oparah, J.C, and Bonaparte, A.D. eds. (2015) Birthing justice: Black women, pregnancy, and childbirth. New York: Routledge. Oparah, J.C., Arega, H., Hudson, D., Jones, L., Of Black Women Birthing Justice, and Oseguera, T. (2018). Battling over Birth: Black Women and the Maternal Health Care Crisis. Available: DOI: 10.1891/2158-0782.9.3.150. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2018). Spending on Health: Latest Trends. Available: http://www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/Health-Spending-Latest- Trends-Brief.pdf. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development. (2019). OECD Data. Available: https://stats.oecd.org. Oregon Health Authority. (2015). Coverage Guidance: Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth. Available: https://www.oregon.gov/oha/HPA/DSI-HERC/EvidenceBasedReports/Planned-out-of- hospital-birth-11-12-15.pdf. Ozimek, J.A., Eddins, R.M., Greene, N., Karagyozyan, D., Pak, S., Wong, M., Aakowski, M., and Kilpatrick, S.J. (2015). Opportunities for improvement in care among women with severe maternal morbidity. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 215(4), pp. 509.e1–509.e6. Pacific Business Group on Health. (2015). Case Study: Maternity Payment and Care Redesign Pilot. Available: http://www.pbgh.org/storage/documents/TMC_Case_Study_Oct_2015.pdf. Patterson, J., Foureur, M., and Skinner, J. (2017). Remote rural women’s choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand. Midwifery, 52, pp. 49–56. Pearlstein, T. (2015). Depression during pregnancy: Best practice and research. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 29(5), pp. 754–764. Perined. (2019). Perinatal Care in the Netherlands 2017. Available: http://www.perinatreg- data.nl/JB2017/Jaarboek2017.html. Petersen, E.E., Davis, N.L., Goodman, D., Cox, S., Mayes, N., Johnston, E., Syverson, C., Seed, K., Shapiro-Mendoza, C.K., Callaghan, W.M. and Barfield, W. (2019). Vital signs: Pregnancy-related deaths, United States, 2011–2015, and strategies for prevention, 13 States, 2013–2017. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 68(18), p. 423. Petrou, S. (2019). Health economic aspects of late preterm and early term birth. Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 24(1), pp. 18–26. Petrou, S., Yiu, H. H., and Kwon, J. (2019). Economic consequences of preterm birth: A systematic review of the recent literature (2009–2017). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 104(5), pp. 456–465. Phelan, S.M., Puhl, R.M., Burke, S.E., Hardeman, R., Dovidio, J. F., Nelson, D. B., Przedworski, J., Burges, D.J., Yeazel, M.W., and van Ryn, M. (2015). The mixed impact of medical school on medical students’ implicit and explicit weight bias. Medical Education, 49(10), pp. 983– R-33

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS 992. Phillippi, J.C., Danhausen, K., Alliman, J., and Phillippi, D. (2018) Neonatal outcomes in the birth center setting: A systematic review. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 63(1), pp. 68–89. Podulka, J., Stranges, E., and Steiner, C. (2011). Hospitalizations related to childbirth, 2008. H- CUP Statistical Brief, 110. Available: https://www.hcup- us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb110.jsp. Ponce, N.A., Lucia, L., and Shimada, T. (2018). Proposed Changes to Immigration Rules Would Cost California Jobs, Harm Public Health. Available: https://healthpolicy.ucla.edu/publications/search/pages/detail.aspx?PubID=1789. Pont, S. J., Puhl, R., Cook, S.R., and Slusser, W. (2017). Stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity. Pediatrics, 140(6), p. e20173034. Popova, S., Lange, S., Probst, C., Gmel, G., and Rehm, J. (2017). Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet, 5(3), pp. e290–e299. Porter, M.E. and Kaplan, R.S. (2016). How to pay for health care. Harvard Business Review, 94(7–8), pp. 88–98. Porter, M., Van Teijlingen, E., Chi Ying Yip, L., and Bhattacharya, S. (2007). Satisfaction with cesarean section: Qualitative analysis of open‐ended questions in a large postal survey. Birth, 34(2), pp. 148–154. Prather, C., Fuller, T.R., Marshall, K.J., and Jeffries IV, W.L. (2016). The impact of racism on the sexual and reproductive health of African American women. Journal of Women’s Health, 25(7), pp. 664–671. Prather, C., Fuller, T.R., Jeffries IV, W.L., Marshall, K.J, Howell, A.V., Belyue-Umole, A., and King, W. (2018). Racism, African American women, and their sexual and reproductive health: A review of historical and contemporary evidence and implications for health equity. Health Equity, 2(1), pp. 249–259. Presser, H.B. (2003). Race-ethnic and gender differences in nonstandard work shifts. Work and Occupations, 30(4), pp. 412–439. Provenzi, L., Guida, E., and Montirosso, R. (2018). Preterm behavioral epigenetics: A systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 84, pp. 262–271. Puhl, R., and Brownell, K.D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obesity Research, 9(12), pp. 788–805. Puhl, R., and Latner, J. (2008). Weight bias: New science on an significant social problem. Obesity, 16(S2), p. S1. Quinn, M. (2018). To Reduce Fatal Pregnancies, Some States Look to Doulas. Available: https://www.governing.com/topics/health-human-services/gov-doula-medicaid-new-york- 2019-pregnant.html. Radin, T.G., Harmon, J.S., and Hanson, D.A. (1993). Nurses’ care during labor: Its effect on the cesarean birth rate of healthy, nulliparous women. Birth, 20(1), pp. 14–21. Rainey, E., Simonsen, S., Stanford, J., Shoaf, K., and Baayd, J. (2017). Utah obstetricians’ opinions of planned home birth and conflicting NICE/ACOG guidelines: A qualitative study. Birth, 44(2), pp. 137–144. Raisler, J. and Kennedy, H. (2005). Midwifery care of poor and vulnerable women, 1925– 2003. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 50(2), pp. 113–121. Rakover, J. (2016). The Maternity Medical Home: The Chassis for a More Holistic Model of R-34

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Pregnancy Care? Available: http://www.ihi.org/communities/blogs/_layouts/15/ihi/community/blog/itemview.aspx?List=7 d1126ec-8f63-4a3b-9926-c44ea3036813&ID=222. Ramraj, C., Pulver, A., and Siddiqi, A. (2015). Intergenerational transmission of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) through birth weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 146, pp. 29–40. Ranji, U., Gomez, I., and Salgonicoff, A. (2019). Expanding Postpartum Medicaid Coverage: Issue Brief. San Francisco: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Available: https://www.kff.org/womens-health-policy/issue-brief/expanding-postpartum-medicaid- coverage. Ranjit, A., Jiang, W., Zhan, T., Kimsey, L., Staat, B., Witkop, C.T., Little, S.E., Haider, A.H. and Robinson, J.N. (2017). Intrapartum obstetric care in the United States military: Comparison of military and civilian care systems within TRICARE. Birth, 44(4), pp. 337–344. Rathke, L. (2011). Home Births to be Insured in Vermont. Available: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/43094589/ns/health-health_care/t/home-births-be-insured- vermont/#.XXppAy5KiHt. Rayburn, W.F. (2017). The Obstetrician-Gynecologist Workforce in the United States. Washington DC: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Rayburn, W.F., Petterson, S.M., and Phillips, R.L. (2014). Trends in family physicians performing deliveries, 2003–2010. Birth, 41(1), pp. 26–32. Recio‐Saucedo, A., Dall’Ora, C., Maruotti, A., Ball, J., Briggs, J., Meredith, P., Redfern, O.C., Kovacs, C., Prytherch, D., Smith, G.B., and Griffiths, P. (2018). What impact does nursing care left undone have on patient outcomes? Review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 27(11–12), pp. 2248–2259. Reed, R., Sharman, R., and Inglis, C. (2017). Women’s descriptions of childbirth trauma relating to care provider actions and interactions. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17(1), p. 21. Reszel, J., Sidney, D., Peterson, W.E., Darling, E.K., Van Wagner, V., Soderstrom, B., Rogers, J., Graves, E., Khan, B. and Sprague, A.E. (2018). The Integration of Ontario Birth Centers into Existing Maternal‐Newborn Services: Health Care Provider Experiences. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 63(5), pp. 541–549. Review to Action. (2018). Report from Nine Maternal Mortality Review Committees. Available: http://reviewtoaction.org/sites/default/files/national-portal- material/Reportpercent20frompercent20Ninepercent20MMRCspercent20final_0.pdf. Richards, R., Merrill, R.M., and Baksh, L. (2011). Health behaviors and infant health outcomes in homeless pregnant women in the United States. Pediatrics, 128(3), pp. 438–446. Rickert, J. (2012). Patient-Centered Care: What It Means and How to Get There. Available: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20120124.016506/full. Roberts, J.M., August, P.A., Bakris, G., Barton, J.R., Bernstein, I.M., Druzin, M., Gaiser, R.R., Granger, J.P., Jeyabalan, A., Johnson, D.D., Karumanchi, S.A., Lindheimer, M., Owents, M.Y., Saade, G.R., Sibai, B.M., Spong, C.Y., Tsigas, E., Joseph, O’Reilly, N., Politzer, A., Son, S., and Ngaiza, K. (2013). Hypertension in pregnancy: Executive summary. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 122(5), pp. 1122–1131. Romero, L. (2016). Reduced disparities in birth rates among teens aged 15–19 years—United States, 2006–2007 and 2013–2014. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 65. Roome, S., Hartz, D., Tracy, S., and Welsh, A.W. (2016). Why such differing stances? A review of position statements on home birth from professional colleges. British Journal of Obstetrics R-35

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS and Gynaecology, 123(3), pp. 376–382. Rosenthal, E. (2013). American way of birth, costliest in the world. The New York Times. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/01/health/american-way-of-birth-costliest-in- the-world.html. Ross, L. J. (2017). Reproductive justice as intersectional feminist activism. Souls, 19(3), pp. 286– 314. Ross, L. and Solinger, R. (2017). Reproductive Justice: An Introduction (Vol. 1). Oakland, CA: University of California Press. Roth, C., Dent, S.A., Parfitt, S.E., Hering, S.L., and Bay, R.C. (2016). Randomized controlled trial of use of the peanut ball during labor. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 41(3), pp. 140–146. Rowe, R.E., Kurinczuk, J.J., Locock, L., and Fitzpatrick, R. (2012). Women’s experience of transfer from midwifery unit to hospital obstetric unit during labour: A qualitative interview study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12(1), p. 129. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. (2017). Management of breech presentation. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 124(7), pp. e151–e177. Rubin, L.P. (2016). Maternal and pediatric health and disease: Integrating biopsychosocial models and epigenetics. Pediatric Research, 79(1–2), pp. 127–135. Sadler, M., Santos, M.J., Ruiz-Berdún, D., Rojas, G.L., Skoko, E., Gillen, P., and Clausen, J.A. (2016). Moving beyond disrespect and abuse: Addressing the structural dimensions of obstetric violence. Reproductive Health Matters, 24(47), pp. 47–55. Sakala, C., Yang, Y.T., and Corry, M.P. (2013). Maternity care and liability: Pressing problems, substantive solutions. Women’s Health Issues, 23(1), pp. e7–e13. Sakala, C., Declercq, E., Turon, J.M., and Corry, M.P. (2018). Listening to Mothers in California: A Population-Based Survey of Women’s Childbearing Experiences, Full Survey Report. Available: https://www.chcf.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/09/ListeningMothersCAFullSurveyReport2018.pdf. Sandall, J., Devane, D., Soltani, H., Hatem, M., and Gates, S. (2010). Improving quality and safety in maternity care: The contribution of midwife‐led care. The Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 55(3), pp. 255–261. Sando, D., Ratcliffe, H., McDonald, K., Spiegelman, D., Lyatuu, G., Mwanyika-Sando, M., Emil, F., Wegner, M.N., Chalamilla, G., and Langer, A. (2016). The prevalence of disrespect and abuse during facility-based childbirth in urban Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 16(1), p. 236. Scarf, V., Catling, C., Viney, R., and Homer, C. (2016). Costing alternative birth settings for women at low risk of complications: A systematic review. PLOS One, 11(2), p. e0149463. Scarf, V. L., Rossiter, C., Vedam, S., Dahlen, H. G., Ellwood, D., Forster, D., Foureur, M.J., McLachlan, H., Oats, J., Sibbritt, D., Thornton, C., and Homer, C.S.E. (2018). Maternal and perinatal outcomes by planned place of birth among women with low-risk pregnancies in high-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Midwifery, 62, pp. 240–255. Scheufele, D A. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of Communication, 49(1), pp. 103–122. Scheufele, D.A., and Tewksbury, D. (2006). Framing, agenda setting, and priming: The evolution of three media effects models. Journal of Communication, 57(1), pp. 9–20. Schneider, P.D., Sabol, B.A., King, P.A.L., Caughey, A.B., and Borders, A.E. (2017). The hard work of improving outcomes for mothers and babies: Obstetric and perinatal quality R-36

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS improvement initiatives make a difference at the hospital, state, and national levels. Clinics in Perinatology, 44(3), pp. 511–528. Schoendorf, K.C. and Branum, A.M. (2006). The use of United States vital statistics in perinatal and obstetric research. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 194(4), pp. 911–915. Schroeder, E., Petrou, S., Patel, N., Hollowell, J., Puddicombe, D., Redshaw, M., and Brocklehurst, P. (2012). Cost effectiveness of alternative planned places of birth in woman at low risk of complications: Evidence from the Birthplace in England National Prospective Cohort study. The BMJ, 344, p. e2292. Schroeder, L., Patel, N., Keeler, M., Rocca-Ihenacho, L., and Macfarlane, A. (2017). The economic costs of intrapartum care in Tower Hamlets: A comparison between the cost of birth in a freestanding midwifery unit and hospital for women at low risk of obstetric complications. Midwifery, 45, pp. 28–35. Schuit, E., Hukkelhoven, C.W.M., van der Goes, B.Y., Overbeeke, I., Moons, K.G., Mol, B.W., Groenwold, R.H., and Kwee, A. (2016). Risk indicators for referral during labor from community midwife to gynecologist: A prospective cohort study. The Journal of Maternal- Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 29(20), pp. 3304–3311. Schummers, L., Hutcheon, J.A., Bodnar, L.M., Lieberman, E., and Himes, K.P. (2015). Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes by prepregnancy body mass index: A population-based study to inform prepregnancy weight loss counseling. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 125(1), pp. 133– 143. Schünemann, H. (Ed.). (2013). The GRADE Handbook. Cochrane Collaboration. Available: https://gdt.gradepro.org/app/handbook/handbook.html. Scrimshaw, S.C. (2019). Science, Health and Cultural Literacy in a Rapidly Changing Communications Landscape. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Apr 2019, 116 (16), pp. 7650–7655. Seeman, T.E., Singer, B.H., Rowe, J.W., Horwitz, R.I., and McEwen, B.S. (1997). Price of adaptation—Allostatic load and its health consequences: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Archives of Internal Medicine, 157(19), pp. 2259–2268. Seng, J.S., Oakley, D.J., Sampselle, C.M., Killion, C., Graham-Bermann, S., and Liberzon, I. (2001). Posttraumatic stress disorder and pregnancy complications. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 97(1), pp. 17–22. Seng, J.S., Low, L K., Sperlich, M., Ronis, D L., and Liberzon, I. (2011). Post‐traumatic stress disorder, child abuse history, birthweight and gestational age: A prospective cohort study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 118(11), pp. 1329–1339. Shah, N. (2015). A NICE Delivery—The cross-Atlantic divide over treatment intensity in childbirth. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(23), pp. 2181–2183. Shah, N. (2018). Eroding access and quality of childbirth care in rural U.S. counties. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(12), pp. 1203–1204. Shakibazadeh, E., Namadian, M., Bohren, M.A., Vogel, J.P., Rashidian, A., Nogueira Pileggi, V., Madeira, S., Leathersich, S., Tunçalp, Ӧ., Oladapo, O.T. and Souza, J.P., and Gülmezoglu, A.M. (2018). Respectful care during childbirth in health facilities globally: A qualitative evidence synthesis. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(8), pp. 932–942. Shaw, D., Guise, J.M., Shah, N., Gemzell-Danielsson, K., Joseph, K.S., Levy, B., Wong, F., Woodd, S., and Main, E.K. (2016). Drivers of maternity care in high-income countries: Can health systems support woman-centered care? The Lancet, 388(10057), pp. 2282–2295. Sheppard, V.B., Zambrana, R.E., and O'Malley, A.S. (2004). Providing health care to low-income R-37

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS women: A matter of trust. Family Practice, 21(5), pp. 484–491. Sigurdson, K., Morton, C., Mitchell, B., and Profit, J. (2018). Disparities in NICU quality of care: A qualitative study of family and clinician accounts. Journal of Perinatology, 38(5), p. 600. Simpson, M. and Catling, C. (2016). Understanding psychological traumatic birth experiences: A literature review. Women and Birth, 29(3), pp. 203–207. Simpson, K.R. and Lyndon, A. (2017a). Labor nurses’ views of their influence on cesarean birth. The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 42(2), pp. 81–87. Simpson, K.R. and Lyndon, A. (2017b). Consequences of delayed, unfinished, or missed nursing care during labor and birth. The Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 31(1), pp. 3240. Simpson, K.R., James, D.C., and Knox, G.E. (2006). Nurse‐physician communication during labor and birth: Implications for patient safety. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 35(4), pp. 547–556. Simpson, K.R., Lyndon, A., Wilson, J., and Ruhl, C. (2012). Nurses’ perceptions of critical issues requiring consideration in the development of guidelines for professional registered nurse staffing for perinatal units. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 41(4), pp. 474–482. Simpson, K.R., Lyndon, A., and Ruhl, C. (2016). Consequences of inadequate staffing include missed care, potential failure to rescue, and job stress and dissatisfaction. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 45(4), pp. 481–490. Simpson, K.R., Lyndon, A., Spetz, J., Gay, C.L., and Landstrom, G.L. (2019). Adherence to the AWHONN staffing guidelines as perceived by labor nurses. Nursing for Women’s Health, 23(3), pp. 217–223. Singh, G.K., and DiBari, J.N. (2019). Marked disparities in pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight prevalence among U.S. women by race/ethnicity, nativity/immigrant status, and sociodemographic characteristics, 2012–2014. Journal of Obesity, in-press. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30881701. Sister Song. (n.d.). Reproductive Justice. Available: https://www.sistersong.net/reproductive- justice. Slaughter-Acey, J.C., Sneed, D., Parker, L., Keith, V.M., Lee, N.L., and Misra, D.P. (2019). Skin tone matters: Racial microaggressions and delayed prenatal care. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 57(3), pp. 321–329. Sleutel, M., Schultz, S., and Wyble, K. (2007). Nurses’ views of factors that help and hinder their intrapartum care. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 36(3), pp. 203– 211. Smith, A., and Anderson, Monica. (2018). Social Media Use in 2018. Available: https://www.pewinternet.org/2018/03/01/social-media-use-in-2018. Smith, D.J., Bono, R.C., and Slinger, B.J. (2017). Transforming the military health system. Journal of the American Medical Association, 318(24), pp. 2427–2428. Snowden, J.M., Tilden, E.L., Snyder, J., Quigley, B., Caughey, A.B., and Cheng, Y.W. (2015). Planned out-of-hospital birth and birth outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(27), pp. 2642–2653. Snowden, J.M., Tilden, E.L., and Odden, M.C. (2018). Formulating and answering high‐impact causal questions in physiologic childbirth science: Concepts and assumptions. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 63(6), pp. 721–730. Snyder, C.C., Wolfe, K.B., Loftin, R.W., Tabbah, S., Lewis, D.F., and Defranco, E.A. (2011). The influence of hospital type on induction of labor and mode of delivery. American Journal R-38

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 205(4), pp. 346–e1. Society for Maternal and Fetal Medicine. (2014). Advanced Maternal Age and the Risk of Antepartum Stillbirth. Available: https://www.smfm.org/publications/81-advanced-maternal- age-and-the-risk-of-antepartum-stillbirth. Song, J.W. and Chung, K.C. (2010). Observational studies: Cohort and case-control studies. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(6), pp. 2234–2242. Southwell, B.G., Thorson, E.A., and Sheble, L. (Eds.). (2018). Misinformation and Mass Audiences. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. Sperlich, M., Gabriel, C., and Seng, J. (2017). Where do you feel safest? Demographic factors and place of birth. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 62(1), pp. 88–92. Spetz, J., Blash, L., Jura, M., and Chu, L. (2018). 2017 Survey of Nurse Practitioners and Certified Nurse Midwives. Available: https://healthforce.ucsf.edu/sites/healthforce.ucsf.edu/files/publication-pdf/survey2017npcnm- final.pdf. Sprague, A.E., Sidney, D., Darling, E.K., Van Wagner, V., Soderstrom, B., Rogers, J., Graves, E., Coyle, D., Sumner, A., Holmberg, V., and Khan, B. (2018). Outcomes for the first year of Ontario’s Birth Center Demonstration Project. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 63(5), pp. 532–540. Srinivas, S., Durnwald, C., Line, L., Patti, M., Bucher, M., Cunningham, S., and Riis, V. (2019). “Safe Start”: A community health worker program that improves perinatal outcomes in high risk women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 220(1). Stacey, D., Légaré, F., Lewis, K., Barry, M.J., Bennett, C.L., Eden, K.B., Holmes‐Rovner, M., Llewellyn‐Thomas, H., Lyddiatt, A., Thomson, R. and Trevena, L. (2017). Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4. Stahlman, S., Witkop, C., Clark, L., and Taubman, S.B. (2017). Pregnancies and live births, active component service women, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012–2016. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report, 24(11), pp. 2–9. Stanley, D., Sata, N., Oparah, J.C., and McLemore, M.R. (2015). Evaluation of the East Bay Community Birth Support Project, a community-based program to decrease recidivism in previously incarcerated women. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing, 44(6), pp. 743–750. Stapleton, S.R. (2011). Validation of an online data registry for midwifery practices: A pilot project. The Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 56(5), pp. 452–460. Stapleton, S.R., Osborne, C., and Illuzzi, J. (2013). Outcomes of care in birth centers: Demonstration of a durable model. Journal Midwifery and Women’s Health, 58(1), pp. 3–14. Statistics Canada. (2019). Live Births and Fetal Deaths (Stillbirths), By Place of Birth (Hospital or Non-hospital). Available: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=1310042901. Stephenson-Famy, A., Masarie, K.S., Lewis, A., and Schiff, M.A. (2018). What are the risk factors associated with hospital birth among women planning to give birth in a birth center in Washington State? Birth, 45(2), pp. 130–136. Sun, R., Karaca, Z., and Wong, H.S. (2018). Trends in hospital inpatients stays by age and payer, 2000–2015. H-CUP Statistical Brief, 235. Available: https://www.hcup- us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb235-Inpatient-Stays-Age-Payer-Trends.jsp. Suto, M., Takehara, K., Misago, C., and Matsui, M. (2015). Prevalence of perineal lacerations in R-39

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS women giving birth at midwife‐led birth centers in Japan: A retrospective descriptive study. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 60(4), pp. 419–427. Swartz, J.J., Hainmueller, J., Lawrence, D., and Rodriguez, M.I. (2017). Expanding prenatal care to unauthorized immigrant women and the effects on infant health. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 130(5), pp. 938–945. Swendsen, J., Conway, K.P., Degenhardt, L., Glantz, M., Jin, R., Merikangas, K.R., Sampson, N., and Kessler, R. C. (2010). Mental disorders as risk factors for substance use, abuse and dependence: Results from the 10‐year follow‐up of the National Comorbidity Survey. Addiction, 105(6), pp. 1117–1128. Tani, F., and Castagna, V. (2017). Maternal social support, quality of birth experience, and post- partum depression in primiparous women. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 30(6), pp. 689–692. Teune, M.J., van Wassenaer, A.G., Malin, G.L., Asztalos, E., Alfirevic, A., Mol, B.W., and Opmeer, B.C. (2013). Long-term child follow-up after large obstetric randomized controlled trials for the evaluation of perinatal interventions: A systematic review of the literature. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gyaenocology, 120(1), pp. 15–22. Texas Department of State Health Services. (2019). CHW Certification Requirements. Available: https://www.dshs.texas.gov/mch/chw/chwdocs.aspx. The City of Columbus. (2019). Prenatal Trip Assistance. Available: https://smart.columbus.gov/projects/prenatal-trip-assistance. The Editorial Board. (2014). Are Midwives Safer Than Doctors? Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/15/opinion/are-midwives-safer-than-doctors.html. The General Court of New Hampshire. (n.d.). Chapter Mid 500: Scope of Midwifery Practice. Available: http://www.gencourt.state.nh.us/rules/state_agencies/mid500.html. The Joint Commission. (2004). Sentinel Event Alert, Issue 30: Preventing Infant Death and Injury During Delivery. Available: https://www.jointcommission.org/sentinel_event_alert_issue_30_preventing_infant_death_an d_injury_during_delivery. The Joint Commission. (2010). Preventing Maternal Death. Available: http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/18/sea_44.pdf. The Joint Commission. (2018). Facts about Hospital Accreditation. Available: https://www.jointcommission.org/facts_about_hospital_accreditation. The Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission. (2014). Issues in Pregnancy Coverage under Medicaid and Exchange Plans. Available: https://www.macpac.gov/publication/ch-3-issues-in-pregnancy-coverage-under-medicaid- and-exchange-plans. The Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission. (2017). Federal Requirements and State Options: Eligibility. Available: https://www.macpac.gov/wp- content/uploads/2017/03/Federal-Requirements-and-State-Options-Eligibility.pdf. The Midwifery Center Healthcare. (2019). Frequently Asked Questions. Available: https://www.tmcaz.com/tmc-for-women/maternity/the-midwifery-center/frequently-asked- questions. The World Bank. (2019). DataBank: Birth Rate, Crude (per 1,000 people). Available: https://databank.worldbank.org/reports.aspx?source=2&series=SP.DYN.CBRT.IN&country= #. Thomas, M.P., Ammann, G., Brazier, E., Noyes, P., and Maybank, A. (2017). Doula services R-40

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS within a healthy start program: Increasing access for an underserved population. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(1), pp. 59–64. Thornton, P., McFarlin, B.L., Park, C., Rankin, K., Schorn, M., Finnegan, L., and Stapleton, S. (2017). Cesarean outcomes in U.S. birth centers and collaborating hospitals: A cohort comparison. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 62(1), pp. 40–48. Thurston, L.A.F., Abrams, D., Dreher, A., Ostrowski, S.R., and Wright, J.C. (2019). Improving birth and breastfeeding outcomes among low resource women in Alabama by including doulas in the interprofessional birth care team. Journal of Interprofessional Education and Practice, 17, p. 100278. Tilden, E.L., Cheyney, M., Guise, J.M., Emeis, C., Lapidus, J., Biel, F.M., Wiedrick, J., and Snowden, J.M. (2017). Vaginal birth after cesarean: Neonatal outcomes and United States birth setting. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 216(4), pp. 403.e1–403.e8. Tjaden, P. and Thoennes, N. (2000). Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. Washington, DC: Department of Justice. Available: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/183781.pdf. Tong, S.T., Makaroff, L.A., Xierali, I.M., Parhat, P., Puffer, J.C., Newton, W.P., and Bazemore, A.W. (2012). Proportion of family physicians providing maternity care continues to decline. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 25(3), pp. 270–271. Triebwasser, J.E., Kamdar, N., Moniz, M.H., Langen, E.S., Journal of the American Medical Association, J., Smith, R.D., and Morgan, D.M. (2018). Hospital contribution to variation in rates of vaginal birth after cesarean: A Michigan Value Collaborative study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 218(1), pp. S351–S352. Trotter, C., Wolman, W.L., Hofmeyr, J., Nikodem, C., and Turton, R. (1992). The effect of social support during labour on postpartum depression. South African Journal of Psychology, 22(3), pp. 134–139. Truven Health Analytics. (2013). The Cost of Having a Baby in the United States. Available: http://www.nationalpartnership.org/our-work/resources/health-care/maternity/archive/the- cost-of-having-a-baby-in-the-us.pdf. Tumblin, A., and Simkin, P. (2001). Pregnant women’s perceptions of their nurse’s role during labor and delivery. Birth, 28(1), pp. 52–56. Tussey, C.M., Botsios, E., Gerkin, R.D., Kelly, L.A., Gamez, J., and Mensik, J. (2015). Reducing length of labor and cesarean surgery rate using a peanut ball for women laboring with an epidural. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 24(1), p. 16. United Nations Population Fund. (2006). State of World Population 2006: A Passage to Hope: Women and International Migration. Available: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/sowp06-en.pdf. United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. (n.d.). Study of Domestic Capacity to Provide Medical Care for Vulnerable Refugees. Available: https://refugees.org/wp- content/uploads/2015/12/Study-of-Domestic-Capacity-to-Provide-Medical-Care-for- Vulnerable-Refugees-Quick-View.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau. (2017). Fertility of Women in the United States: 2016. Available: https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2016/demo/fertility/women-fertility.html#par_list_58. U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). Foreign-Born Population by Sex, Age, and Year of Entry: 2018. Available: https://www.census.gov/data/tables/2018/demo/foreign-born/cps-2018.html. U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). About Foreign Born. Available: https://www.census.gov/topics/population/foreign-born/about.html. R-41

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS U.S. MERA Professional Regulation Committee. (2015a). Principles for Model U.S. Midwifery Legislation and Regulation. Available: http://www.usmera.org/wp- content/uploads/2015/11/US-MERALegislativeStatement2015.pdf. U.S. MERA Professional Regulation Committee. (2015b). Statement on the Licensure of Certified Professional Midwives (CPM). Available: http://www.usmera.org/index.php/2015/07/01/statement-on-the-licensure-of-certified- professional-midwives-cpm. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2017). Screening for preeclampsia: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Journal of the American Medical Association, 317(16), pp. 1661–1667. van der Kooy, J., Poeran, J., de Graaf, J.P., Birnie, E., Denktas, S., Steegers, E.A., and Bonsel, G.J. (2011). Planned home compared with planned hospital births in the Netherlands: Intrapartum and early neonatal death in low-risk pregnancies. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 118(5), pp. 1037–1046. Vanderbilt University Medical Center. (2019). Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology: Residency Program. Available: https://www.vumc.org/obgyn/person/residency-program. Vanderbilt University School of Nursing. (2019). Available: https://www.vanderbiltnursemidwives.org/cnm-ourpractice.html. Vedam, S., Leeman, L., Cheyney, M., Fisher, T.J., Myers, S., Low, L.K. and Ruhl, C. (2014a). Transfer from planned home birth to hospital: Improving interprofessional collaboration. Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health, 59(6), pp. 624–634. Vedam, S., Stoll, K., Schummers, L., Fairbrother, N., Klein, M.C., Thordarson, D., Kornelsen, J., Dharamsi, S., Rogers, J., Liston, R., and Kaczorowski, J. (2014b). The Canadian Birth Place study: Examining maternity care provider attitudes and interprofessional conflict around planned home birth. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14(1), p. 353. Vedam, S., Rossiter, C., Homer, C.S., Stoll, K., and Scarf, V.L. (2017). The ResQu Index: A new instrument to appraise the quality of research on birth place. PLOS One, 12(8), p. e0182991. Vedam, S., Stoll, K., MacDorman, M.F., Declercq, E., Cramer, R., Cheyney, M., Fisher, T., Butt, E., Yang, Y.T., and Kennedy, H.P. (2018). Mapping integration of midwives across the United States: Impact on access, equity, and outcomes. PLOS One, 13(2), p. e0192523. Vedam, S., Stoll, K., Khemet Taiwo, T., Rubashkin, N., Cheyney, M., Strauss, N., McLemore, M., Cadena, M., Nethery, E., Ruston, E., Schummers, L., Declercq, E., and the GVtM-UA Steering Council. (2019). The Giving Voice to Mothers study: Inequity and mistreatment during pregnancy and childbirth in the United States. Reproductive Health, 16(1), p. 77 Veterans Affairs/DoD Management of Pregnancy Work Group. (2018). VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Pregnancy. Washington, DC. Available: https://www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/WH/up/VADoDPregnancyCPG4102018.pdf Vinikoor, L.D., Messer, L.D., Laraia, B.A., and Kaufman, J.S. (2010). Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: A comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study. Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 24(1), pp. 102–112. Virginia Law. (2013). 18VAC85-130-80. General Disclosure Requirements. Available: https://law.lis.virginia.gov/admincode/title18/agency85/chapter130/section80. Vogel, L. (2011). “Do it yourself” births prompt alarm. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 183(6), pp. 648–650. R-42

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS Wallace, M.E. and Harville, W.W. (2013). Allostatic load and birth outcomes among white and black women in New Orleans. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(6), pp. 1025–1029. Walsh, D., Spiby, H., Grigg, C.P., Dodwell, M., McCourt, C., Culley, L., Bishop, S., Wilkinson, J., Coleby, D., Pacanowski, L., and Thornton, J. (2018). Mapping midwifery and obstetric units in England. Midwifery, 56, pp. 9–16. Wasden, Shane W., Stephen T. Chasen, Jeffrey M. Perlman, Jessica L. Illuzzi, Frank A. Chervenak, Amos Grünebaum, and Heather S. Lipkind. (2017). Planned home birth and the association with neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 45(9), pp. 1055–1060. Watterberg, K.L. (2013). Policy statement on planned home birth: Upholding the best interests of children and families. Pediatrics, 132(5), pp. 924–926. Wax, J.R., Lucas, F.L., Lamont, M., Pinette, M.G., Cartin, A., and Blackstone, J. (2010). Maternal and newborn outcomes in planned home birth vs. planned hospital births: A meta- analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 203(3), pp. 243–e1. West, S.G., Duan, N., Pequegnat, W., Gaist, P., Des Jarlais, D.C., Holtgrave, D., Szapocznik, J., Fishbein, M., Rapkin, B., Clatts, M. and Mullen, P.D., 2008. Alternatives to the randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), pp.1359–1366. White VanGompel, E., Perez, S., Wang, C., Datta, A., Cape, V., and Main, E. (2019). Measuring labor and delivery unit culture and clinicians’ attitudes toward birth: Revision and validation of the Labor Culture Survey. Birth, 46(2), pp. 300–310. Wiegerinck, M.M., Van Der Goes, B.Y., Ravelli, A.C., Van Der Post, J.A., Buist, F.C., Tamminga, P., and Mol, B.W. (2018). Intrapartum and neonatal mortality among low-risk women in midwife-led versus obstetrician-led care in the Amsterdam region of the Netherlands: A propensity score matched study. BMJ Open, 8(1), p. e018845. Wier, L.M., and Andrews, R.M. (2011). The National Hospital Bill: The Most Expensive Conditions by Payer, 2008. Available: https://www.hcup- us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb107.pdf. Wildeman, C. (2012). Imprisonment and infant mortality. Social Problems, 59(2), pp. 228–257. Wint, K., Elias, T.I., Mendez, G., Mendez, D.D., and Gary-Webb, T.L. (2019). Experiences of community doulas working with low-income, African American mothers. Health Equity, 3(1), pp. 109–116. Wisdom, J.P., Cavaleri, M.A., Onwuegbuzie, A.J., and Green, C.A. (2012). Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles. Health Services Research, 47(2), pp. 721–745. World Health Organization. (2014). The Prevention and Elimination of Disrespect and Abuse During Facility-Based Childbirth. Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/134588/WHO_RHR_14.23_eng.pdf;jsessioni d=A4E8D847C6366097051BEDCF76776AD8?sequence=1. World Health Organization. (2015). WHO Statement on Caesarean Section Rates. Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/161442/WHO_RHR_15.02_eng.pdf;jsession id=8F2C265B420604B6FD35FA593767F1CE?sequence=1%20And%20https://www.BMJ.c om/content/360/BMJ.k55. World Health Organization. (2018). WHO recommendations: Intrapartum Care for a Positive Childbirth Experience. Available: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/260178/9789241550215-eng.pdf. R-43

PREPUBLICATION COPY, UNCORRECTED PROOFS World Health Organization. (2019). Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 100,000 Live Births). Available: https://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en. Wu, Y., Kataria, Y., Wang, Z., Ming, W.K., and Ellervik, C. (2019). Factors associated with successful vaginal birth after a cesarean section: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19(1), p. 360. Xu, X., Gariepy, A., Lundsberg, L.S., Sheth, S.S., Pettker, C.M., Krumholz, H.M., and Illuzzi, J.L. (2015). Wide variation found in hospital facility costs for maternity stays involving low- risk childbirth. Health Affairs, 34(7), pp. 1212–1219. Xu, X., Lee, H.C., Lin, H., Lundsberg, L.S., Pettker, C.M., Lipkind, H.S., and Illuzzi, J.L. (2018). Hospital variation in cost of childbirth and contributing factors: A cross-sectional study. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 125(7), pp. 829–839. Xue, Y., and Brewer, C. (2014). Racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. national nurse workforce 1988–2013. Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice, 15(3–4), pp. 102–110. Yang, Y.T., L.B. Attanasio, and K.B. Kozhimannil. (2016). State scope of practice laws, nurse- midwifery workforce, and childbirth procedures and outcomes. Women’s Health Issues, 26(3), pp. 262–267. Yoder, H., and Hardy, L.R. (2018). Midwifery and antenatal care for black women: A narrative review. SAGE Open, 8(1). Young, R.K. (2009). AMA Manual of Style A Guide for Authors and Editors (10th edition). Available: https://www.amamanualofstyle.com/view/10.1093/Journal of the American Medical Association/9780195176339.001.0001/med-9780195176339-div2-350. Young, R.A. (2017). Maternity care services provided by family physicians in rural hospitals. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 30(1), pp. 71–77. Zambrana, R.E., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Collins, N.L., and Scrimshaw, S.C. (1999). Mediators of ethnic-associated differences in infant birth weight. Journal of Urban Health, 76(1), pp. 102– 116. Zhang, X., Joseph, K.S., and Kramer, M.S. (2010). Decreased term and postterm birthweight in the United States: impact of labor induction. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 203(2), pp. 124–e1. Zielinski, R., Ackerson, K., and Kane Low, L. (2015). Planned home birth: Benefits, risks, and opportunities. International Journal of Women’s Health, 7, pp. 361–377. Zollinger, T.W., Przybylski, M.J., and Gamache, R.E. (2006). Reliability of Indiana birth certificate data compared to medical records. Annuals of Epidemiology, 16(1), pp. 1–10. R-44

Next: Appendix: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff »
Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice Get This Book
×
Buy Prepub | $79.00 Buy Paperback | $70.00
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The delivery of high quality and equitable care for both mothers and newborns is complex and requires efforts across many sectors. The United States spends more on childbirth than any other country in the world, yet outcomes are worse than other high-resource countries, and even worse for Black and Native American women. There are a variety of factors that influence childbirth, including social determinants such as income, educational levels, access to care, financing, transportation, structural racism and geographic variability in birth settings. It is important to reevaluate the United States' approach to maternal and newborn care through the lens of these factors across multiple disciplines.

Birth Settings in America: Outcomes, Quality, Access, and Choice reviews and evaluates maternal and newborn care in the United States, the epidemiology of social and clinical risks in pregnancy and childbirth, birth settings research, and access to and choice of birth settings.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!