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52 4.1 Tools and Terminology Overview This chapter provides information on tools and resources that can assist Guidebook users in integrating sustainability considerations and processes and the environmental review process. It also contains terminology used in both environmental reviews and in sustainability planning that may be useful for Guidebook users. Guidebook users may reference this section for infor- mation and supporting tools when preparing a sustainability plan, undertaking an environmen- tal review, or seeking general information about either process. 4.2 Checklists This section provides several checklists that aviation practitioners may use when integrating sustainability planning and the environmental review process. Depending on the Guidebook userâs role in the project, the Guidebook user may wish to modify or adapt the checklist to suit the scope of responsibilities and goals of the project. For additional information on getting started with integrating sustainability planning and the environmental review process, refer to Section 1.7, Quick Start Guide. The Quick Start Guide outlines the key steps that a project manager or airport manager should consider when integrating sustainability planning and the environmental review process at an airport. The checklists provided include the following: â¢ Checklist 1. Sustainability Resources to Consult When Preparing an Environmental Review, â¢ Checklist 2. Environmental Review Resources to Consult When Preparing a Sustainability Plan, â¢ Checklist 3. Sustainability Aspects to Consider within Each Environmental Review Section, and â¢ Checklist 4. Strategic Planning: Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process. C H A P T E R 4 Tools and Resources
Tools and Resources 53 Resource to Consult Action Clarifications Airport sustainability policy, vision statement, or mission statement Verify whether these sustainability documents exist and review potential relevance to proposed project. May be located in the airport annual report. Airport Master Plan Verify whether sustainability is a component and review potential relevance to proposed project. Sustainability may not be formally defined. Airport Sustainability Plan Verify whether this sustainability document exists and review potential relevance to proposed project. May be titled a âSustainable Management Plan,â âSustainability Master Plan,â or other similar title. Environmental Management System (EMS) Continual improvement and tracking mitigation for key environmental aspects identified by the airport. Typically, in the environment department. Resource-specific plans Review for integration with broader sustainability planning efforts. May not specifically espouse sustainability; common topics include energy conservation, water conservation, waste management, community engagement, or employee wellness. Individual projects or initiatives Identify any individual projects (in progress or planned) that relate to any aspects of sustainability. For instance, facilities may be undertaking an LED lighting retrofitting project. May not specifically call out sustainability features. Airport department directors Coordinate with internal entities to identify any information gaps. N/A Public relations or marketing Coordinate with public engagement staff to identify past, ongoing, or planned engagement activities regarding sustainability. May need to explain the concept of sustainability to marketing department, community relations, and so forth. Airport website or other publicly available resources Verify whether sustainability is a component. N/A Local jurisdictionsâ sustainability policies, plans, or other documents Verify whether the local jurisdictions (e.g., state, county, municipality, public authority) have one of these sustainability documents and review potential relevance to the airport, specific project, or both. N/A Agency sustainability guidance Review relevant agency sustainability guidance, such as those provided by the FAA. Agency websites are good sources for guidance. Checklist 1. Sustainability resources to consult when preparing an environmental review. Resource to Consult Action Previously completed environmental review documents (e.g., EAs, EISs) Review documents of all classes of action completed within a reasonable time period before the sustainability plan (typically within the last 5 years). Airport Master Plan Identify reasonably foreseeable future projects that would require environmental review. Airport capital improvement plan Identify reasonably foreseeable future projects that would require environmental review. Airport department directors Coordinate with internal staff to identify any information gaps. Public relations or marketing Coordinate with public engagement staff to identify communications regarding previously completed projects that underwent environmental review and planned capital projects. Local jurisdictionsâ plans Review local jurisdictionsâ (e.g., state, county, municipality, public authority) plans, such as city master plans, to identify potential future projects that would require environmental review. Checklist 2. Environmental review resources to consult when preparing a sustainability plan.
54 Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process Environmental Review Section Sustainability Aspects to Consider Project planning and scoping Ensure the design team incorporates sustainability aspects into planning and design. The environmental review should evaluate the impacts from the project as conceptualized, so that sustainability features are included in the conceptual design and accounted for in the environmental review process. Project description and purpose and need Consider the sustainability policy, vision statement, or mission statement, if available; consider goals or objectives contained in existing sustainability plans. Integrate these sustainability features wherever possible. Alternatives analysis Determine if sustainability aspects make sense as a screening criterion for alternatives; consider goals, objectives, or targets contained in existing sustainability plans. Integrate such features wherever possible. Affected environment Consult existing sustainability plans for data or useful information; include any existing sustainability plans as part of the baseline affected environment. Environmental consequences Evaluate potential impacts of the project as envisioned with any sustainability features incorporated; optionally, report anticipated impacts without sustainability features. Mitigation Ensure alignment with existing or proposed sustainability initiatives or actions; consider incorporating sustainability actions as mitigation measures to make implementation a requirement as part of the project. Stakeholder engagement Ensure consistent messaging regarding sustainability across all projects (reiterate a policy, vision, or mission statement, maintain consistency with goals and objectives); capitalize on existing stakeholder groups or organizations for public outreach. Checklist 3. Sustainability aspects to consider within each environmental review section. Strategic Aspect Action Interdepartmental coordination Coordinate with all airport departments to identify current and planned capital projects and current and planned sustainability programs, projects, or initiatives; open lines of communication regarding integration approach. Policy statement Consider adopting a policy statement (or amending an existing policy), stating intent to align sustainability planning and environmental or regulatory reviews. Planning and review procedure Develop or amend a procedure for how airport staff or airport consultants should prepare environmental reviews or carry out sustainability planning in a manner that integrates the two. Stakeholder support Engage with internal and external stakeholders to explain the integration approach and expected outcomes; seek feedback and recommendations. Communication Clearly communicate the intent to produce documents that integrate sustainability planning and the environmental review process; ensure federal liaisons and cooperating agencies are aware of this intent and that such integration will be consistent with existing regulatory requirements. Checklist 4. Strategic planning: integrating sustainability planning and the environmental review process.
Tools and Resources 55 4.3 Existing Tools and Resources A variety of tools and resources are useful for aviation practitioners seeking to integrate sustainability planning and the environmental review process. The tools summarized in Table 4.1 include checklists, databases, interactive websites, and management systems pertaining to airport planning, transportation planning, state and federal regulations, and sustainability planning principles. While some tools may be only applicable for small, general aviation airports, other tools may be more appropriate for large-scale, complex sustainability planning integration into environmental review documentation. Using any one or a combination of these tools can help Guidebook users (project designers, planners, and stakeholders) better understand the impacts and alternatives of their plans and projects. After evaluating approximately 40 tools for potential inclusion in the Guidebook, the following 15 tools were deemed appropriate and useful for their ability to advance environmental review and sustainability planning integration. Table 4.1 contains a description of each tool and where to find it. Tool Author/Source Description Source ACRP Report 80: Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into Traditional Airport Projects. Airport Sustainability Assessment Tool (ASAT). Landrum & Brown, Inc., et al. 2012 This tool provides guidance and recommendations for potential sustainability projects at airports. While the tool does not directly address or incorporate the NEPA process, it can quickly identify specific sustainability efforts that can be used to meet goals specified by the user. These goals could include NEPA-related mitigation goals, or general sustainability goals as part of a larger project. This tool should be used early in the planning process to help identify potential courses of sustainable action. http://www.trb. org/Publications/ Blurbs/168044. aspx ACRP Report 110: Evaluating Impacts of Sustainability Practices on Airport Operations and Maintenanceâ Userâs Guide and Research Report Salerno et al. 2014 This report includes the Evaluation Process and Cost- Benefit Tool (EP & CBT). This tool evaluates the impacts of implementing sustainability practices at airports concerning operations and maintenance. This tool is useful for evaluating cost impacts of sustainability initiatives. It could be used during the NEPA process when identifying best management practices that could result in reduced impacts and potential cost savings. http://www.trb. org/Publications/ Blurbs/170580. aspx Assessing the Effectiveness of Project-Based Public Involvement Processes: A Self- Assessment Tool for Practitioners Transportation Research Board, Committee on Public Involvement This tool uses project specific information to produce a scorecard intended to provide the environmental practitioner with a self- assessment of the effectiveness of a public involvement campaign for a given project. This straightforward scorecard can help NEPA practitioners determine the cost-benefit of a public participation program. This is particularly useful for airports near large population centers. This tool could help craft public involvement strategies for NEPA documents as they relate to sustainability and public transparency. http://ncdd.org/ rc/item/963 Caltrans NEPA Forms and Templates California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) These forms provide numerous NEPA and related environmental forms, templates, and other documents that address topics ranging from air quality to biological resources. Although the NEPA forms and templates are likely not relevant to airport projects, the wealth of detailed reference material can serve as a guide for specific resource analysis under NEPA. This detailed guidance may reveal opportunities to incorporate sustainability principles into an environmental review or plan. http://www.dot.ca. gov/ser/forms.htm Table 4-1. Existing tools and resources. (continued on next page)
56 Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process Tool Author/Source Description Source Documented CATEX Form FAA This form can be used for aviation projects that require a CATEX with detailed information, though not at the detailed level of an EA. This standardized form is typical of NEPA analysis and should regularly be consulted by airports and their consultants when scoping and completing a CATEX. Sustainability considerations can be incorporated into the CATEX, in addition to larger environmental reviews. https://www.faa. gov/airports/ resources/sops/ media/arp-SOP- 510-catex- documentation. docx Environmental Information Document Review Checklist EPA This checklist is designed to allow agencies to assess the potential environmental impact of the projects they are funding. The checklist also provides links to other EPA sites related to resource usage and conservation. Using these EPA links in combination with the checklist can help airport practitioners incorporate sustainable principles into their environmental reviews. Additionally, this checklist is not just relevant to environmental documents from EPA; the sustainability content can also be applied to other environmental reviews. https://archive. epa.gov/region9/ water/archive/ web/pdf/eid- checklist.pdf Aligning National Environmental Policy Act Processes with Environmental Management Systems CEQ This guide outlines how to integrate the Environmental Management System approach with the NEPA process. The Environmental Management System requires identification of environmental aspects and significant environmental impacts associated with ongoing activities, products, and services. On the other hand, NEPA forecasts the impacts of proposed actions and any mitigation measures at a discrete proposal design and decision phase. By incorporating an Environmental Management System approach into the NEPA process, particularly with regard to monitoring and corrective action, airport practitioners can facilitate the use of impact prediction and mitigation information into actual day-to-day implementation. https://www. energy.gov/sites/ prod/files/CEQ_ NEPA_EMS_ Guide-04-2007_1. FHWA Environmental Toolkit FHWA This web-based tool includes guidance and information about environmental policy, best practices, and training related to transportation planning. This easy to use tool provides detailed information on both sustainability and NEPA but not specific information on integrating the two. The tool is intended to be used by planners and environmental practitioners and provides a broad focus on natural resources. https://www. environment.fhwa. dot.gov/index.asp IS0 14001â Environmental Management International Organization for Standardization These standards map out a framework for establishing an effective environmental management system. For NEPA and sustainability, this tool can help formalize environmental programs and gain buy-in from stakeholders. The system also helps formalize environmental commitments and could be used to better understand NEPA project alternatives or provide a formal tracking system for management practices instituted as part of a NEPA document. https://www.iso. org/iso-14001- environmental- management.html pdf Table 4-1. (Continued).
Tools and Resources 57 Tool Author/Source Description Source ISO 15001âEnergy Management System International Organization for Standardization These standards are based on the model of continual improvement also used for ISO 14001. This tool supports using energy more efficiently through the use of an energy management system. ISO 15001 makes it easier for organizations, including airports, to integrate energy management into their overall efforts to improve environmental management and reduce GHG consumption. Because this tool is specific to energy use and efficiency, it could be used by airport practitioners in evaluating the impacts of environmental review project alternatives. This tool can help airport practitioners and environmental specialists better understand https://www.iso. org/iso-50001- energy- management.html the sustainability of energy projects and alternatives when drafting an environmental review document. Public Participation Toolkit EPA This toolkit is designed to assist in identifying best practices for designing and implementing an effective public participation program. This tool could assist in the public involvement element of the NEPA process, including providing implementation guidance for a variety of public meetings and participatory events. https://www.epa. gov/international- cooperation/public- participation- guide SCDOT Environmental Services Tool Shed South Carolina DOT (SCDOT) This resource is a repository of documents, forms templates, references, and guidelines about transportation and the federal, state, and agency environmental requirements. By leveraging the tremendous amount of materials compiled in the tool shed, environmental practitioners, not exclusively in South Carolina, could use the guidance material related to specific resources to enhance sustainable activity at airports. (http://www.dot. state.sc.us/inside/ Environmental Services_ ToolShed.aspx Sustainable Aviation Guidance Alliance SAGA This interactive website allows users to explore and share sustainability planning information. The site specifically targets airports, providing a platform to share ideas and experiences for sustainable practices and planning. Although not specific to NEPA, this tool is broadly applicable, accessible to users of varying skill levels, and can help inform sustainability activities that could be integrated into NEPA planning. Airport practitioners working to implement a sustainability plan or curious about what other airports have successfully completed may find browsing the SAGA website a helpful starting point to understanding airport sustainability. www.airport sustainability.org TxDOT NEPA and Project Development Toolkit Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) This set of tools was developed for meeting the standards required by TxDOT to comply with NEPA. Although originally developed for Texas transportation projects, the tools and insights in the toolkit include best practices for the environmental review process as well as guidance linking NEPA and general planning. These topics are applicable outside of Texas and outside of roadway projects. http://www.txdot. gov/inside- txdot/division/ environmental/ compliance- toolkits/nepa.html Urban Transportation Center: Sustainable Rail Scorecard University of Illinois at Chicago: Urban Transportation Center This website consists of a scorecard and mapping tool used for conducting environzmental impact assessments of rail infrastructure in Illinois. The scorecard includes integrated sustainability metrics. This tool is a good resource for airports trying to understand how to adopt sustainability consideration in their NEPA documents. Although the categories and metrics are focused on rail structures, the general principles can be used to provide strong examples of sustainability, associated metrics, and initial baseline data gathering for environmental review. https://utc.uic.edu/ publication/ sustainability- metrics-mapping- tool- environmental- assessment-rail- infrastructure- illinois/ Table 4-1. (Continued).
58 Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process Leveraging Sustainability Rating Systems for Airport Planning There are various sustainability rating systems available that airports can utilize to establish standardized sustainability criteria in their planning and project development efforts. They can also be used to integrate the airportâs sustainability goals into projects before entering the NEPA process. Some popular, more commonly used, or referenced programs include but are not limited to Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Parksmart, and Envision. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) U.S. Green Building Councilâs (USGBC) LEED certification program is an internationally recognized green building rating system. LEED rating systems cover new construction, interior design and construction, and existing buildings, among other project types, and can be applied using multiple building and campus approaches depending on the rating system credit. Adopting LEED criteria can create a framework of minimum sustainability standards for airport projects. Applying LEED in the airport setting, however, has been challenging to date. Historically, LEED has not accounted for airport space types, which can have very different functions and resource requirements compared with standard residential, commercial, and even industrial buildings. For example, airports have unique energy intensive building components, such as baggage handling systems and aircraft ground energy systems. Further, airports can have location and landscape constraints such as being located outside heavily developed areas and subject to wildlife and stormwater restrictions. USGBC is working to incorporate airport projects into LEEDâs evolving design standards, as evidenced by the recent inclusion of several airport space types into LEED Online, USGBCâs tool to manage LEED documentation and certification, such as terminals/concourses, hangars, control towers, and more. More information on the LEED program can be found online on the following website: https://new.usgbc.org/leed. Parksmart Parksmart focuses specifically on parking structure management, programming, design, and technology. Parksmart certification operates on a points-based structure, much like the USGBCâs LEED rating system, also administered by the Green Business Certification Inc. (GBCI). Parksmart emphasizes âinnovative, solutions-oriented strategiesâ to incorporate sustainable design elements and reduce/minimize environmental impacts of parking structures. Adopting Parksmartâs guidelines can reduce operational costs, reduce environmental impacts, increase energy efficiency, increase efficient management of parking spaces, and promote alternative modes of transportation for airport parking projects. More information on Parksmart can be found online on the following website: http://parksmart.gbci.org/. Envision The Institute for Sustainable Infrastructure developed Envision to be used for infrastructure projects of all types, sizes, complexities, and locations. It provides a framework to integrate sustainability from the projectâs inception including cost-benefit analysis over the projectâs lifecycle to evaluation of environmental benefits using outcome-based objectives. Adopting or integrating Envision guidelines into an airport project could help each project achieve a higher level of sustainability. More information on Envision can be found online on the following website: https://sustainableinfrastructure.org/.
Tools and Resources 59 In addition to these tools, Guidebook users may find specialized uses for the following resources that focus on specific aspects of the environmental review process or sustainability planning. These resources may only indirectly support integration of sustainability planning and the environmental review process: Annual Greenhouse Gas and Sustainability Data Report https://energy.gov/eere/femp/downloads/annual- greenhouse-gas-and-sustainability-data-report [Department of Energy (DOE) 2016]. Architecture 2030 http://architecture2030.org/ (Architecture 2030 2017). BREEAM http://www.breeam.com/ (UK-based) (Building Research Establishment 2017). Building Energy/GHG Estimator Excel Worksheet https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-08/sgec_ tool_v3_2.xls (DOE 2013). CEQ GHG Accounting Tools https://ceq.doe.gov/guidance/ghg-accounting-tools.html [Council on Environ- mental Quality (CEQ) 2017]. Coastal Flood Exposure Mapper https://coast.noaa.gov/floodexposure/#/map [National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration (NOAA) 2017]. COMET Tools (Energy, Farm, Planner) http://cometfarm.nrel.colostate.edu/ (U.S. Department of Agriculture 2017). Commute Mode Switching Impact Tool https://www.energy.gov/eere/femp/downloads/commute-mode- switching-impact-tool (DOE 2016). Emissions Quantification Tool (EQT) http://eqt.pnnl.gov/default/index/about (DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 2017). Energy Information/Tools https://www.data.gov/energy/ (Numerous authors/resources). Energy Star Sustainable Buildings Checklist https://energy.gov/eere/femp/guiding-principles-sustainable-federal- buildings (DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2008). Environmental Justice Screening Tool https://www.epa.gov/ejscreen [Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2016]. Environmental Sustainability Plan Checklist http://www.sustainablecitiesinstitute.org/topics/equity-and- engagement/sustainability-planning/environmental-sustainability-plan-checklist (Sustainable Cities Institute 2017). EPA CARE Project Sustainability Checklist https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-04/documents/ care_sustainability_checklist.pdf (Community-focused) (EPA 2015). EPA Flood Resilience Checklist https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-07/documents/flood-resilience- checklist.pdf (Community-focused) (EPA 2014). EPA GHG Equivalencies Calculator https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator (EPA 2017). EPA MOVES http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/ (EPA 2014). EPA Waste Reduction Model https://www.epa.gov/warm (EPA 2017). Google Earth (high value of assistance for NEPA documentation) (Google 2017). GREETâGreenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation Model https://greet.es.anl.gov/ (Argonne National Laboratory 2016). GSA Smart Location Calculator https://www.slc.gsa.gov/slc/ [U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) 2017]. ISO 26000âSocial Responsibility https://www.iso.org/iso-26000-social-responsibility.html (ISO 2010). ISO 31000âRisk Management https://www.iso.org/iso-31000-risk-management.html (ISO 2009). ISO 37101âSustainable Development of Communities https://www.iso.org/standard/61885.html (ISO 2016). NCI Charrette RFP Template https://www.canr.msu.edu/nci/resources/nci-charrette-rfp-template [National Charrette Institute (NCI) 2016]. NOAA Coastal Community Resilience Indicators & Rating Systems https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/training/ resilience-indicators.html (NOAA Office of Coastal Management 2015). Sea Level Rise Viewer https://coast.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/tools/slr (NOAA 2017). Sea Level Scenario Sketch Planning Tool http://sls.geoplan.ufl.edu/ (University of Florida GeoPlan Center 2015). ForgeSolar PV Planning and Glare Analysis Tool https://www.forgesolar.com/. Tools for Preparing Agreements Under Section 106 https://www.npi.org/tools.html (National Preservation Institute 2017). Transit Emissions Quantifier Tool https://studylib.net/doc/7152419/apta-transit-emissions-quantifier-tool- user-s-guide (American Public Transportation Association 2017). Transportation Climate Change Sensitivity Matrix http://www.adaptationclearinghouse.org/resources/ transportation-climate-change-sensitivity-matrix.html [U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) 2013].
60 Integrating Sustainability Planning and the Environmental Review Process U.S. Climate Resiliency ToolkitâClimate Explorer https://toolkit.climate.gov/tools/climate-explorer (NOAA Climate Program Office 2017). USDA and U.S. Forest Service Forest Vegetation Simulator https://www.fs.fed.us/fmsc/fvs/ (U.S. Forest Service 2002). Wetlands Mapper https://www.fws.gov/wetlands/data/mapper.html (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2017). 4.4 Interview Respondents The interview respondents are as follows: FAA Personnel National Headquarters Alaska Regional Office Central Regional Office Eastern Regional Office Great Lakes Regional Office Harrisburg ADO Minneapolis ADO Northwest Mountain Regional Office Southern Regional Office Southwest Regional Office Airports Albuquerque International Sunport Cheyenne Regional Airport Juneau International Airport Nashville International Airport The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Northeast Florida Regional Airport (St. Augustine) Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport Pittsburgh International Airport Seattle-Tacoma International Airport Aviation Consulting Companies AECOM, Inc. CDM Smith, Inc. C&S Companies, Inc. HDR, Inc. HMMH, Inc. Landrum & Brown, Inc. Mead & Hunt, Inc. Rockwell Collins, Inc.