National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports (2019)

Chapter: Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary

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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
×
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Page 20
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Chapter 2 - Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25670.
×
Page 22

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16 The objective of the literature review was to mine information that is applicable to surface weather observation options at general aviation airports. Ultimately, this information can be used by airports, state agencies, or private industry to make informed decisions concerning the fulfillment of needs and procurement. The review aimed to seek out historical information about surface weather systems, from their genesis through today’s technologies, applicable regu- lations and guidance, equipment information, sources of funding, and any emerging or discrete technology that could be implemented or expanded in the future. Sources of literature and industry expertise included: • The World Wide Web • Manufacturer information and equipment representatives • Other applicable ACRP studies or similar found though TRB’s Transportation Research Information Database (TRID) and Transportation Research Information Services (TRIS) database • The TRB search engine • FAA and NWS weather observation information • FAA regulatory information • FAA funding information • FAA flight service stations • Other transportation-related weather systems • State studies and system plans that involve weather systems • FAA and state personnel involved in the funding, certification, and maintenance of weather systems • Airport management and maintenance staff • ACRP panel members • Pilot, aviation, and airport advocacy groups Although not always obvious, many sources of information and guidance are based on a federal regulation. Wherever possible, that information was traced back and that regulation checked for the most current document; then that document was included in the literature review. Industry outreach was used both to gather new information and to add clarity to information found through the literature review. The results of the literature review have been sorted and are summarized in Table 3 through Table 7 for easy reference. C H A P T E R 2 Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary

Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary 17 Source Related Content ICAO Annex 3, Meteorological Service for International Air Navigation, July 2010 Provides standards and recommended practices that form the minimum standards for all regulations and guidance for surface weather observations, weather reporting, and equipment specifications for those countries that participate in the international air navigation system. Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 1—Surface Weather Observations and Reports, U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, November 2017 Applies to all federal agency programs. The handbook discusses certifications and standards for types of observations, coding procedures, maintenance of records, dissemination standards, and specific equipment standards for sensors. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) 2019–2023, Report to the United States Congress by the Secretary of Transportation, September 2018 This report identifies all airports that are eligible to be included in the national airspace system, their roles within the system, capacity and activity forecasts, and funding needs for the 5-year period covered by the report. Airport Improvement Program Handbook, FAA, Order 5100.38D, September 2014 Used by all FAA organizations to administer the Airport Improvement Program, including funding eligibility for weather observation systems. ASOS: Automated Surface Observing System, AOPA Air Safety Foundation, 1999 A history and description of levels (types) of ASOS systems, equipment, types of reports, advantages and shortfalls, and how pilots can best utilize the systems. Status of FAA’s Modernization Effort, U.S. General Accounting Office, April 1991 An update on funding and construction progress of the first ASOS and AWOS units to be commissioned in the United States under an FAA modernization program started in 1981. General Aviation Pilot’s Guide to Preflight Weather Planning, Weather Self-Briefings, and Weather Decision Making, FAA, December 2005 A guide to help general aviation pilots find appropriate weather sources, evaluate that information, and make good decisions based on their experience and personal acceptable minimum conditions. Aviation Weather Services: A Call for Federal Leadership and Action, National Research Council, National Academies Press, 1995 The report evaluated the adequacy of operational weather services and how well those services met user needs and made recommendations to improve coordination among aviation weather providers. National Weather Service, www.weather.gov, accessed December 2018 Contains general information about NWS services, including a timeline for the history of NWS and a summary of ASOS systems, links to the FAA’s weather reporting sites, a portal for technicians, and the Pilot’s Guide to Aviation Weather brochure. Table 3. Background and history.

18 Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports Source Related Content Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14— Aeronautics and Space, Office of the Federal Register, January 2019 Codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by federal agencies and departments. Title 14, Chapter I covers the rules governing aeronautics and space, and includes rules prescribed by the FAA as the Federal Aviation Regulations. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 47— Telecommunication, Office of the Federal Register, January 2019 Part 87 defines Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulations with regard to aviation radio transmissions, including AWOS/ASOS transmissions (Subpart S) and Automatic UNICOMs (Subpart G). Aeronautical Information Manual, Federal Aviation Administration, October 2017 Provides basic flight information and ATC procedures to ensure the safe, efficient, and secure use of the nation’s airspace. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5220-16E, Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS) for Non-Federal Applications, January 2019 Details requirements for AWOS Certification and Commissioning processes, performance and testing specifications, and maintenance and operating requirements. This AC also provides requirements for becoming an authorized maintenance technician applicable to airport staff who may want to provide limited maintenance services to their AWOS systems. FAA Advisory Circular 00-6B, Aviation Weather, August 2016 This AC is an aviation weather theory and application manual for pilots and dispatchers. FAA Advisory Circular 00-45H, Aviation Weather Services, November 14, 2016 A companion to AC 00-6B, this AC provides pilots and operators with up-to-date information on new and evolving weather information and on capabilities to supplement traditional weather information. FAA Order 6560.20C, Siting Criteria for Automated Weather Observing Systems (AWOS), September 2017 Defines suitable site locations for all federally owned, federally funded, and non-federal systems that are to be approved by the FAA and used for aviation purposes FAA Order 6700.20B, Non-Federal Navigational Aids, Air Traffic Control Facilities, and Automated Weather Systems, November 2015 Provides standardized guidance to the Technical Operations Non-Federal Program, as authorized to regulate non-federal facilities on how to commission, maintain, inspect, take over, and decommission non-federal facilities. Table 4. Policy and guidance sources.

Literature Review and Industry Outreach Summary 19 Source Related Content FAA Order 8260.3D, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS), February 2018 Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 2—Surface Synoptic Codes, U.S. Department of Commerce/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, December 1988 Procedures for encoding and decoding the symbolic message formats as agreed upon by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). FCM-S4-1994 Federal Standard for Siting Meteorological Sensors at Airports, NOAA, December 2016 Siting standard for all meteorological sensors associated with federally owned and federally funded systems as well as approved non f- ederal systems. Sharing Your Non-Federal ASOS Data with the FAA and Aviation Community This document provides WMSCR Frequently Asked Questions in accordance with AC 150/5220-16E, including eligibility and information on how to disseminate weather information from a certified AWOS. Guidance for the standardized preparation, approval, and promulgation of Instrument Flight Procedures. FAA Order 7900.5D, Surface Weather Observing, November 2017 Defines procedures and practices for both manual and automated weather observing and for augmentation of automated observation in case of failure and provides a framework for identifying and reporting aviation-related meteorological phenomena. Table 4. (Continued).

Source Related Content ACRP Synthesis 75: Airport Advisories at Non-Towered Airports, Prather, 2016 Discusses AWOS/ASOS transmissions as well as Automated UNICOM. Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) User’s Guide, NWS, FAA, FOD, NOAA, USN, March 1998 Guide for users to become familiar with the unique characteristics of ASOS data, how to interpret it, and how to optimize its use. Aviation Weather Reporting in Alaska, Alaska Aviation System Plan, Alaska Division of Statewide Aviation, May 2016 Discusses Alaska’s unique geographic and climatic challenges and approaches to meeting them, including a network of advisory cameras located at many Alaska airports and mountain passes. www.alaskajournal.com/2016-06- 08/after-alaska-successes-faa-weather- cam-program-expands#.XHIlKaBOlEZ Article that describes the Alaska camera program, how the system operates, and the reduced accident rate since its implementation. www.aopa.org/news-and-media/all- news/2012/june/flight-training- magazine/weather-technologies-that- changed-aviation A brief summary of technology that changed aviation includes radar, weather satellites, FAA DUATS, XM Datalink Weather, and ADS-B. AWOS A Site Preparation Manual, All Weather, Inc., August 2017 Manufacturer’s document that includes general step-by-step information for AWOS installation and details for concrete, towers, conduit, and lightning protection. “Firm Hits Snag in Putting AWOS Info on the Internet,” Aviation International News, November 2007 Stanwyck Avionics tries to get FAA approval for an add-on for installed AWOS and ASOS systems.The system would intercept the weather data feed and make it available on the internet display using an airport’s own computer. The FAA required that approval be obtainedfrom the AWOS/ASOS manufacturers first. “South Dakota Purchases Weather Systems for General Aviation Airports,.” Airport Improvement, September 2011 South Dakota purchased 20 Potomac Aviation Technology Corps. SuperAWOS units with the intent of purchasing additional units. The system was chosen for its ease of installation (solar power can eliminate the need to run power out to the site). Integration of Aviation Automated Weather Observation Systems (AWOS) with Roadside Weather Information Systems (RWIS), Phase II: Final Report, Western Transportation Institute, December 2015 A project that integrated many current independent weather systems to provide a more comprehensive web-based tool for airport managers, ATC, pilots, and related operators of air ambulance service. A prototype system was developed that combined data from: • AWOS • ASOS • RWIS • Surface and aloft forecasts • Satellite and radar imagery • Roadside cameras Table 5. Other non-regulatory reports, manuals, articles, and industry information.

Website Related Content www.faa.gov/airports/planning_ capacity/non_federal/ A comprehensive FAA website that describes the Non-Federal Program for NAVAIDs and AWOS and how an airport would purchase and install a weather system. www.aviationweather.gov/ Funded through the FAA Aviation Weather Research Program, the Aviation Digital Data Service (ADDS) makes available text, digital, forecasts, analyses, and observations for aviation weather. www.allweatherinc.com/domestic- automated-weather-observation- system/ Manufacturer’s site for certified AWOS Systems. https://opticalscientific.com Manufacturer’s site for both advisory and FAA-certified AWOS A/V. www.vaisala.com Manufacturer’s site for certified AWOS Systems. http://www.dbttranserv.com/ Manufacturer’s site for certified AWOS Systems. https://potomac-aviation.com Manufacturer’s site for Automatic UNICOM with advisory weather. www.anyawos.com/index.html Provides subscription services to the NADIN. www.flyingmag.com/everything-you- need-to-know-about-awos -and-asos This article provides a very basic, bulleted list of AWOS and ASOS types and functions. www.sayweather.com/ Manufacturer providing low-cost advisory weather reporting through VHF pilot request. https://avcams.faa.gov/index.php FAA site providing access to Alaska’s aviation weather camera system. Also optimized for mobile devices. www.campbellsci.com/alaska-aviation Manufacturer’s website for meteorological sensors and digital cameras installed in Alaskan mountain passes. www.airportview.net/wx-cam- systems.php Manufacturer’s website for an airport camera system that delivers continuous weather imagery to a website. Inexpensive plug-and-play system, but they sell ad space on each page. www.alaskajournal.com/2016-06- 08/after-alaska-successes-faa-weather- cam-program-expands#.XHIlKaBOlEZ Article chronicles the success of the FAA weather camera program in Alaska in decreasing the accident rate and discusses expansion of the program into other areas. https://www.1800wxbrief.com A Leidos website that provides services similar to calling 1800-WX-BRIEF. The user can get weather briefing, file flight plans, etc. Table 6. Program and industry websites.

22 Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports Contact Related Content Ray Conlon, V.P., Navigation Division Austin Electrical Construction Siting, commissioning, maintenance, emerging technologies, and NADIN Candace Spillers Wood, Sales Manager DBT Transportation Services, LLC Emerging technologies, equipment lifespan, sensors, and NADIN Ralph Petragnani, AWOS A/V Sales Optical Scientific, Inc. Equipment certification, AWOS AV, and NADIN Dennis Kamin, Non-Fed AWOS Engineer Federal Aviation Administration AWOS certification, commissioning, and emerging technology Vernon Carter, Manager, Security and Facilities Virginia Department of Aviation Statewide AWOS program, funding, cost, state maintenance programs, and state NADIN contract Damon A. Darsey, MD, Medical Director, Mississippi Center for Emergency Services Part 135 air ambulance service in Mississippi, AIP, AWOS Chris Linscheid, Non-Fed Program Implementation Manager Federal Aviation Administration WMSCR functionality and interface with non-federal AWOS systems Table 7. Industry outreach.

Next: Chapter 3 - Survey and Interview Summary »
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The needs of airports may vary depending on the types of operations typically conducted at the airport, as well as the type of weather common to the airport.

The TRB Airport Cooperative Research Program's ACRP Syntheis 105: Airport Surface Weather Observation Options for General Aviation Airports aims to provide the operators of general aviation (GA) airports a comprehensive source of information about airport-based weather observation options so they may make informed decisions to support the specific operational needs of their airport.

Weather observations at airports can come from either FAA-approved (certified) or advisory (non-certified) sources. Weather reporting at a GA airport, whether certified or not, typically comes from automated sources, as human observers are increasingly being phased out or are stationed mainly at commercial service airports.

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