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Report Series - Committee on Solar and Space Physics Agile Responses to Short-Notice Rideshare Opportunities for the NASA Heliophysics Division Committee on Solar and Space Physics Space Studies Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This activity was supported by Contract NNH17CB02B with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-67452-2 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-67452-2 Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25726 Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Report Series: Committee on Solar and Space Physics: Agile Responses to Short-Notice Rideshare Opportunities for the NASA Heliophysics Division. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/25726.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.
Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the studyâs statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committeeâs deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task. Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies. For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo. iv
COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS SARAH GIBSON, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Co-Chair MAURA E. HAGAN, NAS,1 Utah State University, Co-Chair BRIAN J. ANDERSON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory STEVEN J. BATTEL, NAE,2 Battel Engineering, Inc. REBECCA L. BISHOP, The Aerospace Corporation MARK C. M. CHEUNG, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center CHRISTINA M. S. COHEN, California Institute of Technology YUE DENG, University of Texas, Arlington TAI D. PHAN, University of California, Berkeley TUIJA PULKKINEN, NAS, University of Michigan JIONG QIU, Montana State University HOWARD J. SINGER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration LEONARD STRACHAN, JR., Naval Research Laboratory BARBARA J. THOMPSON, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Staff ABIGAIL A. SHEFFER, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board MIA BROWN, Research Associate, Space Studies Board MEGAN CHAMBERLAIN, Senior Project Assistant, Space Studies Board SARAH MORAN, Lloyd V. Berkner Space Policy Intern, Space Studies Board COLLEEN HARTMAN, Director, Space Studies Board and Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board 1 Member, National Academy of Sciences. 2 Member, National Academy of Engineering.
SPACE STUDIES BOARD MARGARET G. KIVELSON, NAS, University of Michigan, Chair JAMES H. CROCKER, NAE, Lockheed Martin (retired), Vice Chair GREGORY P. ASNER, NAS, Arizona State University JEFF M. BINGHAM, Consultant ADAM BURROWS, NAS, Princeton University MARY LYNNE DITTMAR, Coalition for Deep Space Exploration JEFF DOZIER, University of California, Santa Barbara VICTORIA HAMILTON, Southwest Research Institute CHRYSSA KOUVELIOTOU, NAS, George Washington University DENNIS P. LETTENMAIER, NAE, University of California, Los Angeles ROSALY M. LOPES, Jet Propulsion Laboratory STEPHEN J. MACKWELL, Universities Space Research Association DAVID J. MCCOMAS, Princeton University LARRY PAXTON, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory ELIOT QUATAERT, University of California, Berkeley MARK P. SAUNDERS, Consultant BARBARA SHERWOOD LOLLAR, University of Toronto HOWARD J. SINGER, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration HARLAN E. SPENCE, University of New Hampshire MARK H. THIEMENS, NAS, University of California, San Diego ERIKA B. WAGNER, Blue Origin PAUL D. WOOSTER, Space Exploration Technologies EDWARD L. WRIGHT, NAS, University of California, Los Angeles vi
Acknowledgment of Reviewers This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Scott Bailey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Daniel Baker, NAE,1 University of Colorado, Boulder, Gregory D. Berthiaume, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College, George H. Rieke, NAS,2 University of Arizona, and Erika B. Wagner, Blue Origin, LLC. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Louis J. Lanzerotti, NAE, New Jersey Institute of Technology. He was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies. 1 Member, National Academy of Engineering. 2 Member, National Academy of Sciences. vii
Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Background and Motivation, 1 Charge and Approach, 2 2 RIDESHARE OPPORTUNITIES 3 Definition of Report Terms, 3 Examples of Past and Current Rideshare Opportunities, 3 Future Landscape of Rideshare Opportunities, 5 3 SCIENCE ENABLED BY AN AGILE RIDESHARE PROGRAM 7 Space Weather and Space Climatology, 7 System or Contextual Science, 8 Exploratory Science, 9 4 SECONDARY PAYLOADS 10 Secondary Payloads with Standard Instrumentation, 10 Secondary Payloads with Propulsive Capability, 11 Secondary Payloads That Demonstrate New Technology, 11 Secondary Payloads That Are Rapidly Integrated with Host Platforms, 11 5 IMPLEMENTATION 13 Efficiency, 13 Effectiveness, 16 6 LOOKING FORWARD 19 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 23 B Agenda 24 C Committee Members and Staff Biographical Information 27 ix