FROM BIRTH TO 24 MONTHS
Summarizing Existing Guidance
Kathryn Dewey and Meghan Harrison, Editors
Committee on Scoping Existing Guidelines for Feeding
Recommendations for Infants and Young Children Under Age 2
Food and Nutrition Board
Health and Medicine Division
A Consensus Study Report of
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
This activity was supported by contracts between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (200-2011-38807/75D301 20F00082), the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health (HHSN263201800029I/75N98019F00857), and by the Kellogg Endowment Fund of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Health and Medicine Division. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-67538-3
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-67538-3
Digital Object Identifier: https://doi.org/10.17226/25747
Library of Congress Control Number: 2020941774
Additional copies of this publication are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.
Copyright 2020 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2020. Feeding infants and children from birth to 24 months: Summarizing existing guidance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/25747.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. John L. Anderson is president.
The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.
The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.nationalacademies.org.
Consensus Study Reports published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine document the evidence-based consensus on the study’s statement of task by an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and the committee’s deliberations. Each report has been subjected to a rigorous and independent peer-review process and it represents the position of the National Academies on the statement of task.
Proceedings published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine chronicle the presentations and discussions at a workshop, symposium, or other event convened by the National Academies. The statements and opinions contained in proceedings are those of the participants and are not endorsed by other participants, the planning committee, or the National Academies.
For information about other products and activities of the National Academies, please visit www.nationalacademies.org/about/whatwedo.
COMMITTEE ON SCOPING EXISTING GUIDELINES FOR FEEDING RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN UNDER AGE 2
KATHRYN DEWEY (Chair), Distinguished Professor Emerita, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis
STEPHANIE A. ATKINSON, Professor, Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
SUSAN BAKER, Professor, Pediatrics, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo-SUNY
SARA BENJAMIN-NEELON, Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD
LISA BODNAR, Professor, Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, PA
RONETTE BRIEFEL, Senior Fellow, Mathematica, Washington, DC
FRANK GREER, Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison
DEBRA HAIRE-JOSHU, Joyce Wood Professor of Public Health and Medicine, Director of Center for Diabetes Translation Research; Center for Obesity Prevention and Policy Research; and Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, MO
RAFAEL PÉREZ-ESCAMILLA, Professor and Director, Office of Public Health Practice, Global Health Concentration, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT
CHARLENE RUSSELL-TUCKER, Deputy Commissioner, Connecticut State Department of Education, Hartford
ELIZABETH YAKES JIMENEZ, Research Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine and College of Population Health, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque
MEGHAN HARRISON, Study Director
ALICE VOROSMARTI, Associate Program Officer
ZARIA FYFFE, Senior Program Assistant
REBECCA MORGAN, Senior Librarian
ANN YAKTINE, Director, Food and Nutrition Board
This page intentionally left blank.
This Consensus Study Report was reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in making each published report as sound as possible and to ensure that it meets the institutional standards for quality, objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.
We thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations of this report nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by DIANE BIRT, Iowa State University, and BARBARA ABRAMS, University of California, Berkeley. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with the standards of the National Academies and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content rests entirely with the authoring committee and the National Academies.
This page intentionally left blank.
Boxes, Figures, and Tables
This page intentionally left blank.